Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 167

Women Related Abstracts

167 Family and Marital Functioning during the Transition to Motherhood

Authors: Fei Wan Ngai

Abstract:

Background: Family and marital functioning has become an important public health issue because it is vital to child development and well-being. Objective: This study was designed to examine the changes in family and marital functioning among Chinese women during the transition to motherhood. Methods: A longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 202 Chinese childbearing women completed the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postpartum. Results: The results showed that women experienced substantial decline in their family and marital functioning from pregnancy to 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the need for more attention to family and marital functioning among women after childbirth. Culturally relevant interventions should be developed to assist women in facing the challenges of new motherhood and achieving a better family and marital functioning.

Keywords: Women, family and marital functioning, perinatal period

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
166 The Role of Identifications in Women Psychopathology

Authors: Mary Gouva, Elena Dragioti, Evangelia Kotrsotsiou

Abstract:

Family identification has the potential to play a very decisive role in psychopathology. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of family identifications on female psychopathology. A community sample of 101 women (mean age 20.81 years, SD = 0.91 ranged 20-25) participated to the present study. The girls completed a) the Symptom Check-List Revised (SCL-90) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for family identifications. The majority of women reported that they matched to the father in terms of identifications (47.1%). Age and birth order were not contributed on family identifications (F(5) =2.188, p=.062 and F(3)=1.244, p=.299 respectively). Multivariate analysis by using MANCOVA found statistical significant associations between family identifications and domains of psychopathology as provided by SCL-90 (P<05). Our results highlight the role of identifications especially on father and female psychopathology as well as replicate the Freudian perception about the female Oedipus complex.

Keywords: Women, Psychopathology, Psychoanalysis, family identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
165 Impact of Obesity on Fertility in a Population of Women in the Wilaya of Batna

Authors: M. Yahia, S. Benbia, A. Chennaf, W. Bouafia, D. Khellaf

Abstract:

Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters (CH, TG, HDL, GOT, GPT, LDL, and CRP), obese women infertile fertile witnesses and research potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work was focused on a population of 24 obese women infertile, compared to controls, subjects without any pathology causing disruption of parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in serum CH, TG, HDL, TGO and TGP (P < 0.0001) and in the rate of LDL (p = 0.0017) and CRP (p = 0.02). The hormonal balance also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001).The present study indicates that obesity is associated with infertility, but there is no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has not been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: Biochemical, Obesity, Women, infertility, Fertility

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
164 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: Culture, Women, Communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
163 Challenges of Women Leadership in a Patriarchy Society: Implications for Development of African Women

Authors: Catherine Oluyemo

Abstract:

In Africa, patriarchy has manifested itself in the socio-cultural, political, economic and legal institutions. The decree of the father as the male head of the family has contributed to the powerlessness of women in African nations. To buttress this perception, in his work Meno, Plato made a declaration in the platonic dialogue that the desirable quality of a man should be the capacity to administer the state, and in the administration of it to benefit his friends and harm his enemies; and he must also be careful not to suffer harm himself. Furthermore, he said: a woman's good worth may also be easily described as ordering her house, keep what is indoors, and obey her husband. The works of Aristotle portrayed women as morally, intellectually, and physically inferior to men; they saw women as the property of men; claimed that women's role in society was to reproduce and serve men in the household; and saw male domination of women as natural and virtuous. This has been sustained for ages and is incessantly impinging on the involvement of women in African leadership positions. The purpose of this paper is to make sense of the concept of patriarchy in relations to women participation in Africa leadership, and its challenges in the participation of women in the leadership positions of Africa. It seeks to discover what women should do to make their voices heard, to participate in leadership arrangements so as to actualize their potentials in contributing to the development of Africa.

Keywords: Development, Leadership, Women, patriarchy, actualize, potentials

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
162 Gender and Science: Is the Association Universal?

