Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

friction Related Publications

20 Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing

Authors: Xueyuan Nie, Wei Zha, Jingzeng Zhang, Chen Zhao, Ran Cai

Abstract:

Cathodic plasma electrolysis (CPE) is used to create surface textures on cast iron samples for improving the tribological properties. Micro craters with confined size distribution were successfully formed by CPE process. These craters can generate extra hydrodynamic pressure that separates two sliding surfaces, increase the oil film thickness and accelerate the transition from boundary to mixed lubrication. It was found that the optimal crater size was 1.7 μm, at which the maximum lubrication efficiency was achieved. The Taguchi method was used to optimize the process parameters (voltage and roughness) for CPE surface texturing. The orthogonal array and the signal-to-noise ratio were employed to study the effect of each process parameter on the coefficient of friction. The results showed that with higher voltage and lower roughness, the lower friction coefficient can be obtained, and thus the lubrication can be more efficiently used for friction reduction.

Keywords: Lubrication, friction, cathodic plasma electrolysis, plasma surface texturing

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19 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: Efficiency, friction, Truncated double-cone, rolling and sliding, gravitational motor and generator

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18 Studying the Possibility to Weld AA1100 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding

Authors: Ahmad K. Jassim, Raheem Kh. Al-Subar

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a modern and an environmentally friendly solid state joining process used to joint relatively lighter family of materials. Recently, friction stir spot welding has been used instead of resistance spot welding which has received considerable attention from the automotive industry. It is environmentally friendly process that eliminated heat and pollution. In this research, friction stir spot welding has been used to study the possibility to weld AA1100 aluminum alloy sheet with 3 mm thickness by overlapping the edges of sheet as lap joint. The process was done using a drilling machine instead of milling machine. Different tool rotational speeds of 760, 1065, 1445, and 2000 RPM have been applied with manual and automatic compression to study their effect on the quality of welded joints. Heat generation, pressure applied, and depth of tool penetration have been measured during the welding process. The result shows that there is a possibility to weld AA1100 sheets; however, there is some surface defect that happened due to insufficient condition of welding. Moreover, the relationship between rotational speed, pressure, heat generation and tool depth penetration was created.

Keywords: Sustainable, Environmental, friction, spot, stir, AA1100 aluminum alloy

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17 Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, S. Reaz Ahmed

Abstract:

The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.

Keywords: Wear, SEM, friction, Perspex

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16 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo

Abstract:

This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: bearing, simulink, friction, electric power steering, EPS, worm gear, column electric power steering system

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15 Frictional Effects on the Dynamics of a Truncated Double-Cone Gravitational Motor

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this work, effects of the friction and truncation on the dynamics of a double-cone gravitational motor, self-propelled on a straight V-shaped horizontal rail, are evaluated. Such mechanism has a variable radius of contact, and, on one hand, it is similar to a pulley mechanism that changes the potential energy into the kinetic energy of rotation, but on the other hand, it is similar to a pendulum mechanism that converts the potential energy of the suspended body into the kinetic energy of translation along a circular path. Movies of the self- propelled double-cones, made of S45C carbon steel and wood, along rails made of aluminum alloy, were shot for various opening angles of the rails. Kinematical features of the double-cones were estimated through the slow-motion processing of the recorded movies. Then, a kinematical model is derived under assumption that the distance traveled by the contact points on the rectilinear rails is identical with the distance traveled by the contact points on the truncated conical surface. Additionally, a dynamic model, for this particular contact problem, was proposed and validated against the experimental results. Based on such model, the traction force and the traction torque acting on the double-cone are identified. One proved that the rolling traction force is always smaller than the sliding friction force; i.e., the double-cone is rolling without slipping. Results obtained in this work can be used to achieve the proper design of such gravitational motor.

Keywords: friction, dynamic model, Truncated double-cone, rolling and sliding, gravitational motor

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14 Enhancement of Tribological Behavior for Diesel Engine Piston of Solid Skirt by an Optimal Choice of Interface Material

Authors: M. Amara, M. Tahar Abbes, A. Dokkiche, M. Benbrike

Abstract:

Shear stresses generate frictional forces thus lead to the reduction of engine performance due to the power losses. This friction can also cause damage to the piston material. Thus, the choice of an optimal material for the piston is necessary to improve the elastohydrodynamical contacts of the piston. In this study, to achieve this objective, an elastohydrodynamical lubrication model that satisfies the best tribological behavior of the piston with the optimum choice of material is developed. Several aluminum alloys composed of different components are studied in this simulation. An application is made on the piston 60 x 120 mm Diesel engine type F8L413 currently mounted on Deutz trucks TB230 by using different aluminum alloys where alloys based on aluminum-silicon have better tribological performance.

