Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Wear Related Abstracts

56 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie


In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: Corrosion, Wear, thermal property, titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation

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55 Using Fly Ash as a Reinforcement to Increase Wear Resistance of Pure Magnesium

Authors: E. Karakulak, R. Yamanoğlu, M. Zeren


In the current study, fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant was used as reinforcement in pure magnesium. The composite materials with different fly ash contents were produced with powder metallurgical methods. Powder mixtures were sintered at 540oC under 30 MPa pressure for 15 minutes in a vacuum assisted hot press. Results showed that increasing ash content continuously increases hardness of the composite. On the other hand, minimum wear damage was obtained at 2 wt. % ash content. Addition of higher level of fly ash results with formation of cracks in the matrix and increases wear damage of the material.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, fly ash, Wear, Mg composite

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54 The Impact of Surface Roughness and PTFE/TiF3/FeF3 Additives in Plain ZDDP Oil on the Friction and Wear Behavior Using Thermal and Tribological Analysis under Extreme Pressure Condition

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme, Saeed Ghalambor


The use of titanium fluoride and iron fluoride (TiF3/FeF3) catalysts in combination with polutetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil is important for the study of engine tribocomponents and is increasingly a strategy to improve the formation of tribofilm and to provide low friction and excellent wear protection in reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil. The influence of surface roughness and the concentration of TiF3/FeF3/PTFE were investigated using bearing steel samples dipped in lubricant solution @100°C for two different heating time durations. This paper addresses the effects of water drop contact angle using different surface finishes after treating them with different lubricant combination. The calculated water drop contact angles were analyzed using Design of Experiment software (DOE) and it was determined that a 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness would provide an excellent TiF3/FeF3/PTFE coating for antiwear resistance as reflected in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the tribological testing under extreme pressure conditions. Both friction and wear performance depend greatly on the PTFE/and catalysts in plain ZDDP oil with 0.05% phosphorous and on the surface finish of bearing steel. The friction and wear reducing effects, which was observed in the tribological tests, indicated a better micro lubrication effect of the 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness treated at 100°C for 24 hours when compared to the 0.1 μm Ra surface roughness with the same treatment.

Keywords: Catalysts, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Wear, PTFE, friction, ZDDP

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53 Novel Ti/Al-Cr-Fe Metal Matrix Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering with Excellent Wear Properties

Authors: Ruitao Li, Zhili Dong, Nay Win Khun, Khiam Aik Khor


In this study, microstructure and sintering mechanism as well as wear resistance properties of Ti/Al-Cr-Fe metal matrix composites (MMCs) fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) with Ti as matrix and Al-Cr-Fe as reinforcement were investigated. Phases and microstructure of the sintered samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wear resistance properties were tested by ball-on-disk method. An Al3Ti ring forms around each Al-Cr-Fe particle as the bonding layer between Ti and Al-Cr-Fe particles. The Al content in Al-Cr-Fe particles experiences a decrease from 70 at.% to 60 at.% in the sintering process. And these particles consist of quasicrystalline icosahedral AlCrFe and quasicrystal approximants γ-brass Al8(Cr,Fe)5 and Al9(Cr,Fe)4 in the sintered compact. The addition of Al-Cr-Fe particles into the Ti matrix can improve the microhardness by about 40% and the wear resistance is improved by more than 50% due to the increase in the microhardness and the change of wear mechanism.

Keywords: Metal Matrix Composites, Wear, spark plasma sintering, phase transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
52 Tribological Behavior of EP Additives with Different Percentage of Sulfur

Authors: Salete Martins Alves, José Josemar de Oliveira Junior


The current efforts on design of lubricants are based in attending the new requirement of modern equipment with the focus on the choice of base oil and additives. Nowadays, there are different types of lubricant oils’ bases, such as mineral oils, synthetic oils, re-refined oils and vegetable oils. The lubrication in the boundary condition is controlled mainly by EP additives that interact with the surface forming very thin films. Therefore, the study’s goal is to evaluate the action of three EP additives, with different percentage of sulfur, on friction and wear reduction. They were evaluated in mineral and synthetic oils. Lubricants were prepared with synthetic and mineral oils and added 3 % and 5 % of EP additives. The friction and wear characteristics were studied using HFRR test. In this test, a normal load of 10 N was applied at a frequency of 20 Hz. The analysis of results has appointed that the percentage of sulfur in mineral oil has influenced on wear reduction. However, synthetic oil had good performance with low sulfur content.

