Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Water Treatment Related Abstracts

42 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi, R. Ahmadi

Abstract:

The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: Optimization, Recycling, Water Treatment, Copper, froth flotation

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41 Improvement in the Photocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Manganese Ferrite – Type of Materials by Mechanochemical Activation

Authors: Katya Milenova, Katerina Zaharieva, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva, Alexander Eliyas

Abstract:

The synthesized nanosized manganese ferrite-type of samples have been tested as photocatalysts in the reaction of oxidative degradation of model contaminant Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation. As it is known this azo dye is applied in the textile-coloring industry and it is discharged into the waterways causing pollution. The co-precipitation procedure has been used for the synthesis of manganese ferrite-type of materials: Sample 1 - Mn0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample 2 - Mn0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample 3 - MnFe2O4 from 0.03M aqueous solutions of MnCl2•4H2O, FeCl2•4H2O and/or FeCl3•6H2O and 0.3M NaOH in appropriate amounts. The mechanochemical activation of co-precipitated ferrite-type of samples has been performed in argon (Samples 1 and 2) or in air atmosphere (Sample 3) for 2 hours at a milling speed of 500 rpm. The mechano-chemical treatment has been carried out in a high energy planetary ball mill type PM 100, Retsch, Germany. The mass ratio between balls and powder was 30:1. As a result mechanochemically activated Sample 4 - Mn0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample 5 - Mn0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample 6 - MnFe2O4 have been obtained. The synthesized manganese ferrite-type photocatalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The registered X-ray diffraction patterns and Moessbauer spectra of co-precipitated ferrite-type of materials show the presence of manganese ferrite and additional akaganeite phase. The presence of manganese ferrite and small amounts of iron phases is established in the mechanochemically treated samples. The calculated average crystallite size of manganese ferrites varies within the range 7 – 13 nm. This result is confirmed by Moessbauer study. The registered spectra show superparamagnetic behavior of the prepared materials at room temperature. The photocatalytic investigations have been made using polychromatic UV-A light lamp (Sylvania BLB, 18 W) illumination with wavelength maximum at 365 nm. The intensity of light irradiation upon the manganese ferrite-type photocatalysts was 0.66 mW.cm-2. The photocatalytic reaction of oxidative degradation of RB5 dye was carried out in a semi-batch slurry photocatalytic reactor with 0.15 g of ferrite-type powder, 150 ml of 20 ppm dye aqueous solution under magnetic stirring at rate 400 rpm and continuously feeding air flow. The samples achieved adsorption-desorption equilibrium in the dark period for 30 min and then the UV-light was turned on. After regular time intervals aliquot parts from the suspension were taken out and centrifuged to separate the powder from solution. The residual concentrations of dye were established by a UV-Vis absorbance single beam spectrophotometer CamSpec M501 (UK) measuring in the wavelength region from 190 to 800 nm. The photocatalytic measurements determined that the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants calculated by linear slopes approximating to first order kinetic equation, increase in following order: Sample 3 (1.1х10-3 min-1) < Sample 1 (2.2х10-3 min-1) < Sample 2 (3.3 х10-3 min-1) < Sample 4 (3.8х10-3 min-1) < Sample 6 (11х10-3 min-1) < Sample 5 (15.2х10-3 min-1). The mechanochemically activated manganese ferrite-type of photocatalyst samples show significantly higher degree of oxidative degradation of RB5 dye after 120 minutes of UV light illumination in comparison with co-precipitated ferrite-type samples: Sample 5 (92%) > Sample 6 (91%) > Sample 4 (63%) > Sample 2 (53%) > Sample 1 (42%) > Sample 3 (15%). Summarizing the obtained results we conclude that the mechanochemical activation leads to a significant enhancement of the degree of oxidative degradation of the RB5 dye and photocatalytic activity of tested manganese ferrite-type of catalyst samples under our experimental conditions. The mechanochemically activated Mn0.5Fe2.5O4 ferrite-type of material displays the highest photocatalytic activity (15.2х10-3 min-1) and degree of oxidative degradation of the RB5 dye (92%) compared to the other synthesized samples. Especially a significant improvement in the degree of oxidative degradation of RB5 dye (91%) has been determined for mechanochemically treated MnFe2O4 ferrite-type of sample with the highest extent of substitution of iron ions by manganese ions than in the case of the co-precipitated MnFe2O4 sample (15%). The mechanochemically activated manganese ferrite-type of samples show good photocatalytic properties in the reaction of oxidative degradation of RB5 azo dye in aqueous solutions and it could find potential application for dye removal from wastewaters originating from textile industry.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Photocatalytic Activity, nanostructured manganese ferrite-type materials, Reactive Black 5

