Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

intercalation Related Publications

3 Influence of Organic Modifier Loading on Particle Dispersion of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: O. I. H. Dimitry, N. A. Mansour, A. L. G. Saad

Abstract:

Natural sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite Na+ and two organophilic montmorillonites (OMMTs), Cloisites 20A and 15A were used. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/MMT composites containing 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt% of Cloisite Na+ and PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisites 20A and 15A were prepared via solution intercalation technique to study the influence of organic modifier loading on particle dispersion of PCL/ NaMMT composites. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were characterized by thermal analysis using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) which showed that in the presence of nitrogen flow the incorporation of 5 and 10 wt% of filler brings some decrease in PCL thermal stability in the sequence: Cloisite Na+>Cloisite 15A > Cloisite 20A, while in the presence of air flow these fillers scarcely influenced the thermoxidative stability of PCL by slightly accelerating the process. The interaction between PCL and silicate layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which confirmed moderate interactions between nanometric silicate layers and PCL segments. The electrical conductivity (σ) which describes the ionic mobility of the systems was studied as a function of temperature and showed that σ of PCL was enhanced on increasing the modifier loading at filler content of 5 wt%, especially at higher temperatures in the sequence: Cloisite Na+<Cloisite 20A<Cloisite 15A, and was then decreased to some extent with a further increase to 10 wt%. The activation energy Eσ obtained from the dependency of σ on temperature using Arrhenius equation was found to be lowest for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 15A. The dispersed behavior of clay in PCL matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses which revealed partial intercalated structures in PCL/NaMMT composites and semi-intercalated/semi-exfoliated structures in PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 15A.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Electrical Conductivity, Activation Energy, montmorillonite, exfoliation, polycaprolactone, organoclay, intercalation

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2 Studying the Intercalation of Low Density Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites after Different UV Exposures

Authors: Samir Al-Zobaidi

Abstract:

This study attempts to understand the effect of different UV irradiation methods on the intercalation of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites, and its molecular behavior at certain isothermal crystallization temperature. Three different methods of UV exposure were employed using single composition of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites. All samples were annealed for 5 hours at a crystallization temperature of 100oC. The crystallization temperature was chosen to be at large supercooling temperature to ensure quick and complete crystallization. The raw material of LDPE consisted of two stable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases according to XRD results. The thermal behavior of both phases acted differently when UV exposure method was changed. The monoclinic phase was more dependent on the method used compared to the orthorhombic phase. The intercalation of clay, as well as, the non-isothermal crystallization temperature, has also shown a clear dependency on the type of UV exposure. A third phase that is thermally less stable was also observed. Its respond to UV irradiation was greater since it contains low molecular weight entities which make it more vulnerable to any UV exposure.

Keywords: Crystallization, UV irradiation, LDPE/MMt nanocomposites, intercalation

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1 The Effect of Processing Parameters of the Vinyl Ester Matrix Nanocomposites Based On Layered Silicate on the Level of Exfoliation

Authors: A. I. Alateyah, H. N. Dhakal, Z. Y. Zhang

Abstract:

The study of the effect of the processing parameters on the level of intercalation between the layered silicate and polymer of two different methodology took place. X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy were utilized in order to examine the intercalation level of nanocomposites of both methodologies. It was found that drying the clay prior to mixing with the polymer, mixing time and speed, degassing time, and the curing method had major changes to the level of distribution of the nanocomposites structure. In methodology 1, the presence of aggregation layers was observed at only 2.5 wt.% clay loading whereas in methodology 2 the presence of aggregation layers was found at higher clay loading (i.e. 5 wt.%).

Keywords: Nanocomposites, exfoliation, vinyl ester, intercalation, layered silicate, characterisations, aggregation layers

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