Authors: Neelam Kumar

Abstract:

Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Gender stratification is one of the most prevalent phenomena in the world of science. In most countries gender segregation, horizontal as well as vertical, stands out in the field of science and engineering. India is no exception. This paper aims to examine: (1) gender and science associations, historical as well as contemporary, (2) women’s enrolment and gender differences in selection of academic fields, (2) women as professional researchers, (3) career path and recognition/trajectories. The paper reveals that in recent years the gender–science relationship has changed, but is not totally free from biases. Women’s enrolment into various science disciplines has shown remarkable and steady increase in most parts of the world, including India, yet they remain underrepresented in the S&T workforce, although to a lesser degree than in the past.

Keywords: Gender, Women, Science, universal

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
161 Spirituality and Coping with Breast Cancer among Omani Women

Authors: Huda Al-Awisi, Mohammed Al-Azri, Samira Al-Rasbi, Mansour Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Cancer diagnosis is invariably a profound and catastrophic life-changing experience for individuals and their families. It has been found that cancer patients and survivors are distressed with the fragility of their life and their mortality. Based on the literature, cancer patients /survivors value their spiritual experience and connecting with unknown power either related to religious belief or not as an important coping mechanism. Health care professionals including nurses are expected to provide spiritual care for cancer patients as holistic care. Yet, nurses face many challenges in providing such care mainly due to lack of clear definition of spirituality. This study aims to explore coping mechanisms of Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their cancer journey including spirituality using a qualitative approach. A purposive sample of 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer at different stages of cancer treatment modalities were interviewed. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The framework approach was used to analyze the data. One main theme related to spirituality was identified and called “The power of faith”. For the majority of participants, faith in God (the will of God) was most important in coping with all stages of their breast cancer experience. Some participants thought that the breast cancer is a test from God which they have to accept. Participants also expressed acceptance of death as the eventual end and reward from God. This belief gives them the strength to cope with cancer and seek medical treatment. In conclusion, women participated in this study believed faith in God imposed spiritual power for them to cope with cancer. They connected spirituality with religious beliefs. Therefore, regardless of nurses’ faith in spirituality, the spiritual care needs to be tailored and provided according to each patient individual need.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Women, Breast Cancer, Religion, Coping, spiritual, oman

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
160 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Women, Breast Cancer, Coping, oman

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
159 Reproductive Health of Women After Taking Chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Authors: Ezeh Chukwunonso Peter Excel, Akruti Vg

Abstract:

Aim/Background: To show that even after undergoing 1-5 courses of chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) reproductive health of women is intact and they conceive successfully after it. Method: Retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Lugansk regional maternity hospital database of years 1993-2013, which shows n=18 females had GTD and underwent 1-5 courses of chemotherapy. Results and Discussion: Frequency of GTD was rare. All 18 patients (pts) belong to age group of 17-39 years, covering wide range of reproductive age. Out of 18 pts, 15 had hydatidiform mole (HM) while other 3 had choriocarcinoma (CC). In anamnesis, among CC pts, 1 had early pre-eclampsia at 24 weeks and 1 had 4th week of late postpartum (PP) bleeding, while all HM pts had genital inflammatory diseases, 1 pt of HM during follow-up had High hCG and 3 times curettage in 5 months. 18 women became pregnant for 25 times after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was given under indication of either high level of HCG, luteal cyst >6cm or path-morphological results of curettage. CC 3 pts had (2 spontaneous abortions (SA), 2 term cesarean section (CS), 1 preterm CS). HM 15 pts had (3 artificial abortion, 2 SA, 7CS (5 term and 2 preterm), 8 vaginal deliveries (7 term and 1 preterm)). Conclusion: During our research we got 22.2% preterm deliveries and 55.6% CS which is higher than the normal cases, but still all the 18 women were able to have kids successfully after chemotherapy. So we can conclude that chemotherapy for GTD was successful in keeping the reproductive health of women intact.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Women, Reproductive Health, gestational trophoblastic disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
158 Rural Development through Women Participation in Livestock Care and Management in District Faisalabad

Authors: Arfan Riasat, M. Iqbal Zafar, Gulfam Riasat

Abstract:

Pakistani women actively participate in livestock management activities, along with their normal domestic chores. The study was designed to measure the position and contribution of rural women, their constraints in livestock management activities and mainly how the rural women contribute for development in the district Faisalabad. It was envisioned that women participation in livestock activities have rarely been investigated. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from Tehsil Summandry of the district selected at random. Two union councils were taken by using simple random sampling technique. Four Chak (village) from each union council were selected at random and fifteen woman were further selected randomly from each selected chak. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income of one to two lac. They are living in joint family system. Their main occupation is agriculture and they spend long hours in whole livestock related activities to support their families. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they had to face problems and constraints in livestock activities in the context of decision making, medication, awareness, training along with social and economic issues. Analysis indicated that education level of women, income of household, age were significantly associated with level of participation. Women participation in livestock activities increased production and they were involved in income generating activities for better economic conditions of their families.

Keywords: Management, Women, Livestock, Participation, Rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
157 Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health

Authors: Sangita Bharati

Abstract:

Violence against women is now well recognised as a public health problem and human rights violation of worldwide significance. It is an important risk factor for women's ill health, with far reaching consequences for both their physical and mental health. Gender based violence takes many forms and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm to the women throughout their lives. Gender based violence often manifests unequal power relation between men and women in society and the secondary status of the women because of which women have to suffer a range of health problems in silence. This paper will aim at describing a few problems related to women’s health which are directly linked to their experience as victims of gender based violence.

Keywords: Society, Health, Women, Violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
156 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu

Abstract:

Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Women, Entrepreneurs, Issues

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
155 Association of Selected Biochemical Markers and Body Mass Index in Women with Endocrine Disorders

Authors: M. Mydlárová Blaščáková, J. Bernasovská, J. Poráčová, I. Boroňová

Abstract:

Obesity is frequent attendant phenomenon of patients with endocrinological disease. Between BMI and endocrinological diseases is close correlation. In thesis we focused on the allocation of hormone concentration – PTH and TSH, CHOL a mineral element Ca in a blood serum. The examined group was formed by 100 respondents (women) aged 36 – 83 years, who were divided into two groups – control group (CG), group with diagnosed endocrine disease (DED). The concentration of PTH and TSH, Ca and CHOL was measured through the medium of analyzers Cobas e411 (Japan); Cobas Integra 400 (Switzerland). At individuals was measured body weight as well as stature and thereupon from those data we enumerated BMI. On the basis of Student T-test in biochemical parameter of PTH and Ca we found out significantly meaningful difference (p<0,05) between CG and DED. In CG we made a founding the association between BMI and PTH by means of correlation analysis.

Keywords: Obesity, Women, Hormones, biochemical markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
154 Empowerment Means Decision-Making: How Does It Empower Women: Case of Slum Areas of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Nurunnaher Nurunnaher

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of women’s participation in microcredit on women’s decision making in the slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. There is confusion in the literature about whether women’s empowerment is or is not a trickle down impact of poverty alleviation or household well-being, and the studies use more or less similar indicators to measure the status of household and the status of women. Studies very rarely conceptualize and operationalize the term ‘empowerment’ as the word is often used without proper care by policy makers and development practitioners instead of household wellbeing. Currently, decision making in many studies has been used as an indicator of women’s empowerment when assessing the impact of microcredit programs on women. Based on a qualitative and feminist study this paper operationalizes women’s empowerment through the development of a conceptual framework, the identification of assessment criteria and the development of proper indicators that guided the whole study. The testimonies of participants, both men and women, were the basis of exploration of women’s lived experiences, which is the most appropriate method to explore the impact of such programs on women’s empowerment. The study considers empowerment as a process that affects various levels of life and gender relationships. The study found that there is a positive change in women’s position in decision making when women have developed an independent economic base with credit money. However, predominantly, women’s decision making is shared with men with the final decision still in the men’s hands. It can be said that women’s microcredit participation has not significantly challenged the social norms, therefore it is not surprising that women who hand over credit to their husband rarely have any power in intra-household bargaining process. Nevertheless, overall it is evident that women are continuously struggling toward the freedom to have the authority over household, economic and personal matters. It is concluded that while making strategic choices or gaining empowerment requires several steps, women’s participation in decision-making has several implications on their lives and potentially challenges patriarchy.