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40 Synthesis and Applications of Biosorbent from Barley Husk for Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Bacteria from Water

Authors: Sunil S. Bhagwat, Sudarshan Kalsulkar

Abstract:

Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure. Activated carbons (AC) are one such efficient biosorbents made by utilizing lignocellulosic materials from agricultural waste. Steam activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from Barley husk. Its synthesis parameters of time and temperature were optimized. Its physico-chemical properties like density, surface area, pore volume, Methylene blue and Iodine values were characterized. BET surface area was found to be 42 m²/g. Batch Adsorption tests were carried out to determine the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for various metal ions. Cd+2 48.74 mg/g, Pb+2 19.28 mg/g, Hg+2 39.1mg/g were the respective qmax values. pH and time were optimized for adsorption of each ion. Column Adsorptions were carried for each to obtain breakthrough data. Microbial adsorption was carried using E. coli K12 strain. 78% reduction in cell count was observed at operating conditions. Thus the synthesized Barley husk AC can be an economically feasible replacement for commercially available AC prepared from the costlier coconut shells. Breweries and malting industries where barley husk is a primary waste generated on a large scale can be a good source for bulk raw material.

Keywords: Water Treatment, decontamination, activated carbon, biosorption, Barley husk, heavy metal removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
39 Sustainability Analysis and Quality Assessment of Rainwater Harvested from Green Roofs: A Review

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Mst. Nilufa Sultana, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin

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Most people today are aware that global Climate change, is not just a scientific theory but also a fact with worldwide consequences. Global climate change is due to rapid urbanization, industrialization, high population growth and current vulnerability of the climatic condition. Water is becoming scarce as a result of global climate change. To mitigate the problem arising due to global climate change and its drought effect, harvesting rainwater from green roofs, an environmentally-friendly and versatile technology, is becoming one of the best assessment criteria and gaining attention in Malaysia. This paper addresses the sustainability of green roofs and examines the quality of water harvested from green roofs in comparison to rainwater. The factors that affect the quality of such water, taking into account, for example, roofing materials, climatic conditions, the frequency of rainfall frequency and the first flush. A green roof was installed on the Humid Tropic Centre (HTC) is a place of the study on monitoring program for urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA), Eco-Hydrological Project in Kualalumpur, and the rainwater was harvested and evaluated on the basis of four parameters i.e., conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature. These parameters were found to fall between Class I and Class III of the Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) and the Water Quality Index (WQI). Some preliminary treatment such as disinfection and filtration could likely to improve the value of these parameters to class I. This review paper clearly indicates that there is a need for more research to address other microbiological and chemical quality parameters to ensure that the harvested water is suitable for use potable water for domestic purposes. The change in all physical, chemical and microbiological parameters with respect to storage time will be a major focus of future studies in this field.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Green roofs, Rainwater Harvesting, INWQS, MSMA-SME, water quality parameter, WQI

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38 Preparation and Characterizations of Natural Material Based Ceramic Membranes

Authors: In-Hyuck Song, Jang-Hoon Ha

Abstract:

Recently, porous ceramic membranes have attracted great interest due to their outstanding thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, we report the results of our efforts to determine whether we could prepare a diatomite-kaolin composite coating to be deposited over a sintered diatomite support layer that could reduce the largest pore size of the sintered diatomite membrane while retaining an acceptable level of permeability. We determined under what conditions such a composite coating over a support layer could be prepared without the generation of micro-cracks during drying and sintering. The pore characteristics of the sintered diatomite membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy and capillary flow porosimetry.