Keywords: friction, tribological performance, EHD lubricated contacts, properties of materials

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13 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance

Authors: Yashvir Singh

Abstract:

Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: Wear, friction, load, pongamia oil, sliding velocity

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12 Effect of Robot Configuration Parameters, Masses and Friction on Painlevé Paradox for a Sliding Two-Link (P-R) Robot

Authors: Hesham A. Elkaranshawy, Hassan M. Alkomy, Ahmed S. Ashour, Khaled T. Mohamed

Abstract:

For a rigid body sliding on a rough surface, a range of uncertainty or non-uniqueness of solution could be found, which is termed: Painlevé paradox. Painlevé paradox is the reason of a wide range of bouncing motion, observed during sliding of robotic manipulators on rough surfaces. In this research work, the existence of the paradox zone during the sliding motion of a two-link (P-R) robotic manipulator with a unilateral constraint is investigated. Parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of friction, link-length ratio, total height and link-mass ratio on the paradox zone.

Keywords: Robotic Systems, Dynamical System, friction, multibody system, painlevé paradox, sliding robots, unilateral constraint

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11 Polishing Machine Based on High-Pressure Water Jet

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

The design of high pressure water jet based polishing equipment and its fabrication conducted in this study is reported herein, together with some preliminary test results for assessing its applicability for HMA surface polishing. This study also provides preliminary findings concerning the test variables, such as the rotational speed, the water jet pressure, the abrasive agent used, and the impact angel that were experimentally investigated in this study. The preliminary findings based on four trial tests (two on large slab specimens and two on small size gyratory compacted specimens), however, indicate that both friction and texture values tend to increase with the polishing durations for two combinations of pressure and rotation speed of the rotary deck. It seems that the more polishing action the specimen is subjected to; the aggregate edges are created such that the surface texture values are increased with the accompanied increase in friction values. It may be of interest (but which is outside the scope of this study) to investigate if the similar trend exist for HMA prepared with aggregate source that is sand and gravel.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Texture, friction, polishing, high-pressure, water jet

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10 The Impact of Surface Roughness and PTFE/TiF3/FeF3 Additives in Plain ZDDP Oil on the Friction and Wear Behavior Using Thermal and Tribological Analysis under Extreme Pressure Condition

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme, Saeed Ghalambor

Abstract:

The use of titanium fluoride and iron fluoride (TiF3/FeF3) catalysts in combination with polutetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in plain zinc- dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil is important for the study of engine tribocomponents and is increasingly a strategy to improve the formation of tribofilm and provide low friction and excellent wear protection in reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil. The influence of surface roughness and the concentration of TiF3/FeF3/PTFE were investigated using bearing steel samples dipped in lubricant solution at 100°C for two different heating time durations. This paper addresses the effects of water drop contact angle using different surface; finishes after treating them with different lubricant combination. The calculated water drop contact angles were analyzed using Design of Experiment software (DOE) and it was determined that a 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness would provide an excellent TiF3/FeF3/PTFE coating for antiwear resistance as reflected in the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the tribological testing under extreme pressure conditions. Both friction and wear performance depend greatly on the PTFE/and catalysts in plain ZDDP oil with 0.05 % phosphorous and on the surface finish of bearing steel. The friction and wear reducing effects, which was observed in the tribological tests, indicated a better micro lubrication effect of the 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness treated at 100°C for 24 hours when compared to the 0.1 μm Ra surface roughness with the same treatment.

Keywords: Catalysts, Wear, PTFE, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), friction, ZDDP

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9 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme

Abstract:

The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: Wear, Lubricants, SEM, friction, EDS

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8 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, Swagata Dutta

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m- 4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads.

Keywords: Wear, SEM, friction, gravimetric analysis, EDX, aluminiumsilicon alloys

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7 Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing intervals that reflect different stages of the pavement life. The test could still be considered lengthy and to some extent labor-intensive. Therefore, there is a need to come up with another method that can assist in investigating the bituminous pavement surface characteristics in a practical and time-efficient test procedure.

The purpose of this paper is to utilize a well-developed image analysis technique to characterize asphalt pavement surfaces without the need to use conventional friction and texture measuring devices in an attempt to shorten and simplify the polishing procedure in the lab.

Promising findings showed the possibility of using image analysis in lieu of the labor-sensitive-variable-in-nature friction and texture measurements. It was found that the exposed aggregate surface area of asphalt specimens made from limestone and gravel aggregates produced solid evidence of the validity of this method in describing asphalt pavement surfaces. Image analysis results correlated well with the British Pendulum Numbers (BPN), Polish Values (PV) and Mean Texture Depth (MTD) values.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Image Analysis, Texture, friction, polishing

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6 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang

Abstract:

This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: springback, friction, L-bending, Stribeck curves

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5 Mechanical Properties of Pea Pods (Pisium sativum Var. Shamshiri)

Authors: M. Azadbakht, N. Tajari, R. Alimoradzade

Abstract:

Knowing pea pods mechanical resistance against dynamic forces are important for design of combine harvester. In pea combine harvesters, threshing is accomplished by two mechanical actions of impact and friction forces. In this research, the effects of initial moisture content and needed impact and friction energy on threshing of pea pods were studied. An impact device was built based on pendulum mechanism. The experiments were done at three initial moisture content levels of 12.1, 23.5 and 39.5 (%w.b.) for both impact and friction methods. Three energy levels of 0.088, 0.126 and 0.202 J were used for impact method and for friction method three energy levels of 0.784, 0.930 and 1.351 J. The threshing percentage was measured in each method. By using a frictional device, kinetic friction coefficients at above moisture contents were measured 0.257, 0.303 and 0.336, respectively. The results of variance analysis of the two methods showed that moisture content and energy have significant effects on the threshing percentage.

Keywords: Energy, Impact, friction, initial moisture content, threshing, Pea pod

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4 Comparison of Numerical and Theoretical Friction Effect in the Wire Winding for Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control and wire winding process. The hot isostatic press and wire winding process introduce. With use the equilibrium term in the pressure vessel and frame, stresses in the frame wires analyzed. A case study frame was studied to control axial force in the hot isostatic press. Frame and them wires simulated then friction effect and wires effect in elastic yoke in the simulation model considered. Then theoretical and simulate resulted compare and vessel pressure import to frame because we assurance wire wounded not received to yielding point.   

Keywords: stress, friction, frame, Wire winding

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3 The Effect of Cyclic Speed on the Wear Properties of Molybdenum Disulfide Greases under Extreme Pressure Loading Using 4 Balls Wear Tests

Authors: Gabi Nehme

Abstract:

The relationship between different types of Molybdenum disulfide greases under extreme pressure loading and different speed situations have been studied using Design of Experiment (DOE) under 1200rpm steady state rotational speed and cyclic frequencies between 2400 and 1200rpm using a Plint machine software to set up the different rotational speed situations.  Research described here is aimed at providing good friction and wear performance while optimizing cyclic frequencies and MoS2 concentration due to the recent concern about grease behavior in extreme pressure applications. Extreme load of 785 Newton was used in conjunction with different cyclic frequencies (2400rpm -3.75min, 1200rpm -7.5min, 2400rpm -3.75min, 1200rpm -7.5min), to examine lithium based grease with and without MoS2 for equal number of revolutions, and a total run of 36000 revolutions; then compared to 1200rpm steady speed for the same total number of revolutions. 4 Ball wear tester was utilized to run large number of experiments randomly selected by the DOE software. The grease was combined with fine grade MoS2 or technical grade then heated to 750C and the wear scar width was collected at the end of each test. DOE model validation results verify that the data were very significant and can be applied to a wide range of extreme pressure applications. Based on simulation results and Scanning Electron images (SEM), it has been found that wear was largely dependent on the cyclic frequency condition. It is believed that technical grade MoS2 greases under faster cyclic speeds perform better and provides antiwear film that can resist extreme pressure loadings. Figures showed reduced wear scars width and improved frictional values.

 

Keywords: Wear, friction, MoS2 grease, extreme load, cyclic frequencies, aircraft grade bearing

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2 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Flow and Heat Transfer of a Semi-Cylindrical Obstacle Located in a Channel

Authors: Omer F. Can, Nevin Celik

Abstract:

In this study, a semi-cylinder obstacle placed in a channel is handled to determine the effect of flow and heat transfer around the obstacle. Both faces of the semi-cylinder are used in the numerical analysis. First, the front face of the semi-cylinder is stated perpendicular to flow, than the rear face is placed. The study is carried out numerically, by using commercial software ANSYS 11.0. The well-known κ-ε model is applied as the turbulence model. Reynolds number is in the range of 104 to 105 and air is assumed as the flowing fluid. The results showed that, heat transfer increased approximately 15 % in the front faze case, while it enhanced up to 28 % in the rear face case.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, friction, external flow, semi-cylinder obstacle

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1 Straightness Error Compensation Servo-system for Single-axis Linear Motor Stage

Authors: M. S. Kang, D. H. Kim, J. S. Yoon, B. S. Park, J. K. Lee

Abstract:

Since straightness error of linear motor stage is hardly dependent upon machining accuracy and assembling accuracy, there is limit on maximum realizable accuracy. To cope with this limitation, this paper proposed a servo system to compensate straightness error of a linear motor stage. The servo system is mounted on the slider of the linear motor stage and moves in the direction of the straightness error so as to compensate the error. From position dependency and repeatability of the straightness error of the slider, a feedforward compensation control is applied to the platform servo control. In the consideration of required fine positioning accuracy, a platform driven by an electro-magnetic actuator is suggested and a sliding mode control was applied. The effectiveness of the sliding mode control was verified along with some experimental results.

Keywords: Sliding Mode Control, friction, Linear Motor Stage, Straightness Error

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