Keywords: Decision Making, Women, Microcredit, Empowerment, Bangladesh, gender inequality/equality, slums, Dhaka

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
153 Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Nariman Sepehrvand, Khalkhali-Zahra Shirmohamadi

Abstract:

Background: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy-associated deaths in southern Asia. Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro). Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years). Only five cases (3.6%) among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), income level (P=0.19) of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.

Keywords: Women, pregnancy, Hepatitis E, ELISA

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
152 Microfinance and Gender Empowerment Discourse: Rethinking Minimalist View of Microcredit Programmes

Authors: Thomas Yeboah

Abstract:

In recent times, micro-finance programmes targeting women have become the central means of donor poverty alleviation strategies. In view of the renewed focus on post-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty reduction strategies, there is the likelihood that funding might increase in the next coming decades to support different initiatives by donor agencies. In this paper, we critically examine the role of microfinance in shaping gender relations and empowerment outcomes of women. It is widely argued that providing and reaching out to women with credit methodologies serves as a means of increasing women’s bargaining power and challenging existing gender subordination thereby releasing them from power structures which dominate their lives. This paper cautions this view and instead show that the mainstream argument surrounding microfinance and gender empowerment is much complex than what the popular rhetoric preaches. Drawing on empirical cases on microfinance literature, we argue that lack of systematic strategy to incorporate men and the wider socio-cultural dynamics within which women’s lives are embedded radically constraints the empowerment potential of microcredit programmes and in some context may lead to unintended consequences for women.

Keywords: Microfinance, Women, Empowerment, men, gender relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
151 How Group Education Impacts Female Factory Workers’ Behavior and Readiness to Receive Mammography and Pap Smears

Authors: Memnun Seven, Aygül Akyüz, Mine Bahar, Hatice Erdoğan

Abstract:

Background: The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. Objective: To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer affects women’s behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smears. Methods: This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n = 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the trans-theoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Results: Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the trans-theoretical model, group education increased participants’ readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Conclusions: Group education positively impacted women’s knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smears. Group education can therefore potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.

Keywords: Women, Cancer Screening, Participation, educational intervention

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
150 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

Abstract:

Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: Women, HIV, Family planning, Malawi

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
149 War and the Battle of Lebanese Television over Gender

Authors: Natalie M. Khazaal

Abstract:

The effects of the civil war on Lebanese women have been challenging to conceptualize. For some, war is a liberating and empowering force for women, while for others it is one that subjugates women and disempowers them in new ways. Scholars have explored the impact on the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990) on women in the fields of labor history, political activism and literary production. In all these arenas, women’s role and visibility were contested and negotiated in diverse ways. But probably the most visible arena where this contestation took place was television. Dramatized entertainment series were crucial sites where fictional women battled out the gender question, and which reflected and participated in the negotiations of gender politics. Even more stunningly, actual television stations became part of this battle through the plots and portrayals of women that they created. The state-backed Tele-Liban (TL) peddled patriarchal articulations of gender that directly competed with the edgy vision of liberated, independent women on the pirate Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation (LBC). This presentation explores how LBC used gender to distinguish its brand against the retrograde TL programing. Television series are an important medium for creating, testing and reenacting gender politics. They are even more consequential in another way. They are the sites where a dramatic shift in the relationship between Arab television and Arab publics—from benign neglect of public concerns towards engagement with audiences—took place for the first time. As this shift is at the heart of why Arab media was seen as a participant in the Arab uprisings, it is important to explore the roots of the shift in the dramas and comedy series of the mid-1980s Lebanese television. This presentation argues that television battles over gender were consequential and need serious consideration as sites of unexpected meaning.