Keywords: Water Treatment, sintering, ceramic membrane, diatomite

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37 Multiparametric Optimization of Water Treatment Process for Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Natalya Glazyrina, Balgaisha Mukanova, Sergey Glazyrin

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The formulated problem of optimization of the technological process of water treatment for thermal power plants is considered in this article. The problem is of multiparametric nature. To optimize the process, namely, reduce the amount of waste water, a new technology was developed to reuse such water. A mathematical model of the technology of wastewater reuse was developed. Optimization parameters were determined. The model consists of a material balance equation, an equation describing the kinetics of ion exchange for the non-equilibrium case and an equation for the ion exchange isotherm. The material balance equation includes a nonlinear term that depends on the kinetics of ion exchange. A direct problem of calculating the impurity concentration at the outlet of the water treatment plant was numerically solved. The direct problem was approximated by an implicit point-to-point computation difference scheme. The inverse problem was formulated as relates to determination of the parameters of the mathematical model of the water treatment plant operating in non-equilibrium conditions. The formulated inverse problem was solved. Following the results of calculation the time of start of the filter regeneration process was determined, as well as the period of regeneration process and the amount of regeneration and wash water. Multi-parameter optimization of water treatment process for thermal power plants allowed decreasing the amount of wastewater by 15%.

Keywords: Water Treatment, direct problem, multiparametric optimization, optimization parameters

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36 Silver Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Purification

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Rajkumar

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known for their excellent antimicrobial agents, and thus can be used as alternative disinfectant agents. However, released silver nanoparticles is a threat to naturally occurring microorganisms. This paper exhibits information on the environmental fate, toxicological effects, and application of AgNP and the current estimate on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of AgNP in different aqueous solutions, as well as their application as alternative disinfectants in water-treatment systems. It also gives a better approximation and experimental data of AgNP’s antimicrobial properties at different water chemistry conditions. A saturation-type fitting curve was established, showing the survival of bacteria under different water chemistry conditions as a function of the size of the nanoparticles. The results obtained show that silver nanoparticles in surface water, ground water, and brackish water are stable. The paper demonstrates the comparative study of AgNP-impregnated point-of-use ceramic water filters and ceramic filters impregnated with silver nitrate. It is observed that AgNP-impregnated ceramic water filters are more appropriate for this application due to the lesser amount of silver desorbed. Experimental data of the comparison of a polymer-based quaternary amine functionalized silsesquioxanes compound and AgNP are also tabulated and conclusions are analysed with the goal of optimizing. The simplicity of synthesis and application of Silver nanoparticles enables us to consider its effective modified version for the purification of water.

Keywords: Water Treatment, nano particles, disinfectant agent, purification of water

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35 Alternatives to the Disposal of Sludge from Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Lima Priscila, Gianotto Raiza, Arruda Leonan, Magalhães Filho Fernando

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Industrialization and especially the accentuated population growth in developing countries and the lack of drainage, public cleaning, water and sanitation services has caused concern about the need for expansion of water treatment units and sewage. However, these units have been generating by-products, such as the sludge. This paper aims to investigate aspects of operation and maintenance of sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP - 90 L.s-1) and two water treatment plants (WTPs; 1.4 m3.s-1 and 0.5 m3.s-1) for the purpose of proper disposal and reuse, evaluating their qualitative and quantitative characteristics, the Brazilian legislation and standards. It was concluded that the sludge from the water treatment plants is directly related to the quality of raw water collected, and it becomes feasible for use in construction materials, and to dispose it in the sewage system, improving the efficiency of the WWTP regarding precipitation of phosphorus (35% of removal). The WTP Lageado had 55,726 kg/month of sludge production, more than WTP Guariroba (29,336 kg/month), even though the flow of WTP Guariroba is 1,400 L.s-1 and the WTP Lagedo 500 L.s-1, being explained by the quality that influences more than the flow. The WWTP sludge have higher concentrations of organic materials due to their origin and could be used to improve the fertility of the soil, crop production and recovery of degraded areas. The volume of sludge generated at the WWTP was 1,760 ton/month, with 5.6% of solid content in the raw sludge and in the dewatered sludge it increased its content to 23%.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Water Treatment, Disposal, Sludge