Keywords: Wear, boundary lubrication, EP additives, sulfur

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
51 Effects of Ingredients Proportions on the Friction Performance of a Brake Pad Material

Authors: Rukiye Ertan


In this study, a brake friction material composition was investigated experimentally related to the effects of the friction modifiers and abrasive proportions on the tribological properties. The investigation was based on a simple experimental formulation, consisting of seven friction materials with different proportions of abrasives (ZrSiO4 and Fe2O3) and friction modifiers (cashew dust). The friction materials were evaluated using a Chase friction tester. The tribological properties, such as the wear resistance and friction stability, depending on the test temperature and the number of braking were obtained related to the friction material ingredient proportions. The results showed that the tribological properties of the brake pad were greatly affected by the abrasive and then cashew dust proportion.

Keywords: Wear, friction, brake pad, abrasives

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
50 Tribological Behavior of PTFE Composites Used for Guide Rings of Hydraulic Actuating Cylinders under Oil-Lubricated Condition

Authors: Trabelsi Mohamed, Kharrat Mohamed, Dammak Maher


Guide rings play an important role in the performance and durability of hydraulic actuating cylinders. In service, guide rings surfaces are subjected to friction and wear against steel counterface. A good mastery of these phenomena is required for the improvement of the energy safeguard and the durability of the actuating cylinder. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer is extensively used in guide rings thanks to its low coefficient of friction, its good resistance to solvents as well as its high temperature stability. In this study, friction and wear behavior of two PTFE composites filled with bronze and bronze plus MoS2 were evaluated under oil-lubricated condition, aiming as guide rings for hydraulic actuating cylinder. Wear tests of the PTFE composite specimen sliding against steel ball were conducted using reciprocating linear tribometer. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the same sliding condition were discussed, based on Scanning Electron Microscopy examination of the worn composite surface and the optical micrographs of the steel counter surface. As for the results, comparative friction behaviors of the PTFE composites and lower friction coefficients were recorded under oil lubricated condition. The wear behavior was considerably improved to compare with this in dry sliding, while the oil adsorbed layer limited the transfer of the PTFE to the steel counter face during the sliding test.

Keywords: Composite, Wear, PTFE, friction, bronze, MoS2, oil-lubrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
49 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: Md. Salim Kaiser


In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m-4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads, the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads

Keywords: Wear, SEM, friction, gravimetric analysis, aluminium-silicon alloys, EDX

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48 Elaboration and Investigation of the New Ecologically Clean Friction Composite Materials on the Basis of Nanoporous Raw Materials

Authors: Lia Gventsadze, Elguja Kutelia, David Gventsadze


The purpose of the article is to show the possibility for the development of a new generation, eco-friendly (asbestos free) nano-porous friction materials on the basis of Georgian raw materials, along with the determination of technological parameters for their production, as well as the optimization of tribological properties and the investigation of structural aspects of wear peculiarities of elaborated materials using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) methods. The study investigated the tribological properties of the polymer friction materials on the basis of the phenol-formaldehyde resin using the porous diatomite filler modified by silane with the aim to improve the thermal stability, while the composition was modified by iron phosphate, technical carbon and basalt fibre. As a result of testing the stable values of friction factor (0.3-0,45) were reached, both in dry and wet friction conditions, the friction working parameters (friction factor and wear stability) remained stable up to 500 OC temperatures, the wear stability of gray cast-iron disk increased 3-4 times, the soundless operation of materials without squeaking were achieved. Herewith it was proved that small amount of ingredients (5-6) are enough to compose the nano-porous friction materials. The study explains the mechanism of the action of nano-porous composition base brake lining materials and its tribological efficiency on the basis of the triple phase model of the tribo-pair.

Keywords: Wear, brake lining, friction coefficient, nanoporous composite, phenolic resin

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47 Optimization of Wear during Dry Sliding Wear of AISI 1042 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Amit Kohli, Sukant Mehra, Parth Gupta, Varun Arora, Sarvoday Singh


The study was emphasised on dry sliding wear behavior of AISI 1042 steel. Dry sliding wear tests were performed using pin-on-disk apparatus under normal loads of 5, 7.5 and 10 kgf and at speeds 600, 750 and 900 rpm. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for finding optimal values of process parameter and experiment was based on rotatable, central composite design (CCD). It was found that the wear followed linear pattern with the load and rpm. The obtained optimal process parameters have been predicted and verified by confirmation experiments.

