Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Augmented Reality Related Publications

33 Vr-GIS and Ar-GIS In Education: A Case Study

Authors: Ilario Gabriele Gerloni, Vincenza Carchiolo, Alessandro Longheu, Ugo Becciani, Eva Sciacca, Fabio Vitello

Abstract:

ICT tools and platforms endorse more and more educational process. Many models and techniques for people to be educated and trained about specific topics and skills do exist, as classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices and others. The choice to what extent ICT is applied within learning contexts is related to personal access to technologies as well as to the infrastructure surrounding environment. Among recent techniques, the adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) provides significant impulse in fully engaging users senses. In this paper, an application of AR/VR within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) context is presented. It aims to provide immersive environment experiences for educational and training purposes (e.g. for civil protection personnel), useful especially for situations where real scenarios are not easily accessible by humans. First acknowledgments are promising for building an effective tool that helps civil protection personnel training with risk reduction.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Education, Augmented Reality, civil protection

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32 Multi-Modal Visualization of Working Instructions for Assembly Operations

Authors: Josef Wolfartsberger, Michael Heiml, Georg Schwarz, Sabrina Egger

Abstract:

Growing individualization and higher numbers of variants in industrial assembly products raise the complexity of manufacturing processes. Technical assistance systems considering both procedural and human factors allow for an increase in product quality and a decrease in required learning times by supporting workers with precise working instructions. Due to varying needs of workers, the presentation of working instructions leads to several challenges. This paper presents an approach for a multi-modal visualization application to support assembly work of complex parts. Our approach is integrated within an interconnected assistance system network and supports the presentation of cloud-streamed textual instructions, images, videos, 3D animations and audio files along with multi-modal user interaction, customizable UI, multi-platform support (e.g. tablet-PC, TV screen, smartphone or Augmented Reality devices), automated text translation and speech synthesis. The worker benefits from more accessible and up-to-date instructions presented in an easy-to-read way.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Visualization, Augmented Reality, assembly, Assistive Technologies

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31 Augmenting History: Case Study Measuring Motivation of Students Using Augmented Reality Apps in History Classes

Authors: Kevin. S. Badni

Abstract:

Due to the rapid advances in the use of information technology and students’ familiarity with technology, learning styles in higher education are being reshaped. One of the technology developments that has gained considerable attention in recent years is Augmented Reality (AR), where technology is used to combine overlays of digital data on physical real-world settings. While AR is being heavily promoted for entertainment by mobile phone manufacturers, it has had little adoption in higher education due to the required upfront investment that an instructor needs to undertake in creating relevant AR applications. This paper discusses a case study that uses a low upfront development approach and examines the impact on generation-Z students’ motivation whilst studying design history over a four-semester period. Even though the upfront investment in creating the AR support was minimal, the results showed a noticeable increase in student motivation. The approach used in this paper can be easily transferred to other disciplines and other areas of design education.

Keywords: History, Augmented Reality, Technology, Motivation

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30 Applying Augmented Reality Technology for an E-Learning System

Authors: Dina M. Ibrahim, Fetoon K. Algarawi, Wejdan A. Alslamah, Ahlam A. Alhabib, Afnan S. Alfehaid

Abstract:

Over the past 20 years, technology was rapidly developed and no one expected what will come next. Advancements in technology open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. There is a need to transmit education to a level that makes it more effective for the student. Augmented reality is one of the most popular technologies these days. This paper is an experience of applying Augmented Reality (AR) technology using a marker-based approach in E-learning system to transmitting virtual objects into the real-world scenes. We present a marker-based approach for transmitting virtual objects into real-world scenes to explain information in a better way after we developed a mobile phone application. The mobile phone application was then tested on students to determine the extent to which it encouraged them to learn and understand the subjects. In this paper, we talk about how the beginnings of AR, the fields using AR, how AR is effective in education, the spread of AR these days and the architecture of our work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to prove how creating an interactive e-learning system using AR technology will encourage students to learn more.

