Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Biofilm Related Publications

7 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment

Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga

Abstract:

Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.

Keywords: Biofilm, Electromagnetic Fields, Seawater, heat exchanger

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6 Comparison of Methods for the Detection of Biofilm Formation in Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species Isolated from Dairy Products

Authors: Mihriban Korukluoglu, Goksen Arik

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and some yeast species are common microorganisms found in dairy products and most of them are responsible for the fermentation of foods. Such cultures are isolated and used as a starter culture in the food industry because of providing standardisation of the final product during the food processing. Choice of starter culture is the most important step for the production of fermented food. Isolated LAB and yeast cultures which have the ability to create a biofilm layer can be preferred as a starter in the food industry. The biofilm formation could be beneficial to extend the period of usage time of microorganisms as a starter. On the other hand, it is an undesirable property in pathogens, since biofilm structure allows a microorganism become more resistant to stress conditions such as antibiotic presence. It is thought that the resistance mechanism could be turned into an advantage by promoting the effective microorganisms which are used in the food industry as starter culture and also which have potential to stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Development of the biofilm layer is observed in some LAB and yeast strains. The resistance could make LAB and yeast strains dominant microflora in the human gastrointestinal system; thus, competition against pathogen microorganisms can be provided more easily. Based on this circumstance, in the study, 10 LAB and 10 yeast strains were isolated from various dairy products, such as cheese, yoghurt, kefir, and cream. Samples were obtained from farmer markets and bazaars in Bursa, Turkey. As a part of this research, all isolated strains were identified and their ability of biofilm formation was detected with two different methods and compared with each other. The first goal of this research was to determine whether isolates have the potential for biofilm production, and the second was to compare the validity of two different methods, which are known as “Tube method” and “96-well plate-based method”. This study may offer an insight into developing a point of view about biofilm formation and its beneficial properties in LAB and yeast cultures used as a starter in the food industry.

Keywords: Biofilm, Dairy Products, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Yeast

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5 Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli, Afshin Babazadeh, Farnaz Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieved mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster and convert to non-dangerous components like water and carbon dioxide have more attractions; these new materials are based on renewable and inexpensive sources of starch and cellulose. However, the functional properties of them do not suitable for packaging. At this point, nanotechnology has an important role. Utilizing of nanomaterials in polymer structure will improve mechanical and physical properties of them; nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has this ability. This work has employed a chemical method to produce NCC and starch bio nanocomposite containing NCC. X-Ray Diffraction technique has characterized the obtained materials. Results showed that applied method is a suitable one as well as applicable one to NCC production.

Keywords: Biofilm, nanocomposite, Starch, Cellulose

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4 The Composition of Rice Bran Hydrolysate and Its Possibility to Use in the Ethanol Production by Zymomonas mobilis Biofilm

Authors: Tatsaporn Todhanakasem, Kamonchanok Areerat, Pornthap Thanonkeo, Roungdao KlinjapoandGlenn M. Young

Abstract:

Rice bran has been abandoned as agricultural waste for million tonnes per year in Thailand, therefore they have been proposed to be utilized as a rich carbon source in the production of bioethanol. Many toxic compounds are possibly released during the pretreatment of rice bran prior the fermentation process. This study aims to analyze on the availability of toxic compounds and the amount of glucose obtained from 2 different pretreatments using sulfuric acid and mixed cellulase enzymes (without and with delignification/ activated charcoal). The concentration of furfural, 5- hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), levulinic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde and4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HB) and the percent acetic acid were found to be 0.0517 ± 0.049 mg/L, 0.032 ± 0.06 mg/L, 21074 ± 1685.62 mg/L, 126.265 ± 6.005 mg/L, 2.89 ± 0.30 mg/L, 0.37 ± 0.031mg/L and 0.72% under the pretreatment process without delignification/ activated charcoal treatment and 384.47 ± 99.02 g/L, 0.068 mg/L, 142107.62 ± 8664.6 mg/L, 0.19 mg/L, 5.43 ± 3.29 mg/L, 4.80 ± 0.76 mg/L and 0.254% under the pretreatment process with delignification/ activated charcoal treatment respectively. The presence of high concentration of acetic acid was found to impede the growth of Zymomonas mobilis strain TISTR 551 despite the present of high concentration of levulinic acid. Z. mobilis strain TISTR 551 was found to produce 8.96 ± 4.06 g/L of ethanol under 4 days fementation period in biofilm stage in which represented 40% theoretical yield.

Keywords: Biofilm, Ethanol, rice bran, Zymomonas mobilis

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3 Prevention of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Catheter by Coating Enzymes/ Gentamycin/ EDTA

Authors: Niraj A. Ghanwate, P V Thakare, P R Bhise, Ashish Dhanke, Shubhangi Apotikar

Abstract:

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) account for an estimated 25-40% nosocomial infection, out of which 90% are associated with urinary catheter, called Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The microbial populations within CAUTI frequently develop as biofilms. In the present study, microbial contamination of indwelling urinary catheters was investigated. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates was determined by tissue culture plate method. Prevention of biofilm formation in the urinary catheter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined by coating the catheter with some enzymes, gentamycin and EDTA. It was found that 64% of the urinary catheters get contaminated during the course of catheterization. Of the total 6 isolates, biofilm formation was seen in 100% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli, 90% in Enterococci, 80% in Klebsiella and 66% in S. aureus. It was noted that the biofilm production by Pseudomonas was prolonged by 7 days in amylase, 8 days in protease, 6 days in lysozyme, 7days in gentamycin and 5 days in EDTA treated catheter.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biofilm, Enzymes, EDTA, CAUTI

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2 Effects of Mobile Phone Generated High Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Viability and Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Zaini Mohd-Zain, Mohd-Saufee A.F. Mohd-Ismail, Norlida Buniyamin

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus, one of the microflora in a human external auditory canal (EAC) is frequently exposed to highfrequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) generated by mobile phones. It is normally non-pathogenic but in certain circumstances, it can cause infections. This study investigates the changes in the physiology of S. aureus when exposed to HF-EMF of a mobile phone. Exponentially grown S. aureus were exposed to two conditions of EMF irradiation (standby-mode and on-call mode) at four durations; 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Changes in the viability and biofilm production of the S. aureus were compared between the two conditions of exposure. EMF from the standby-mode has enhanced the growth of S. aureus but during on-call, the growth was suppressed. No significant difference in the amount of biofilm produced in both modes of exposure was observed. Thus, HF-EMF of mobile phone affects the viability of S. aureus but not its ability to produce biofilm.

Keywords: Biofilm, Electromagnetic Field, Staphylococcus aureus, mobile phone

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1 Assessment of Microbial Pollution of the Dental Chairs Water System (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the City of Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Abdulsalam. I. Rafida, Ehae. Abo-Jnha, Kald. Tainah

Abstract:

This study mainly aims at assessing the level of microbial pollution of the water used in the chair system in dental clinics. For this purpose 36 samples have been randomly collected from a number of dental surgeries in the city of Tripoli in Libya. However, 32 of the samples have tested positive to microbial pollution including 13 of the samples, which have tested positives to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the results of the test a further investigation of the biofilms incorporated within the dental chair system has been conducted. The laboratory tests of biofilms with similar design to those found in dental chairs have proved that bacterial pollution takes place through saliva of the patients who use the chairs, and that this saliva is rich with nutrients which provides a suitable breeding ground for all types of bacteria.

Keywords: Biofilm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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