Keywords: Optimization, Wear, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), central composite design (CCD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
46 Wear and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Iron Modified with Copper

Authors: J. Ramos, V. Gil, A. F. Torres


The nodular iron is a material that has shown great advantages respect to other materials (steel and gray iron) in the production of machine elements. The engineering industry, especially automobile, are potential users of this material. As it is known, the alloying elements modify the properties of steels and castings. Copper has been investigated as a structural modifier of nodular iron, but studies of its mechanical and tribological implications still need to be addressed for industrial use. With the aim of improving the mechanical properties of nodular iron, alloying elements (Mn, Si, and Cu) are added in order to increase their pearlite (or ferrite) structure according to the percentage of the alloying element. In this research (using induction furnace process) nodular iron with three different percentages of copper (residual, 0,5% and 1,2%) was obtained. Chemical analysis was performed by optical emission spectrometry and microstructures were characterized by Optical Microscopy (ASTM E3) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study of mechanical behavior was carried out in a mechanical test machine (ASTM E8) and a Pin on disk tribometer (ASTM G99) was used to assess wear resistance. It is observed that copper increases the pearlite structure improving the wear behavior; tension behavior. This improvement is observed in higher proportion with 0,5% due to the fact that too much increase of pearlite leads to ductility loss.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Wear, Copper, nodular iron, pearlite structure

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45 Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators

Authors: Paul Dallyn, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Alessandro Palmeri, Bob Knight


In order to better understand the long term implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plain-sided grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions experienced over a given period, thus limiting the need for expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.

Keywords: Wind energy, Wear, numerical model, grouted connection, offshore structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
44 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase

Authors: Rafaela Santos, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel, Buno Henriques


Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test, Vickers indentations and fracture toughness. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical and wear results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 particles.

Keywords: Composites, Strengthening, Wear, porcelain, toughening, dental restoration, zirconia

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
43 The Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC-Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: A. Haddad, M. Hadji, Y. Hadji


The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7 N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, MAX phase, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
42 Realization and Characterization of TiN Coating and Metal Working Application

Authors: Abdelouahed Chala, Nadjette Belhamra, Ibrahim Guasmi


Titanium nitride coatings have been extensively used in industry, such as in cutting tools. TiN coating were deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on carbide insert at a temperature between 850°C and 1100°C, which often exceeds the hardening treatment temperature of the metals. The objective of this work is to realize, to characterize of TiN coating and to apply it in the turning of steel 42CrMo4 under lubrification. Various experimental techniques were employed for the microstructural characterization of the coatings, e. g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) model JOEL JSM-5900 LV, equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results show that TiN-coated demonstrate a good wear resistance.

Keywords: Machining, Wear, Turning, hard coating TiN, carbide inserts

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41 Analyzing Damage of the Cutting Tools out of Carbide Metallic during the Turning of a Soaked and Not Hardened Steel XC38

Authors: Ahmed Tafraoui, Mohamed Seghouani, Soltane Lebaili


The purpose of this study widened knowledge on the use of the cutting tools out of metal carbide and to define it the influence of the elements of the mode of cut on the behavior of these tools during the machining of treated steel XC38 and untreated. This work aims at evolution determined in experiments of the wear of a cutting tool out of metal carbide with plate reported of P30 nuance for an operation of slide-lathing in turning on soaked and not hardened steel XC38 test-tubes. This research is based on the model of Taylor to determine the life span of the cutting tool according to the various parameters of cut, like the cutting speed Vc, the advance of cut a, the depth of cutting P. In order to express the operational limits of the tool for slide-lathing in a preventive way. The model makes it possible to determine the time of change of the tool and to regard it as a constraint for the respect of the roughness of the workpiece during a work of series in conventional machining.

Keywords: Machining, Wear, lifespan, model of Taylor, cutting tool, carburize metal

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40 Correlations between Wear Rate and Energy Dissipation Mechanisms in a Ti6Al4V–WC/Co Sliding Pair

Authors: J. S. Rudas, J. M. Gutiérrez Cabeza, A. Corz Rodríguez, L. M. Gómez, A. O. Toro


The prediction of the wear rate of rubbing pairs has attracted the interest of many researchers for years. It has been recently proposed that the sliding wear rate can be inferred from the calculation of the energy rate dissipated by the tribological pair. In this paper some of the dissipative mechanisms present in a pin-on-disc configuration are discussed and both analytical and numerical calculations are carried out. Three dissipative mechanisms were studied: First, the energy release due to temperature gradients within the solid; second, the heat flow from the solid to the environment, and third, the energy loss due to abrasive damage of the surface. The Finite Element Method was used to calculate the dynamics of heat transfer within the solid, with the aid of commercial software. Validation the FEM model was assisted by virtual and laboratory experimentation using different operating points (sliding velocity and geometry contact). The materials for the experiments were Ti6Al4V alloy and Tungsten Carbide (WC-Co). The results showed that the sliding wear rate has a linear relationship with the energy dissipation flow. It was also found that energy loss due to micro-cutting is relevant for the system. This mechanism changes if the sliding velocity and pin geometry are modified though the degradation coefficient continues to present a linear behavior. We found that the less relevant dissipation mechanism for all the cases studied is the energy release by temperature gradients in the solid.