Keywords: e-Learning, Augmented Reality, marker-based, monitor-based

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29 Simplified Mobile AR Platform Design for Augmented Tourism

Authors: Eric Hawkinson, Edgaras Artemciukas

Abstract:

This study outlines iterations of designing mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications for tourism specific contexts. Using a design based research model, several cycles of development to implementation were analyzed and refined upon with the goal of building a MAR platform that would facilitate the creation of augmented tours and environments by non-technical users. The project took on several stages, and through the process, a simple framework was begun to be established that can inform the design and use of MAR applications for tourism contexts. As a result of these iterations of development, a platform was developed that can allow novice computer users to create augmented tourism environments. This system was able to connect existing tools in widespread use such as Google Forms and connect them to computer vision algorithms needed for more advanced augmented tourism environments. The study concludes with a discussion of this MAR platform and reveals design elements that have implications for tourism contexts. The study also points to future case uses and design approaches for augmented tourism.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, User Experience, augmented tourism, eTourism, mobile design

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28 An Overview of Evaluations Using Augmented Reality for Assembly Training Tasks

Authors: S. Werrlich, E. Eichstetter, K. Nitsche, G. Notni

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic in different training domains such as medicine, sports, military, education and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR claims to improve the efficiency and skill-transfer of training tasks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of evaluations using AR for assembly and maintenance training tasks published between 1992 and 2017. We search in a structured way in four different online databases and get 862 results. We select 17 relevant articles focusing on evaluating AR-based training applications for assembly and maintenance tasks. This paper also indicates design guidelines which are necessary for creating a successful application for an AR-based training. We also present five scientific limitations in the field of AR-based training for assembly tasks. Finally, we show our approach to solve current research problems using Design Science Research (DSR).

Keywords: training, Augmented Reality, assembly, Survey

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27 Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art

Authors: Francisco Guimaraes, Mauro Figueiredo, José Rodrigues

Abstract:

Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Augmented Reality, street art, transmedia storytelling, digital media-art, urban art, socio-museology

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26 Exploring Pisa Monuments Using Mobile Augmented Reality

Authors: Mihai Duguleana, Florin Girbacia, Cristian Postelnicu, Raffaello Brodi, Marcello Carrozzino

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) has taken a big leap with the introduction of mobile applications which co-locate bi-dimensional (e.g. photo, video, text) and tridimensional information with the location of the user enriching his/her experience. This study presents the advantages of using Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) technologies in traveling applications, improving cultural heritage exploration. We propose a location-based AR application which combines co-location with the augmented visual information about Pisa monuments to establish a friendly navigation in this historic city. AR was used to render contextual visual information in the outdoor environment. The developed Android-based application offers two different options: it provides the ability to identify the monuments positioned close to the user’s position and it offers location information for getting near the key touristic objectives. We present the process of creating the monuments’ 3D map database and the navigation algorithm.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, GPS, location-based service, electronic compass

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25 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu

Abstract:

Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: Multimedia, Engineering, Visualization, Augmented Reality, User Interface, Four-bar linkage

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24 Augmented Reality for Maintenance Operator for Problem Inspections

Authors: Chong-Yang Qiao, Teeravarunyou Sakol

Abstract:

Current production-oriented factories need maintenance operators to work in shifts monitoring and inspecting complex systems and different equipment in the situation of mechanical breakdown. Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that embeds data into the environment for situation awareness to help maintenance operators make decisions and solve problems. An application was designed to identify the problem of steam generators and inspection centrifugal pumps. The objective of this research was to find the best medium of AR and type of problem solving strategies among analogy, focal object method and mean-ends analysis. Two scenarios of inspecting leakage were temperature and vibration. Two experiments were used in usability evaluation and future innovation, which included decision-making process and problem-solving strategy. This study found that maintenance operators prefer build-in magnifier to zoom the components (55.6%), 3D exploded view to track the problem parts (50%), and line chart to find the alter data or information (61.1%). There is a significant difference in the use of analogy (44.4%), focal objects (38.9%) and mean-ends strategy (16.7%). The marked differences between maintainers and operators are of the application of a problem solving strategy. However, future work should explore multimedia information retrieval which supports maintenance operators for decision-making.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Decision-making, Situation awareness, problem-solving

