Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Wireless Sensor Network Related Abstracts

38 Centralized Peak Consumption Smoothing Revisited for Habitat Energy Scheduling

Authors: M. Benbouzid, Q. Bresson, A. Duclos, K. Longo, Q. Morel

Abstract:

Currently, electricity suppliers must predict the consumption of their customers in order to deduce the power they need to produce. It is, then, important in a first step to optimize household consumption to obtain more constant curves by limiting peaks in energy consumption. Here centralized real time scheduling is proposed to manage the equipment's starting in parallel. The aim is not to exceed a certain limit while optimizing the power consumption across a habitat. The Raspberry Pi is used as a box; this scheduler interacts with the various sensors in 6LoWPAN. At the scale of a single dwelling, household consumption decreases, particularly at times corresponding to the peaks. However, it would be wiser to consider the use of a residential complex so that the result would be more significant. So, the ceiling would no longer be fixed. The scheduling would be done on two scales, firstly, per dwelling, and secondly, at the level of a residential complex.

Keywords: Scheduling, Smart Grid, Energy Consumption, Wireless Sensor Network, energy box, Gang Model, energy management system

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37 Event Driven Dynamic Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Ashok V. Sutagundar, Sunilkumar S. Manvi

Abstract:

Energy, delay and bandwidth are the prime issues of wireless sensor network (WSN). Energy usage optimization and efficient bandwidth utilization are important issues in WSN. Event triggered data aggregation facilitates such optimal tasks for event affected area in WSN. Reliable delivery of the critical information to sink node is also a major challenge of WSN. To tackle these issues, we propose an event driven dynamic clustering and data aggregation scheme for WSN that enhances the life time of the network by minimizing redundant data transmission. The proposed scheme operates as follows: (1) Whenever the event is triggered, event triggered node selects the cluster head. (2) Cluster head gathers data from sensor nodes within the cluster. (3) Cluster head node identifies and classifies the events out of the collected data using Bayesian classifier. (4) Aggregation of data is done using statistical method. (5) Cluster head discovers the paths to the sink node using residual energy, path distance and bandwidth. (6) If the aggregated data is critical, cluster head sends the aggregated data over the multipath for reliable data communication. (7) Otherwise aggregated data is transmitted towards sink node over the single path which is having the more bandwidth and residual energy. The performance of the scheme is validated for various WSN scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of aggregation time, cluster formation time and energy consumed for aggregation.

Keywords: Wireless Communication, Wireless Sensor Network, data aggregation, dynamic clustering

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36 Smart Alert System for Dangerous Bend

Authors: Sathapath Kilaso

Abstract:

Thailand has a large range of geographic diversity. Thailand can be divided into 5 regions which are North Region, East Region, West Region, South Region and North-East Region which each region has a different geographic and climate. Especially in North Region, the geographic is mountain and intermontane plateau which will be a reason that the roads in the North Region have a lot of bends. So the driver in the North Region road will have to have a very high skill of driving. If the accident is occurred, the emergency rescue will have a hard time to reach the accident area and rescue the victim of the accident as the long distance and steep road. This article will apply the concept of the wireless sensor network with the micro-controller to alert the driver when the driver reaches the very dangerous bend.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Motion Sensor, smart alert, dangerous bend

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35 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini

Abstract:

Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: Quantitative, Routing, Wireless Sensor Network, Hierarchical Clustering, agglomerative

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34 An Intelligent WSN-Based Parking Guidance System

Authors: Sheng-Shih Wang, Wei-Ting Wang

Abstract:

This paper designs an intelligent guidance system, based on wireless sensor networks, for efficient parking in parking lots. The proposed system consists of a parking space allocation subsystem, a parking space monitoring subsystem, a driving guidance subsystem, and a vehicle detection subsystem. In the system, we propose a novel and effective virtual coordinate system for sensing and displaying devices to determine the proper vacant parking space and provide the precise guidance to the driver. This study constructs a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network on Arduino platform and implements the prototype of the proposed system using Arduino-based complements. Experimental results confirm that the proposed prototype can not only work well, but also provide drivers the correct parking information.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, Arduino, parking guidance