Keywords: Entropy, Wear, degradation, friction, dissipative mechanism, dry sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
39 Numerical Simulation of Erosion Control in Slurry Pump Casing by Geometrical Flow Pattern Modification Analysis

Authors: A. R. Momeninezhad


Erosion of Slurry Pumps in Related Industries, is one of the major costs in their production process. Many factories in extractive industries try to find ways to diminish this cost. In this paper, we consider the flow pattern modifications by geometric variations made of numerical simulation of flow inside pump casing, which is one of the most important parts analyzed for erosion. The mentioned pump is a cyclone centrifugal slurry pump, which is operating in Sarcheshmeh Copper Industries in Kerman-Iran, named and tagged as HM600 cyclone pump. Simulation shows many improvements in local wear information and situations for better and more qualified design of casing shape and impeller position, before and after geometric corrections. By theory of liquid-solid two-phase flow, the local wear defeats are analyzed and omitted.

Keywords: Simulation, Wear, flow pattern, slurry pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
38 Hard Coatings Characterization Based on Chromium Nitrides: Applications for Wood Machining

Authors: B. Chemani, H. Aknouche, A. Zerizer, R. Marchal


The phenomena occurring during machining are related to the internal friction of the material that deforms and the friction the flake on the rake face of tool. Various researches have been conducted to improve the wear resistance of the tool by thin film deposition. This work aims to present an experimental approach related to wood machining technique to evaluate the wear for the case of ripping Aleppo pine, a species well established in the Mediterranean in general and in Algeria in particular. The study will be done on tungsten carbide cutting tools widely used in woodworking and coated with chrome nitride (CrN) and Chromium Nitride enriched Aluminium (CrAlN) with percentage different of aluminum sputtered through frame magnetron mark Nordiko 3500. The deposition conditions are already optimized by previous studies. The wear tests were performed in the laboratory of ENSAM Cluny (France) on a numerical control ripper of recordi type. This comparative study of the behavior of tools, coated and uncoated, showed that the addition of the aluminum chromium nitride films does not improve the tool ability to resist abrasive wear that is predominant when ripping the Aleppo pine. By against the aluminum addition improves the crystallization of chromium nitride films.

Keywords: Coatings, Wear, PVD, Aleppo pine, CrAlN

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
37 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Niranjan Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Das, Prasun Chakraborti


Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: Oxidation, Wear, high temperature tribology, turbostratic graphite

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
36 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud


The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: Modeling, Wear, lifetime, metal carbides, thermo-mechanical

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
35 Study of Behavior Tribological Cutting Tools Based on Coating

Authors: A. Mekroud, A. Achour L. Chekour


Tribology, the science of lubrication, friction and wear, plays an important role in science "crossroads" initiated by the recent developments in the industry. Its multidisciplinary nature reinforces its scientific interest. It covers all the sciences that deal with the contact between two solids loaded and relative motion. It is thus one of the many intersections more clearly established disciplines such as solid mechanics and the fluids, rheological, thermal, materials science and chemistry. As for his experimental approach, it is based on the physical and processing signals and images. The optimization of operating conditions by cutting tool must contribute significantly to the development and productivity of advanced automation of machining techniques because their implementation requires sufficient knowledge of how the process and in particular the evolution of tool wear. In addition, technological advances have developed the use of very hard materials, refractory difficult machinability, requiring highly resistant materials tools. In this study, we present the behavior wear a machining tool during the roughing operation according to the cutting parameters. The interpretation of the experimental results is based mainly on observations and analyzes of sharp edges e tool using the latest techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical rugosimetry laser beam.

Keywords: Wear, friction, cutting, tool

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34 Wear Resistance of 20MnCr5 Steel Nitrided by Plasma

Authors: Said Benramache, Okba Belahssen


This paper presents wear behavior of the plasma-nitrided 20MnCr5 steel. Untreated and plasma nitrided samples were tested. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plasma nitriding behaviors of 20MnCr5 steel have been assessed by evaluating tribological properties and surface hardness by using a pin-on-disk wear machine and microhardness tester. Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer improve the wear resistance.