Keywords: Gender, Women, War, Television, Lebanon

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
148 Behavioral Stages of Change in Calorie Balanced Dietary Intake; Effects of Decisional Balance and Self–Efficacy in Obese and Overweight Women

Authors: Abdmohammad Mousavi, Mohsen Shams, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Ali Mousavizadeh, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

Abstract:

Introduction: The effectiveness of Transtheoretical Model constructs on dietary behavior change has been subject to questions by some studies. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between self–efficacy and decisional balance as mediator variables and transfer obese and overweight women among the stages of behavior change of calorie balanced dietary intake. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 448 obese and overweight 20-44 years old women were selected from three health centers in Yasuj, a city in south west of Iran. Anthropometric data were measured using standard techniques. Demographic, stages of change, self-efficacy and decisional balance data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed using One–Way ANOVA and Generalized Linear Models tests. Results: Demographic and anthropometric variables were not different significantly in different stages of change related to calorie intake except the pre-high school level of education (P=.047, OR=502, 95% CI= .255 ~ .990). Mean scores of Self-efficacy ( F(4.425)= 27.09, P= .000), decisional balance (F(4.394), P= .004), and pros (F(4.430)=5.33, P=000) were different significantly in five stages of change. However, the cons did not show a significant change in this regard (F(4.400)=1.83, P=.123). Discussion: Women movement through the stages of changes for calorie intake behavior can be predicted by self efficacy, decisional balance and pros.

Keywords: Women, Self Efficacy, transtheoretical model, stages of change, decisional balance, calorie intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
147 Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany

Authors: C. Asarkaya, S. Z. Siretioglu Girgin

Abstract:

Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for their social and economic integration to the German society. This paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men, and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands, fathers and/or brothers, and natives.

Keywords: Migration, Women, Turkish, Labor Market, Empowerment, Germany

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
146 Hidden Populations and Women: New Political, Methodological and Ethical Challenges

Authors: Renée Fregosi

Abstract:

The contribution presently proposed will report on the beginnings of a Franco-Chilean study to be launched in 2015 by a multidisciplinary team of Renée Fregosi Political Science University Paris 3 / CECIEC, Norma Muñoz Public Policies University of Santiago of Chile, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, Medicine Paris 11 University, Marcelo WOLFF Medicine University of Chile, Cecilia Blatrix Political Science University Paris-Tech, Ernesto OTTONE, Political Science University of Chile, Paul DENY Medicine Paris 13 University, Rafael Bugueno Medicine Hospital Urgencia Pública of Santiago, Eduardo CARRASCO Political Science Paris 3 University. The problem of hidden populations challenges some criteria and concepts to re-examine: in particular the concept of target population, sampling methods to "snowball" and the cost-effectiveness criterion that shows the connection of political and scientific fields. Furthermore, if the pattern of homosexual transmission still makes up the highest percentage of the modes of infection with HIV, there is a continuous increase in the number of people infected through heterosexual sex, including women and persons aged 50 years and older. This group can be described as " unknown risk people." Access to these populations is a major challenge and raises methodological, ethical and political issues of prevention, particularly on the issue of screening. This paper proposes an inventory of these types of problems and their articulation, to define a new phase in the prevention against HIV refocused on women.

Keywords: Women, HIV testing, hidden populations, difficult to reach PLWHA, unknown risk people

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
145 The Effectiveness of Laughing Qigong for Women with Breast Cancer in Community

Authors: Chueh Chang, Chia-jung Hsieh, Fu-yu Yu, Yu-Hwa Lin

Abstract:

Background:The majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer undergo treatment involving surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both. With these major advances in breast cancer management, many patients still have to deal with short or long-term side effects and psychological distress related to the disease and treatment, which have a substantial impact on their quality of life. The Laughing Qigong Program (LQP) is an interactive laughter program that combines the physical and physiological benefits of laughter with the mental benefits of Chinese qigong. Purpose: In order to improve the quality of life for breast cancer women in the community as well as echoing the WHO 2004 “Promoting Mental Health” for every one. This study focused on how to promote the positive mental health for women of breast cancer through the “laughter program” in Taiwan. During the presentation, how to practice Laughing Qigong will be demonstrated. Method: Using nonequivalent pretest-posttest design, ix-one breast cancer patients were volunteered to enroll in this study from the Taiwan Breast Cancer Alliance (TBCA). Thirty patients were assigned to the experimental group and the other 31 patients were assigned to the control group. The women who were assigned to the experimental group received laughter program one hour per session, once a week, totally 12 sessions. All subjects were tested before and after the intervention on the following: Self-Esteem scale (RSE), Face Scale (FS), Anxiety and pain experience were measured as psychological markers; saliva cortisol (CS) as an immunological marker; blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR),and heart rate variability (HRV) as physiological markers of the body’s response to stress. Results: After comparing the experimental and control groups, the results revealed that those breast cancer women with “laughing program” their sense of humor were improved, less uncomfortable on self report physical conditions, more positive attitudes toward stress management by using laughter, and had emotional improvement according to the face scale.

Keywords: Women, Breast Cancer, mental health promotion, laughing Qigong

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
144 Educaton for Social Reconstruction: Impact of Social Terrorism on Women Education in Nigeria

Authors: Theresa Chinyere ONU

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of social terrorism on education in Nigeria. The article looked into some prevailing conditions of international political unrest and insecurity. The fear and risk of these conditions to national security and the struggle for power establishment which has further intensified and taken the shape of terrorism has imposed devastating effects on the growth and prosperity of Nigeria; as traffic patterns get disturbed, hospitals and schools get dysfunctional. This has also affected the educational standard in Nigeria as parents are no longer comfortable in sending their children to schools in some states for the fear of terrorist attacks. The study emphasized the integrated the effort of the government management institutions.

Keywords: Education, Women, Nigeria, social terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
143 Unsafe Abortions in India: Questioning the Propitiousness of MTP Act

Authors: SURESH SHARMA, Neeti Goutam

Abstract:

In India abortions are legal and with the exceedingly liberal and broadened law that was passed in 1971, “Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act” had opened a new window to Women’s’ freedom and choice over their fertility. This paper would like to focus on the factors responsible for or leading to unsafe abortion as well as such high incidence of abortion in India which can help in understanding the ways in which we can prevent this apathy. To study the intricacies involved in delivering safety to womanhood in terms of safe abortion practice which includes more trained personnel, detailed explanation and consequences of conducting an abortion, fine reporting, awareness regarding family planning measures and not only pressurizing them to sterilize immediately after an abortion but also prior to that informing them and lastly easy accessibility of Contraceptives with a educated and brief information on that. Data has been drawn from various sources such as National Family Household Survey (1, 2, 3), Health Management Information System and Annual Health Survey. To safeguard the interest of women when it comes to complications resulting from unsafe abortions, Reproductive Health laid its strict adherence to it in its guidelines. The Government could induce more measures in terms of family planning measures and increase in the number of skilled medical health force, chiefly in rural areas to prevent the illegality of abortions. But before that fine reporting on the number of abortions performed will give an insight to this very issue only then policies and programs will work much better in favor of women.

Keywords: Women, abortion, India, MTP act

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
142 A Critical Case Study of Women Police in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India: An Analysis of Work Life Balance of Women in Jharkhand, India

Authors: Swati Minz, Pradeep Munda, Ranchi Jharkhand

Abstract:

Women of today’s era are well educated and they are best and proficient at their skills that are key to success anywhere. Government played a major role in uplifting women in Indian society. Through all these efforts Indian women decided to move forward and started choosing career path which was itself a challenge in their life. The people in the society had a very hatred feeling for the women who chose a career and moved forward. Women in today’s times have achieved a lot but in reality they have to still travel a long way. Women started leaving the secured domains of their home and moved out, but a harsh, cruel, exploitative world awaits them, where women have to prove their talent against the world who see women as merely vassals of producing children. In spite all modernisation, a woman has her limits and emerges to claim traditional male space, juggling with many family problems and multiple roles to excel at a level that would have been perceived as impossible a generation ago. Still a woman in India is storming traditional male fields. Even the occupation which had male monopoly life defense services, merchant navy, administrative or police services, these are the best examples for women now. If these women are taken under consideration they never had any issues while fighting a battle ,or trying to encroach into the men’s world ,but rather, they adopts themselves in the situation and are good ,trying to justify their roles and proving themselves. The last few decades there have been noticed an enormous growth in levels of education, confidence and the most importantly, ambition noticed towards in women, who all are striving their rights and claiming a dignified place in the society. Previously women were educated for the sake to get married and start new family but nowadays they utilize their skill productively. Since the time after independence, considering both women in India in general and women in Jharkhand in particular has played a very prominent role in all walks of life including the professions. Any success and achievement in any organisation depends on their contribution as well. Due to these consequences, there has always been a need to study and focus light on issues affecting women professionals, empowerment and their work life balance.