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23 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

Abstract:

Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: Mobile Technology, Augmented Reality, framework, pre-literacy skills

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22 A Fast Silhouette Detection Algorithm for Shadow Volumes in Augmented Reality

Authors: Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad, Mahyar Kolivand

Abstract:

Real-time shadow generation in virtual environments and Augmented Reality (AR) was always a hot topic in the last three decades. Lots of calculation for shadow generation among AR needs a fast algorithm to overcome this issue and to be capable of implementing in any real-time rendering. In this paper, a silhouette detection algorithm is presented to generate shadows for AR systems. Δ+ algorithm is presented based on extending edges of occluders to recognize which edges are silhouettes in the case of real-time rendering. An accurate comparison between the proposed algorithm and current algorithms in silhouette detection is done to show the reduction calculation by presented algorithm. The algorithm is tested in both virtual environments and AR systems. We think that this algorithm has the potential to be a fundamental algorithm for shadow generation in all complex environments.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, rendering, silhouette detection, shadow volumes, real-time shadows

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21 Applying Theory of Inventive Problem Solving to Develop Innovative Solutions: A Case Study

Authors: Y. H. Wang, C. C. Hsieh

Abstract:

Good service design can increase organization revenue and consumer satisfaction while reducing labor and time costs. The problems facing consumers in the original serve model for eyewear and optical industry includes the following issues: 1. Insufficient information on eyewear products 2. Passively dependent on recommendations, insufficient selection 3. Incomplete records on progression of vision conditions 4. Lack of complete customer records. This study investigates the case of Kobayashi Optical, applying the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to develop innovative solutions for eyewear and optical industry. Analysis results raise the following conclusions and management implications: In order to provide customers with improved professional information and recommendations, Kobayashi Optical is suggested to establish customer purchasing records. Overall service efficiency can be enhanced by applying data mining techniques to analyze past consumer preferences and purchase histories. Furthermore, Kobayashi Optical should continue to develop a 3D virtual trial service which can allow customers for easy browsing of different frame styles and colors. This 3D virtual trial service will save customer waiting times in during peak service times at stores.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Service Design, eyewear and optical industry, Theory of inventive problem solving

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20 Augmented Reality in Advertising and Brand Communication: An Experimental Study

Authors: O. Mauroner, L. Le, S. Best

Abstract:

Digital technologies offer many opportunities in the design and implementation of brand communication and advertising. Augmented reality (AR) is an innovative technology in marketing communication that focuses on the fact that virtual interaction with a product ad offers additional value to consumers. AR enables consumers to obtain (almost) real product experiences by the way of virtual information even before the purchase of a certain product. Aim of AR applications in relation with advertising is in-depth examination of product characteristics to enhance product knowledge as well as brand knowledge. Interactive design of advertising provides observers with an intense examination of a specific advertising message and therefore leads to better brand knowledge. The elaboration likelihood model and the central route to persuasion strongly support this argumentation. Nevertheless, AR in brand communication is still in an initial stage and therefore scientific findings about the impact of AR on information processing and brand attitude are rare. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the potential of AR applications in combination with traditional print advertising. To that effect an experimental design with different levels of interactivity is built to measure the impact of interactivity of an ad on different variables o advertising effectiveness.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Advertising Effectiveness, Brand Recall, interactivity, brand communication

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19 Improvement of Realization Quality of Aerospace Products Using Augmented Reality Technology

Authors: Nuran Bahar, Mehmet A. Akcayol

Abstract:

In the aviation industry, many faults may occur frequently during the maintenance processes and assembly operations of complex structured aircrafts because of their high dependencies of components. These faults affect the quality of aircraft parts or developed modules adversely. Technical employee requires long time and high labor force while checking the correctness of each component. In addition, the person must be trained regularly because of the ever-growing and changing technology. Generally, the cost of this training is very high. Augmented Reality (AR) technology reduces the cost of training radically and improves the effectiveness of the training. In this study, the usage of AR technology in the aviation industry has been investigated and the effectiveness of AR with heads-up display glasses has been examined. An application has been developed for comparison of production process with AR and manual one.