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33 Node Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Approach

Authors: J. D. Mallapur, Y. B. Kirankumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology, which has great invention for various low cost applications both for mass public as well as for defence. The wireless sensor communication technology allows random participation of sensor nodes with particular applications to take part in the network, which results in most of the uncovered simulation area, where fewer nodes are located at far distances. The drawback of such network would be that the additional energy is spent by the nodes located in a pattern of dense location, using more number of nodes for a smaller distance of communication adversely in a region with less number of nodes and additional energy is again spent by the source node in order to transmit a packet to neighbours, thereby transmitting the packet to reach the destination. The proposed work is intended to develop Energy Efficient Node Placement Algorithm (EENPA) in order to place the sensor node efficiently in simulated area, where all the nodes are equally located on a radial path to cover maximum area at equidistance. The total energy consumed by each node compared to random placement of nodes is less by having equal burden on fewer nodes of far location, having distributed the nodes in whole of the simulation area. Calculating the network lifetime also proves to be efficient as compared to random placement of nodes, hence increasing the network lifetime, too. Simulation is been carried out in a qualnet simulator, results are obtained on par with random placement of nodes with EENP algorithm.

Keywords: Energy, Wireless Sensor Network, WSN, energy approach

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32 Wireless Sensor Network for Forest Fire Detection and Localization

Authors: Tarek Dandashi

Abstract:

WSNs may provide a fast and reliable solution for the early detection of environment events like forest fires. This is crucial for alerting and calling for fire brigade intervention. Sensor nodes communicate sensor data to a host station, which enables a global analysis and the generation of a reliable decision on a potential fire and its location. A WSN with TinyOS and nesC for the capturing and transmission of a variety of sensor information with controlled source, data rates, duration, and the records/displaying activity traces is presented. We propose a similarity distance (SD) between the distribution of currently sensed data and that of a reference. At any given time, a fire causes diverging opinions in the reported data, which alters the usual data distribution. Basically, SD consists of a metric on the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). SD is designed to be invariant versus day-to-day changes of temperature, changes due to the surrounding environment, and normal changes in weather, which preserve the data locality. Evaluation shows that SD sensitivity is quadratic versus an increase in sensor node temperature for a group of sensors of different sizes and neighborhood. Simulation of fire spreading when ignition is placed at random locations with some wind speed shows that SD takes a few minutes to reliably detect fires and locate them. We also discuss the case of false negative and false positive and their impact on the decision reliability.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, WSN, forest fire, algortihm

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31 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Network Protocol, car parking monitoring, sensor node

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30 To Design an Architectural Model for On-Shore Oil Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network System

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey

Abstract:

In recent times, oil exploration and monitoring in on-shore areas have gained much importance considering the fact that in India the oil import is 62 percent of the total imports. Thus, architectural model like wireless sensor network to monitor on-shore deep sea oil well is being developed to get better estimate of the oil prospects. The problem we are facing nowadays that we have very few restricted areas of oil left today. Countries like India don’t have much large areas and resources for oil and this problem with most of the countries that’s why it has become a major problem when we are talking about oil exploration in on-shore areas also the increase of oil prices has further ignited the problem. For this the use of wireless network system having relative simplicity, smallness in size and affordable cost of wireless sensor nodes permit heavy deployment in on-shore places for monitoring oil wells. Deployment of wireless sensor network in large areas will surely reduce the cost it will be very much cost effective. The objective of this system is to send real time information of oil monitoring to the regulatory and welfare authorities so that suitable action could be taken. This system architecture is composed of sensor network, processing/transmission unit and a server. This wireless sensor network system could remotely monitor the real time data of oil exploration and monitoring condition in the identified areas. For wireless sensor networks, the systems are wireless, have scarce power, are real-time, utilize sensors and actuators as interfaces, have dynamically changing sets of resources, aggregate behaviour is important and location is critical. In this system a communication is done between the server and remotely placed sensors. The server gives the real time oil exploration and monitoring conditions to the welfare authorities.