Keywords: Society, Challenges, Women, Family, Career, achievement, work life balance, work empowerment, struggle

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
141 Women in Malaysia: Exploring the Democratic Space in Politics

Authors: Garima Sarkar

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present paper is to investigate the development and progress achieved by women in the decision-making sphere and to access the level of their political-participation in Parliamentary Elections of Malaysia and their status in overall Malaysian political domain. The paper also focuses on the role and status of women in the major political parties of the state both the parties in power as well as the parties in opposition. The primary objective of the study is to focus on the major hindrances and social malpractices faced by women and also Muslim women’s access to justice in Malaysia. It also demonstrates the linkages between national policy initiatives and the advancement of women in various areas, such as economics, health, employment, politics, power-sharing, social development and law and most importantly evaluating their status in the dominant religion of the nation. In Malaysia, women’s political participation is being challenged from every nook and corner of the society. A high percentage of women are getting educated, forming a significant labor force in present day Malaysia, who can be employed in the manufacturing sector, retail trade, hotels and restaurant, agriculture etc. Women today consist of almost half of the population and exceed boys in the tertiary sector by a ratio of 80:20. Despite these achievements, however, women’s labor force engagement remains confined to ‘ traditional women’s occupations’, such as those of primary school teachers, data entry clerks and organizing polls during elections and motivating other less enlightened women to cast their votes. In the political arena, the past few General Elections of Malaysia clearly exhibited a slight change in the number of women Members of Parliament from 10.6% (20 out of 193 Parliamentary seats in 1999) to 10.5% (23 out of 219 Parliamentary seats in 2004). Amidst the political posturing for the recent General Election in 2013 of Malaysia, women’s political participation remains a prime concern in Malaysia. It is evident that while much of the attention of women revolves around charitable assistance, they are much less likely to be portrayed as active participants in electoral politics and governance. According to the electoral roll for the third quarter of 2012, 6,578,916 women are registered as voters. They represent 50.2% of the total number of the registered voters. However, this parity in terms of voter registration is not reflected in the number of elected representatives at the Parliamentary level. Only 10.4% of sitting Members of Parliament are women. The women’s participation in the legislature and executive branches are important since their presence brings the spotlight squarely on issues that have been historically neglected and overlooked. In the recent 2013 General Elections in Malaysia out of 35 full ministerial position only two, or 5.7% have been filled by women. In each of the 2009, 2010, and in the present 2013 Cabinet members, there have only been two women ministers, with this number reduced to one briefly when the Prime Minister appointed himself placeholder in the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development. In the recent past, in its Election Manifesto, Barisan Nasional made a pledge of ‘increasing the number of women participating in national decision-making processes’. Even after such pledges, the Malaysian leadership has failed to mirror the strong presence of women in leadership positions of public life which primarily includes politics, the judiciary and in business. There has been a strong urge to political parties by various gender-sensitive groups to nominate more women as candidates for contesting elections at the Parliamentary as well as at the State level. The democratization process will never be truly democratic without a proper gender agenda and representation. Although Malaysia signed the Beijing Platform for Action document in 1995, the state has a long way to go in enhancing the participation of women in every segment of Malaysian political, economic and cultural. There has been a small percentage of women representation in decision-making bodies compared to the 30% targeted by the Beijing Platform for Action. Thus, democratization in terms of representation of women in leadership positions and decision-making positions or bodies is essential since it’s a move towards a qualitative transformation of women in shaping national decision-making processes. The democratization process has to ensure women’s full participation and their goals of development and their full participation has to be included in the process of formulating and shaping the developmental goals.