Keywords: steel, Wear, friction, plasma-nitriding, alloy 20mncr5

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33 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: Wear, Lubricants, SEM, friction, EDS

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
32 The Friction and Wear Behaviour of Ti2AlC MAX Phase

Authors: A. Haddad, M. Hadji, Y. Hadji


The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of Ti2AlC were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti2AlC, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti2AlC. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti2AlC from 6 GPa to 13GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, it was found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti2AlC/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti2AlC under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti2AlC.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, MAX phase, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
31 Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloy Composites Reinforced with Pod Ash Nanoparticles Composites

Authors: A. P .I. Popoola, V. S. Aigbodion, O. S. I. Fayomi


The experimental study of the microstructure and properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy/bean pod ash (BPA) nanoparticles was investigated. The aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) were produced by varying the BPA nanoparticles from 1-4wt%. The microstructure and phases of the composites produced were examined by SEM/EDS and XRD. Properties such as: hardness, tensile strength, impact energy, fatigue and wear were evaluated. The results showed that tensile strength and hardness values increased by 35 and 44.1% at 4wt% BPA nanoparticles with appreciable impact energy. The fatigue limit of 167MPa, 135 MPa and 75Mpa were obtained for the nano-particle (55nm), micro-particle (100µm) BPA composites and unreinforced alloy respectively. The wear properties of the as-cast Al–3.7%Cu-1.4%Mg/BPA nanoparticle have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of BPA nanoparticle. The properties of the as-cast aluminium nanoparticles (MMNCs) have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of nano-sized BPAp.

Keywords: Microstructures, Mechanical Properties, Wear, bean pod ash nanoparticles, al-cu-mg alloy

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30 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, V. S. Aigbodion, O. S. I. Fayomi


Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, Microstructure, Wear, Microhardness, mild steel, zinc-yttrium

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29 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance

Authors: Yashvir Singh


Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: Wear, friction, load, pongamia oil, sliding velocity

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28 Determination of the Pull-Out/ Holding Strength at the Taper-Trunnion Junction of Hip Implants

Authors: Krishna Shankar, Alan Fien, Obinna K. Ihesiulor, Paul Smith


Excessive fretting wear at the taper-trunnion junction (trunnionosis) apparently contributes to the high failure rates of hip implants. Implant wear and corrosion lead to the release of metal particulate debris and subsequent release of metal ions at the taper-trunnion surface. This results in a type of metal poisoning referred to as metallosis. The consequences of metal poisoning include; osteolysis (bone loss), osteoarthritis (pain), aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and revision surgery. Follow up after revision surgery, metal debris particles are commonly found in numerous locations. Background: A stable connection between the femoral ball head (taper) and stem (trunnion) is necessary to prevent relative motions and corrosion at the taper junction. Hence, the importance of component assembly cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of head-stem junction assembly by press fitting and the subsequent disengagement/disassembly on the connection strength between the taper ball head and stem. Methods: CoCr femoral heads were assembled with High stainless hydrogen steel stem (trunnion) by Push-in i.e. press fit; and disengaged by Pull-out test. The strength and stability of the two connections were evaluated by measuring the head pull-out forces according to ISO 7206-10 standards. Findings: The head-stem junction strength linearly increases with assembly forces.

Keywords: Wear, modular hip prosthesis, taper head-stem, force assembly and disassembly

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27 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Sliding Contact Brass-Steel Couple with Electrical Current

Authors: C. Boubechou, A. Bouchoucha, H. Zaidi


The aim of this paper is to study the tribological behavior of a dynamic contact steel-brass couple with electric current. This study looks at a dry contact brass-steel couple where friction and wear are studied in terms of mechanical and electrical parameters. For this reason, a tribometer, pin-rotary disc is used in an atmospheric atmosphere. The test parameters are as follows: the normal load (5-30N), the sliding speed (0.1 to 0.5 m / s) and the electric current (3-10A). The duration of each test is 30 minutes. The experimental results show that these parameters have a significant effect on the tribological behavior of the couple studied. The discussion of results is based on observations, using an optical microscope, MEB and a profilometer, worn surfaces and interface phenomena resulting from the process of sliding contact.

Keywords: Morphology, Wear, dry friction, brass-steel couple, electrical current, normal load, sliding speeds

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