Keywords: Sensor, Oil, Wireless Sensor Network, on-shore level

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29 Optrix: Energy Aware Cross Layer Routing Using Convex Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ali Shareef, Aliha Shareef, Yifeng Zhu

Abstract:

Energy minimization is of great importance in wireless sensor networks in extending the battery lifetime. One of the key activities of nodes in a WSN is communication and the routing of their data to a centralized base-station or sink. Routing using the shortest path to the sink is not the best solution since it will cause nodes along this path to fail prematurely. We propose a cross-layer energy efficient routing protocol Optrix that utilizes a convex formulation to maximize the lifetime of the network as a whole. We further propose, Optrix-BW, a novel convex formulation with bandwidth constraint that allows the channel conditions to be accounted for in routing. By considering this key channel parameter we demonstrate that Optrix-BW is capable of congestion control. Optrix is implemented in TinyOS, and we demonstrate that a relatively large topology of 40 nodes can converge to within 91% of the optimal routing solution. We describe the pitfalls and issues related with utilizing a continuous form technique such as convex optimization with discrete packet based communication systems as found in WSNs. We propose a routing controller mechanism that allows for this transformation. We compare Optrix against the Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) and we found that Optrix performs better in terms of convergence to an optimal routing solution, for load balancing and network lifetime maximization than CTP.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Energy Efficient Routing

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28 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, K-Means Clustering, imperialist competitive algorithm, LEACH protocol

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27 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors

Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov

Abstract:

In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.

Keywords: Power management, Wireless Sensor Network, Gas sensors

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26 An Entropy Based Novel Algorithm for Internal Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Muhammad R. Ahmed, Mohammed Aseeri

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of low-cost and multi functional resources constrain nodes that communicate at short distances through wireless links. It is open media and underpinned by an application driven technology for information gathering and processing. It can be used for many different applications range from military implementation in the battlefield, environmental monitoring, health sector as well as emergency response of surveillance. With its nature and application scenario, security of WSN had drawn a great attention. It is known to be valuable to variety of attacks for the construction of nodes and distributed network infrastructure. In order to ensure its functionality especially in malicious environments, security mechanisms are essential. Malicious or internal attacker has gained prominence and poses the most challenging attacks to WSN. Many works have been done to secure WSN from internal attacks but most of it relay on either training data set or predefined threshold. Without a fixed security infrastructure a WSN needs to find the internal attacks is a challenge. In this paper we present an internal attack detection method based on maximum entropy model. The final experimental works showed that the proposed algorithm does work well at the designed level.

Keywords: Network Security, Wireless Sensor Network, Entropy, internal attack

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25 Routing Protocol in Ship Dynamic Positioning Based on WSN Clustering Data Fusion System

Authors: Zhou Mo, Dennis Chow

Abstract:

In the dynamic positioning system (DPS) for vessels, the reliable information transmission between each note basically relies on the wireless protocols. From the perspective of cluster-based routing protocols for wireless sensor networks, the data fusion technology based on the sleep scheduling mechanism and remaining energy in network layer is proposed, which applies the sleep scheduling mechanism to the routing protocols, considering the remaining energy of node and location information when selecting cluster-head. The problem of uneven distribution of nodes in each cluster is solved by the Equilibrium. At the same time, Classified Forwarding Mechanism as well as Redelivery Policy strategy is adopted to avoid congestion in the transmission of huge amount of data, reduce the delay in data delivery and enhance the real-time response. In this paper, a simulation test is conducted to improve the routing protocols, which turn out to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and increase the efficiency of data delivery.