Keywords: Aerospace, Augmented Reality, assembly quality, heads-up display

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18 An Augmented-Reality Interactive Card Game for Teaching Elementary School Students

Authors: Yulung Wu, YuTien Wu, ShuMey Yu

Abstract:

Game-based learning can enhance the learning motivation of students and provide a means for them to learn through playing games. This study used augmented reality technology to develop an interactive card game as a game-based teaching aid for delivering elementary school science course content with the aim of enhancing student learning processes and outcomes. Through playing the proposed card game, students can familiarize themselves with appearance, features, and foraging behaviors of insects. The system records the actions of students, enabling teachers to determine their students’ learning progress. In this study, 37 students participated in an assessment experiment and provided feedback through questionnaires. Their responses indicated that they were significantly more motivated to learn after playing the game, and their feedback was mostly positive.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Game-Based Learning, learning motivation, teaching aid

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17 Factory Virtual Environment Development for Augmented and Virtual Reality

Authors: M. Šimon, M. Gregor, J. Polcar, P. Horejsi

Abstract:

Machine visualization is an area of interest with fast and progressive development. We present a method of machine visualization which will be applicable in real industrial conditions according to current needs and demands. Real factory data were obtained in a newly built research plant. Methods described in this paper were validated on a case study. Input data were processed and the virtual environment was created. The environment contains information about dimensions, structure, disposition, and function. Hardware was enhanced by modular machines, prototypes, and accessories. We added functionalities and machines into the virtual environment. The user is able to interact with objects such as testing and cutting machines, he/she can operate and move them. Proposed design consists of an environment with two degrees of freedom of movement. Users are in touch with items in the virtual world which are embedded into the real surroundings. This paper describes development of the virtual environment. We compared and tested various options of factory layout virtualization and visualization. We analyzed possibilities of using a 3D scanner in the layout obtaining process and we also analyzed various virtual reality hardware visualization methods such as: Stereoscopic (CAVE) projection, Head Mounted Display (HMD) and augmented reality (AR) projection provided by see-through glasses.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, spatial scanner, virtual environment

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16 Development of a Catalogs System for Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: J. Ierache, N. A. Mangiarua, S. A. Bevacqua, N. N. Verdicchio, M. E. Becerra, D. R. Sanz, M. E. Sena, F. M. Ortiz, N. D. Duarte, S. Igarza

Abstract:

Augmented Reality is a technology that involves the overlay of virtual content, which is context or environment sensitive, on images of the physical world in real time. This paper presents the development of a catalog system that facilitates and allows the creation, publishing, management and exploitation of augmented multimedia contents and Augmented Reality applications, creating an own space for anyone that wants to provide information to real objects in order to edit and share it then online with others. These spaces would be built for different domains without the initial need of expert users. Its operation focuses on the context of Web 2.0 or Social Web, with its various applications, developing contents to enrich the real context in which human beings act permitting the evolution of catalog’s contents in an emerging way.

Keywords: Mobile Application, Augmented Reality, catalog system, Computer Graphics

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15 Multiplayer RC-Car Driving System in a Collaborative Augmented Reality Environment

Authors: Kikuo Asai, Yuji Sugimoto

Abstract:

We developed a prototype system for multiplayer RC-car driving in a collaborative augmented reality (AR) environment. The tele-existence environment is constructed by superimposing digital data onto images captured by a camera on an RC-car, enabling players to experience an augmented coexistence of the digital content and the real world. Marker-based tracking was used for estimating position and orientation of the camera. The plural RC-cars can be operated in a field where square markers are arranged. The video images captured by the camera are transmitted to a PC for visual tracking. The RC-cars are also tracked by using an infrared camera attached to the ceiling, so that the instability is reduced in the visual tracking. Multimedia data such as texts and graphics are visualized to be overlaid onto the video images in the geometrically correct manner. The prototype system allows a tele-existence sensation to be augmented in a collaborative AR environment.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, multiplayer, RC-car, collaborative environment

