1 A Study on the Effects of Thermodynamic Nonideality and Mass Transfer on Multi-phase Hydrodynamics Using CFD Methods

Authors: Irani, Mohammad, Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin, Pishvaie Mahmoud Reza, Ahmad Tavasoli


Considering non-ideal behavior of fluids and its effects on hydrodynamic and mass transfer in multiphase flow is very essential. Simulations were performed that takes into account the effects of mass transfer and mixture non-ideality on hydrodynamics reported by Irani et al. In this paper, by assuming the density of phases to be constant and Raullt-s law instead of using EOS and fugacity coefficient definition, respectively for both the liquid and gas phases, the importance of non-ideality effects on mass transfer and hydrodynamic behavior was studied. The results for a system of octane/propane (T=323 K, P =445 kpa) also indicated that the assumption of constant density in simulation had major role to diverse from experimental data. Furthermore, comparison between obtained results and the previous report indicated significant differences between experimental data and simulation results with more ideal assumptions.

Keywords: Multiphase Flow, CFD, mass transfer, VOF, Raoult's law, non-ideal thermodynamic

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3 Phylogenetic Analysis and a Review of the History of the Accidental Phytoplankter, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta)

Authors: Mohammad, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Robert K. Jansen, Edward C. Theriot, Schonna R. Manning, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Mumdooh J. Sabir, Dwight K. Romanovicz, Nahid H. Hajrah, Matt P. Ashworth


The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used as a model for cell biologists and ecologists for over a century. We have incorporated several new raphid pennates into a three-gene phylogenetic dataset (SSU, rbcL, psbC), and recover Gomphonemopsis sp. as sister to P. tricornutum with 100% BS support. This is the first time a close relative has been identified for P. tricornutum with robust statistical support. We test and reject a succession of hypotheses for other relatives. Our molecular data are statistically significantly incongruent with placement of either or both species among the Cymbellales, an order of diatoms with which both have been associated. We believe that further resolution of the phylogenetic position of P. tricornutum will rely more on increased taxon sampling than increased genetic sampling. Gomphonemopsis is a benthic diatom, and its phylogenetic relationship with P. tricornutum is congruent with the hypothesis that P. tricornutum is a benthic diatom with specific adaptations that lead to active recruitment into the plankton. We hypothesize that other benthic diatoms are likely to have similar adaptations and are not merely passively recruited into the plankton.

Keywords: phylogeny, benthic, diatoms; ecology, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, tychoplankton

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2 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Mohammad, Ghandehari Motlagh


Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: Cataract, anisometropia, ocular axial length, ophthalmology and optometry

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1 The Efficacy of an Ideal RGP Fitting on Higher Order Aberrations (HOA) in 65 Keratoconus Patients

Authors: Mohammad, Ghandehari-Motlagh


Purpose: To evaluate of the effect of an ideal fit of RGPs on HOA and keratoconus indices. Methods: In this cohort study, 65 keratoconus eyes with more than 3 lines(Snellen)improvement between BSCVA and BCVA(RGP) were imaged with Pentacam HR and their topometric and Zernike analysis findings without RGP were recorded. After 6 months or later of RGP fitting (Rose-K,Boston XO2), imaging with pentacam was repeated and the above information were recorded. Results: 65 different grades of keratoconus eyes with mean age of 27.32 yrs/old(SD +_5.51)enrolled including M 28(43.1%) and F 37(56.9%). 44(67.7%) with family Hx of Kc and 21(31.25%)without any Kc in their families. 54 (83.1%) with and 11 (16.9%) without any ocular allergy Hx. Maximum percent of age of onset of kc was 15 ys/old(29.2%).This study showed there are meaningful correlations between with and without RGP Pentacam indices and HOA in each grade of Kc.92.3% of patients had foreign body sensation but 96.9% had 11-20 hours/day RGP wear that confirms on psychologic effect of an ideal fit on patient’s motivation. Conclusion: With the three points touch principle of RGP fitting in Kc corneas, the patients will have a decrease in HOA and so delayed need for PK or LK.

Keywords: keratoconus, rigid gas permeable lens, aberration, fitting

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