Keywords: Routing Protocols, Wireless Sensor Network, Data fusion, DPS for vessel

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24 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: KRISHAN KUMAR, Pramod Kumar, Mohit Mittal

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Artificial Neural Network, Data Clustering, self organization feature map

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23 Design and Implementation of Active Radio Frequency Identification on Wireless Sensor Network-Based System

Authors: Che Z. Zulkifli, Nursyahida M. Noor, Siti N. Semunab, Shafawati A. Malek

Abstract:

Wireless sensors, also known as wireless sensor nodes, have been making a significant impact on human daily life. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two complementary technologies; hence, an integrated implementation of these technologies expands the overall functionality in obtaining long-range and real-time information on the location and properties of objects and people. An approach for integrating ZigBee and RFID networks is proposed in this paper, to create an energy-efficient network improved by the benefits of combining ZigBee and RFID architecture. Furthermore, the compatibility and requirements of the ZigBee device and communication links in the typical RFID system which is presented with the real world experiment on the capabilities of the proposed RFID system.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, RFID, ZigBee, mesh network

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22 Condition Monitoring System of Mine Air Compressors Based on Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sheng Fu, Yinbo Gao, Hao Lin

Abstract:

In the current mine air compressors monitoring system, there are some difficulties in the installation and maintenance because of the wired connection. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new air compressors monitoring system based on ZigBee in which the monitoring parameters are transmitted wirelessly. The collecting devices are designed to form a cluster network to collect vibration, temperature, and pressure of air cylinders and other parameters. All these devices are battery-powered. Besides, the monitoring software in PC is developed using MFC. Experiments show that the designed wireless sensor network works well in the site environmental condition and the system is very convenient to be installed since the wireless connection. This monitoring system will have a wide application prospect in the upgrade of the old monitoring system of the air compressors.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, air compressor, data collecting

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21 Structural Health Monitoring of Offshore Structures Using Wireless Sensor Networking under Operational and Environmental Variability

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Thailammai Chithambaram, Shihas A. Khader

Abstract:

The early-stage damage detection in offshore structures requires continuous structural health monitoring and for the large area the position of sensors will also plays an important role in the efficient damage detection. Determining the dynamic behavior of offshore structures requires dense deployment of sensors. The wired Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are highly expensive and always needs larger installation space to deploy. Wireless sensor networks can enhance the SHM system by deployment of scalable sensor network, which consumes lesser space. This paper presents the results of wireless sensor network based Structural Health Monitoring method applied to a scaled experimental model of offshore structure that underwent wave loading. This method determines the serviceability of the offshore structure which is subjected to various environment loads. Wired and wireless sensors were installed in the model and the response of the scaled BLSRP model under wave loading was recorded. The wireless system discussed in this study is the Raspberry pi board with Arm V6 processor which is programmed to transmit the data acquired by the sensor to the server using Wi-Fi adapter, the data is then hosted in the webpage. The data acquired from the wireless and wired SHM systems were compared and the design of the wireless system is verified.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, damage detection, Structural Response, Condition Assessment

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20 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, residual energy, virtual rail

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19 An ALM Matrix Completion Algorithm for Recovering Weather Monitoring Data

Authors: Ying Xu, Yuqing Chen, Renfa Li

Abstract:

The development of matrix completion theory provides new approaches for data gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The existing matrix completion algorithms for WSN mainly consider how to reduce the sampling number without considering the real-time performance when recovering the data matrix. In order to guarantee the recovery accuracy and reduce the recovery time consumed simultaneously, we propose a new ALM algorithm to recover the weather monitoring data. A lot of experiments have been carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed ALM algorithm by using different parameter settings, different sampling rates and sampling models. In addition, we compare the proposed ALM algorithm with some existing algorithms in the literature. Experimental results show that the ALM algorithm can obtain better overall recovery accuracy with less computing time, which demonstrate that the ALM algorithm is an effective and efficient approach for recovering the real world weather monitoring data in WSN.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, matrix completion, singular value thresholding, augmented Lagrange multiplier

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18 Enhancement of Environmental Security by the Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Nigeria

Authors: Ahmadu Girgiri, Lawan Gana Ali, Mamman M. Baba

Abstract:

Environmental security clearly articulates the perfections and developments of various communities around the world irrespective of the region, culture, religion or social inclination. Although, the present state of insecurity has become serious issue devastating the peace, unity, stability and progress of man and his physical environment particularly in developing countries. Recently, measure of security and it management in Nigeria has been a bottle-neck to the effectiveness and advancement of various sectors that include; business, education, social relations, politics and above all an economy. Several measures have been considered on mitigating environment insecurity such as surveillance, demarcation, security personnel empowerment and the likes, but still the issue remains disturbing. In this paper, we present the application of new technology that contributes to the improvement of security surveillance known as “Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)”. The system is new, smart and emerging technology that provides monitoring, detection and aggregation of information using sensor nodes and wireless network. WSN detects, monitors and stores information or activities in the deployed area such as schools, environment, business centers, public squares, industries, and outskirts and transmit to end users. This will reduce the cost of security funding and eases security surveillance depending on the nature and the requirement of the deployment.

Keywords: Sensor, Environment, Wireless Sensor Network, Application, insecurity

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17 Research on Routing Protocol in Ship Dynamic Positioning Based on WSN Clustering Data Fusion System

Authors: Zhou Mo, Dennis Chow

Abstract:

In the dynamic positioning system (DPS) for vessels, the reliable information transmission between each note basically relies on the wireless protocols. From the perspective of cluster-based routing pro-tocols for wireless sensor networks, the data fusion technology based on the sleep scheduling mechanism and remaining energy in network layer is proposed, which applies the sleep scheduling mechanism to the routing protocols, considering the remaining energy of node and location information when selecting cluster-head. The problem of uneven distribution of nodes in each cluster is solved by the Equilibrium. At the same time, Classified Forwarding Mechanism as well as Redelivery Policy strategy is adopted to avoid congestion in the transmission of huge amount of data, reduce the delay in data delivery and enhance the real-time response. In this paper, a simulation test is conducted to improve the routing protocols, which turns out to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and increase the efficiency of data delivery.

Keywords: Routing Protocols, Wireless Sensor Network, Data fusion, DPS for vessel

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16 An Energy-Balanced Clustering Method on Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Yu-Ting Tsai, Chiun-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Chun Chu

Abstract:

In recent years, due to the development of wireless network technology, many researchers have devoted to the study of wireless sensor networks. The applications of wireless sensor network mainly use the sensor nodes to collect the required information, and send the information back to the users. Since the sensed area is difficult to reach, there are many restrictions on the design of the sensor nodes, where the most important restriction is the limited energy of sensor nodes. Because of the limited energy, researchers proposed a number of ways to reduce energy consumption and balance the load of sensor nodes in order to increase the network lifetime. In this paper, we proposed the Energy-Balanced Clustering method with Auxiliary Members on Wireless Sensor Networks(EBCAM)based on the cluster routing. The main purpose is to balance the energy consumption on the sensed area and average the distribution of dead nodes in order to avoid excessive energy consumption because of the increasing in transmission distance. In addition, we use the residual energy and average energy consumption of the nodes within the cluster to choose the cluster heads, use the multi hop transmission method to deliver the data, and dynamically adjust the transmission radius according to the load conditions. Finally, we use the auxiliary cluster members to change the delivering path according to the residual energy of the cluster head in order to its load. Finally, we compare the proposed method with the related algorithms via simulated experiments and then analyze the results. It reveals that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms in the numbers of used rounds and the average energy consumption.

Keywords: Cluster, Wireless Sensor Network, routing algorithm, auxiliary nodes, load balance

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15 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Wind Direction, humidity, forest fire monitor

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14 Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): An Assesment

Authors: Arslan Murtaza

Abstract:

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and WSN (Wireless sensor network) are two significant wireless technologies that have extensive diversity of applications and provide limitless forthcoming potentials. RFID is used to identify existence and location of objects whereas WSN is used to intellect and monitor the environment. Incorporating RFID with WSN not only provides identity and location of an object but also provides information regarding the condition of the object carrying the sensors enabled RFID tag. It can be widely used in stock management, asset tracking, asset counting, security, military, environmental monitoring and forecasting, healthcare, intelligent home, intelligent transport vehicles, warehouse management, and precision agriculture. This assessment presents a brief introduction of RFID, WSN, and integration of WSN and RFID, and then applications related to both RFID and WSN. This assessment also deliberates status of the projects on RFID technology carried out in different computing group projects to be taken on WSN and RFID technology.