Keywords: Islam, Women, Democratization, Political Representation, Gender equality, Parliament

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
140 Domestic Violence in Haryana: A Grassroot Picture of Justice System

Authors: Vandana Dave, Neelam Kumari

Abstract:

India, a fast growing global power, is climbing the ladder of success very swiftly and has been attracting the world’s attention in recent decades. But unfortunately in the modern society, women who constitute half the population of our country have been the victims of violence in different fields of life both physically, socially, mentally and economically. Women face a lot of societal pressure, gender based violence – including rape, domestic violence, dowry death, murder and sexual abuse. But none the less, it is not considered as a problem of serious concern. Among the issues related to women, domestic violence is one of the major issue in our society which is occurring within the safe confines of home at the hands of close family members and cuts across line of race, nationality, language, culture, economics, sexual orientation, physical ability and religion to affect women from all walks of life. It is not to be perceived as a law and order problem alone but it is a socio- cultural problem and it is directly affecting the family life, health of women and life of children. Structural imbalance of power, systematic gender based discrimination; inequality between women and men and other kind of subordination are the context and cause of violence against women. Understanding it as a major problem of our society, the present study was conducted to assess the status of women of Rohtak, district of Haryana. The present study is based on primary and secondary data, adopting feminist research methodology. Case study method was incorporated during the research. It was observed that violence varied according to different age groups of women, marital status, education status, economic status and sociodemography factors. The case studies depicted the inadequate justice system for the victims of domestic violence. The study also revealed that the victims failed to understand the judiciary system and considered themselves helpless and hopeless. The study indicates the need of women friendly justice system for the upliftment of the society.

Keywords: Justice, Women, Domestic Violence, victim

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
139 Effects of Transtheoretical Model in Obese and Overweight Women Nutritional Behavior Change and Lose Weight

Authors: Abdmohammad Mousavi, Mohsen Shams, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Ali Mousavizadeh, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

Abstract:

The effectiveness of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) on nutritional behavior change and lose weight has been subject to questions by some studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nutritional behavior change and lose weight interventions based on TTM in obese and overweight women. This experimental study that was a 8 months trial nutritional behavior change and weight loss program based on TTM with two conditions and pre–post intervention measurements weight mean. 299 obese and overweight 20-44 years old women were selected from two health centers include training (142) and control (157) groups in Yasuj, a city in south west of Iran. Data were analyzed using paired T-test and One–Way ANOVA tests. In baseline, adherence with nutritional healthy behavior in training group(9.4%) compare with control(38.8%) were different significantly(p=.003), weight mean of training(Mean=78.02 kg, SD=11.67) compared with control group(Mean=77.23 kg, SD=10.25) were not (P=.66). In post test, adherence with nutritional healthy behavior in training group(70.1%) compare with control (37.4%) were different significantly (p=.000), weight mean of training (Mean=74.65 kg, SD=10.93, p=.000) compare with pre test were different significantly and control (Mean=77.43 kg, SD=10.43, p=.411) were not. The training group has lost 3.37 kg weight, whereas the control group has increased .2 kg weight. These results supported the applicability of the TTM for women weight lose intervention.

Keywords: Women, transtheoretical model, nutritional behavior, weight lose

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
138 Women Education in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism

Authors: Nuzhat Fatima

Abstract:

This is very misleading conception that Islam is the religion of terrorists or terrorism. It is also another misconception that women are not given due important in Islamic. And women are forced to use veil. But if we closely look at the other two religions they also have the same commandments about the veil. Then comes education, women are given the equal right of education in Islam. But there are certain people creating the bad image of Islam and not giving permission to their females to get education. This paper will present the brief description of education and status of women in all three religions.

Keywords: Education, Islam, Women, Christianity, Judaism

Procedia PDF Downloads 371