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14 Alive Cemeteries with Augmented Reality and Semantic Web Technologies

Authors: TamásMatuszka, Attila Kiss

Abstract:

Due the proliferation of smartphones in everyday use, several different outdoor navigation systems have become available. Since these smartphones are able to connect to the Internet, the users can obtain location-based information during the navigation as well. The users could interactively get to know the specifics of a particular area (for instance, ancient cultural area, Statue Park, cemetery) with the help of thus obtained information. In this paper, we present an Augmented Reality system which uses Semantic Web technologies and is based on the interaction between the user and the smartphone. The system allows navigating through a specific area and provides information and details about the sight an interactive manner.

Keywords: Semantic Web, Mobile Application, Augmented Reality, Human Computer Interaction

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13 Intelligent Control of Robotized Workcell by Augmented Reality Application

Authors: L. Novakova-Marcincinova, J. Novak-Marcincin, M. Janak

Abstract:

The computer aided for design, analysis, control, visualization and simulation of robotized workcells is very interesting in this time. Computer Aided Robot Control (CARC) is a subsystem of the system CIM including the computer aided systems of all activities connected with visualization and working of robotized workcells. There are three basic ideas: current CAD/CAM/CAE systems for design and 3D visualization, special PC based control and simulation systems and Augmented Reality Aided Manufacturing (ARAM) systems. This paper describes example of Open Source software application that can to be utilized at planning of the robotized workcells, visualization and off-line programming the automated processes realized by authors.

Keywords: Intelligent Control, Augmented Reality, Robot

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12 Selection of a Tower Crane Using Augmented Reality in Smart Devices

Authors: Myunghoun Jang, Yongkyu Yi

Abstract:

Appropriate selection of lifting equipments for a high-rise building construction project is one of the important factors to the project’s success. Proper position of a tower crane on a construction site is so important to be determined by an expert or an experienced construction manager who draws working range of a tower crane and moves it over a 2D (dimensional) site layout plan. But it is not usual to use 3D CAD, BIM or virtual reality for temporary facility planning or selection of a tower crane. This study proposes a method to use augmented reality to select proper position of tower cranes. An augmented reality prototype is implemented on a smart device to verify the practicability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Construction Planning, tower crane, Site Layout, Temporary Facility Management

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11 Augmented Reality on Android

Authors: Chang-Shyh Peng, Chunghan Li, Daisy F. Sang

Abstract:

Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, android

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10 Application of Augmented Reality for Simulation of Robotized Workcell Activity

Authors: J. Novak-Marcincin, J. Barna, M. Janak

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) shows great promises for its usage as a tool for simulation and verification of design proposal of new technological systems. Main advantage of augmented reality application usage is possibility of creation and simulation of new technological unit before its realization. This may contribute to increasing of safety and ergonomics and decreasing of economical aspects of new proposed unit. Virtual model of proposed workcell could reveal hidden errors which elimination in later stage of new workcell creation should cause great difficulties. Paper describes process of such virtual model creation and possibilities of its simulation and verification by augmented reality tools.

Keywords: Simulation, Augmented Reality, workcell design

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9 Classification of the Latin Alphabet as Pattern on ARToolkit Markers for Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: Mohamed Badeche, Mohamed Benmohammed

Abstract:

augmented reality is a technique used to insert virtual objects in real scenes. One of the most used libraries in the area is the ARToolkit library. It is based on the recognition of the markers that are in the form of squares with a pattern inside. This pattern which is mostly textual is source of confusing. In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Latin characters as a pattern on the ARToolkit markers to know the most distinguishable among them.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Patterns, k-means, ARToolkit library

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8 Augmented Reality Interaction System in 3D Environment

Authors: HernSoo Hahn, Youngjoon Han, Sunhyoung Lee, Askar Akshabayev, Beisenbek Baisakov

Abstract:

It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, kinect, marker, hand recognition, depth map, YCbCr color model

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7 A Prototype of Augmented Reality for Visualising Large Sensors’ Datasets

Authors: Dzulkifli Mohamad, Folorunso Olufemi Ayinde, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Sarudin Kari