Keywords: Integration, Wireless Sensor Network, RFID, bluetooth, Wi-Fi, embedded sensor, time saving, cost efficient

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13 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: Clustering, Wireless Sensor Network, orphan node, ONI protocol

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12 An Algorithm to Depreciate the Energy Utilization Using a Bio-Inspired Method in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Navdeep Singh Randhawa, Shally Sharma

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network is an autonomous technology emanating in the current scenario at a fast pace. This technology faces a number of defiance’s and energy management is one of them, which has a huge impact on the network lifetime. To sustain energy the different types of routing protocols have been flourished. The classical routing protocols are no more compatible to perform in complicated environments. Hence, in the field of routing the intelligent algorithms based on nature systems is a turning point in Wireless Sensor Network. These nature-based algorithms are quite efficient to handle the challenges of the WSN as they are capable of achieving local and global best optimization solutions for the complex environments. So, the main attention of this paper is to develop a routing algorithm based on some swarm intelligent technique to enhance the performance of Wireless Sensor Network.

Keywords: Swarm Intelligence, Routing, Wireless Sensor Network, MPRSO

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11 Routing and Energy Efficiency through Data Coupled Clustering in Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Jainendra Singh, Zaheeruddin

Abstract:

A typical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of several tiny and low-power sensors which use radio frequency to perform distributed sensing tasks. The longevity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a major issue that impacts the application of such networks. While routing protocols are striving to save energy by acting on sensor nodes, recent studies show that network lifetime can be enhanced by further involving sink mobility. A common approach for energy efficiency is partitioning the network into clusters with correlated data, where the representative nodes simply transmit or average measurements inside the cluster. In this paper, we propose an energy- efficient homogenous clustering (EHC) technique. In this technique, the decision of each sensor is based on their residual energy and an estimate of how many of its neighboring cluster heads (CHs) will benefit from it being a CH. We, also explore the routing algorithm in clustered WSNs. We show that the proposed schemes significantly outperform current approaches in terms of packet delay, hop count and energy consumption of WSNs.

Keywords: Clustering, Energy Efficiency, Routing, Wireless Sensor Network

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10 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using a Line-Topology Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Jungho Moon, Tae Yun Chung, Dae Il Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using a wireless sensor network. The presented sensor network has a line-shaped topology and adopts a TDMA-based protocol for allowing multi-hop communications. Sensor nodes are deployed in the ground of an outdoor parking lot in such a way that a sensor node monitors a parking space. Each sensor node detects the availability of the associated parking space and transmits the detection result to a sink node via intermediate sensor nodes existing between the source sensor node and the sink node. We evaluate the feasibility of the presented sensor network and the TDMA-based communication protocol through experiments using 11 sensor nodes deployed in a real parking lot. The result shows that the presented car parking monitoring system is robust to changes in the communication environments and efficient for monitoring parking spaces of outdoor parking lots.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Multi-Hop Communication, TDMA, parking monitoring system

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9 A Study on Game Theory Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Shoukath Ali, Rajendra Prasad Singh

Abstract:

Game Theory approaches and their application in improving the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are discussed in this paper. The mathematical modeling and analysis of WSNs may have low success rate due to the complexity of topology, modeling, link quality, etc. However, Game Theory is a field, which can efficiently use to analyze the WSNs. Game Theory is related to applied mathematics that describes and analyzes interactive decision situations. Game theory has the ability to model independent, individual decision makers whose actions affect the surrounding decision makers. The outcome of complex interactions among rational entities can be predicted by a set of analytical tools. However, the rationality demands a stringent observance to a strategy based on measured of perceived results. Researchers are adopting game theory approaches to model and analyze leading wireless communication networking issues, which includes QoS, power control, resource sharing, etc.

Keywords: Game theory, Cooperative game theory, Wireless Sensor Network, non-cooperative game theory

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