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the development of an Augmented Reality (AR) - based scientific visualization system prototype that supports identification, localisation, and 3D visualisation of oil leakages sensors datasets. Sensors generates significant amount of multivariate datasets during normal and leak situations. Therefore we have developed a data model to effectively manage such data and enhance the computational support needed for the effective data explorations. A challenge of this approach is to reduce the data inefficiency powered by the disparate, repeated, inconsistent and missing attributes of most available sensors datasets. To handle this challenge, this paper aim to develop an AR-based scientific visualization interface which automatically identifies, localise and visualizes all necessary data relevant to a particularly selected region of interest (ROI) along the virtual pipeline network. Necessary system architectural supports needed as well as the interface requirements for such visualizations are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Scientific visualization, Sensor Leakages Datasets, Sensor Data-Model

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6 An AR/VR Based Approach Towards the Intuitive Control of Mobile Rescue Robots

Authors: Jürgen Roßmann, Roland Wischnewski, André Kupetz

Abstract:

An intuitive user interface for the teleoperation of mobile rescue robots is one key feature for a successful exploration of inaccessible and no-go areas. Therefore, we have developed a novel framework to embed a flexible and modular user interface into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system. Our approach is based on a client-server architecture to allow for a collaborative control of the rescue robot together with multiple clients on demand. Further, it is important that the user interface is not restricted to any specific type of mobile robot. Therefore, our flexible approach allows for the operation of different robot types with a consistent concept and user interface. In laboratory tests, we have evaluated the validity and effectiveness of our approach with the help of two different robot platforms and several input devices. As a result, an untrained person can intuitively teleoperate both robots without needing a familiarization time when changing the operating robot.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, User Interface, Teleoperation of mobile robots

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5 The Feasibility of Augmenting an Augmented Reality Image Card on a Quick Response Code

Authors: Alfred Chen, Shr Yu Lu, Cong Seng Hong, Yur-June Wang

Abstract:

This research attempts to study the feasibility of augmenting an augmented reality (AR) image card on a Quick Response (QR) code. The authors have developed a new visual tag, which contains a QR code and an augmented AR image card. The new visual tag has features of reading both of the revealed data of the QR code and the instant data from the AR image card. Furthermore, a handheld communicating device is used to read and decode the new visual tag, and then the concealed data of the new visual tag can be revealed and read through its visual display. In general, the QR code is designed to store the corresponding data or, as a key, to access the corresponding data from the server through internet. Those reveled data from the QR code are represented in text. Normally, the AR image card is designed to store the corresponding data in 3-Dimensional or animation/video forms. By using QR code's property of high fault tolerant rate, the new visual tag can access those two different types of data by using a handheld communicating device. The new visual tag has an advantage of carrying much more data than independent QR code or AR image card. The major findings of this research are: 1) the most efficient area for the designed augmented AR card augmenting on the QR code is 9% coverage area out of the total new visual tag-s area, and 2) the best location for the augmented AR image card augmenting on the QR code is located in the bottom-right corner of the new visual tag.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, QR code, Visual tag, Handheldcommunicating device

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4 A Universal Approach for the Intuitive Control of Mobile Robots using an AR/VR-based Interface

Authors: Roland Wischnewski, André Kupetz, Juergen Rossmann

Abstract:

Mobile robots are used in a large field of scenarios, like exploring contaminated areas, repairing oil rigs under water, finding survivors in collapsed buildings, etc. Currently, there is no unified intuitive user interface (UI) to control such complex mobile robots. As a consequence, some scenarios are done without the exploitation of experience and intuition of human teleoperators. A novel framework has been developed to embed a flexible and modular UI into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system. This new approach wants to access maximum benefits of human operators. Sensor information received from the robot is prepared for an intuitive visualization. Virtual reality metaphors support the operator in his decisions. These metaphors are integrated into a real time stereo video stream. This approach is not restricted to any specific type of mobile robot and allows for the operation of different robot types with a consistent concept and user interface.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, User Interface, Teleoperation of mobile robots

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