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34 A Comparative Study of Photo and Electro-Fenton Reactions Efficiency in Degradation of Cationic Dyes Mixture

Authors: Hussein Khalaf, S. Bouafia Chergui, Nihal Oturan, Mehmet A. Oturan

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The aim of this work was to compare the degradation of a mixture of three cationic dyes by advanced oxidation processes (electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton) in aqueous solution. These processes are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radical, a highly strong oxidant, which allows the degradation of organic pollutants until their mineralization into CO2 and H2O. Under optimal operating conditions, the evolution of total organic carbon (TOC) and electrical energy efficiency have been investigated for the two processes.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Water Treatment, photo-fenton, electro-fenton

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33 Preliminary Study on Using of Thermal Energy from Effluent Water for the SBR Process of RO

Authors: Gyeong-Sung Kim, In-soo Ahn, Yong Cho

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SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) process is usually applied to membrane water treatment plants to treat its concentrated wastewater. The role of SBR process is to remove COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and NH3 from wastewater before discharging it outside of the water treatment plant using microorganism. Microorganism’s nitrification capability is influenced by water temperature because the nitrification rate of the concentrated wastewater becomes ‘zero’ as water temperature approach 0℃. Heating system is necessary to operate SBR in winter season even though the operating cost increase sharply. The operating cost of SBR at ‘D’ RO water treatment plant in Korea was 51.8 times higher in winter (October to March) compare to summer (April to September) season in 2014. Otherwise the effluent water temperature maintained around 8℃ constantly in winter. This study focuses on application heat pump system to recover the thermal energy from the effluent water of ‘D’ RO plant so that the operating cost will be reduced.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Water Treatment, SBR, water thermal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
32 Recovery of Heavy Metals by Ion Exchange on the Zeolite Materials

Authors: K. Menad, A. Faddeg

Abstract:

Zeolites are a family of mineral compounds. With special properties that have led to several important industrial applications. Ion exchange has enabled the first industrial application in the field of water treatment. The exchange by aqueous pathway is the method most used in the case of such microporous materials and this technique will be used in this work. The objective of this work is to find performance materials for the recovery of heavy metals such as cadmium. The study is to compare the properties of different ion exchange zeolite Na-X, Na-A, their physical mixture and the composite A (LTA) / X (FAU). After the synthesis of various zeolites X and A, it was designed a model Core-Shell to form a composite zeolite A on zeolite X. Finally, ion exchange studies were performed on these zeolite materials. The cation is exclusively tested for cadmium, a toxic element and is harmful to health and the environment.

Keywords: Water Treatment, ion exchange, zeolite A, zeolite X

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
31 Removal of Acetaminophen with Chitosan-Nano Activated Carbon Beads from Aqueous Sources

Authors: Parisa Amouzgar, Chan Eng Seng, Babak Salamatinia

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Pharmaceutical products are being increasingly detected in the environment. However, conventional treatment systems do not provide an adequate treatment for pharmaceutical drug elimination and still there is not a regulated standard for their limitation in water. Since decades before, pharmaceuticals have been in the water but only recently, their levels in the environment have been recognized and quantified as potentially hazardous to ecosystems. In this study chitosan with a bio-based NAC (Ct-NAC) were made as beads with extrusion dripping method and investigated for acetaminophen removal from water. The effects of beading parameters such as flow rate in dripping, the distance from dipping tip to the solution surface, concentration of chitosan and percentage of NAC were analyzed to find the optimum condition. Based on the results, the overall adsorption rate and removal efficiency increased during the time till the equilibrium rate which was 80% removal of acetaminophen. The maximum adsorption belonged to the beads with 1.75% chitosan, 60% NAC, flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min while the distance of dripping was 22.5 cm.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, Water Treatment, acetaminophen, chitosan nano activated carbon beads

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30 Role of Organic Wastewater Constituents in Iron Redox Cycling for Ferric Sludge Reuse in the Fenton-Based Treatment

Authors: A. Goi, M. Trapido, J. Bolobajev

Abstract:

The practical application of the Fenton-based treatment method for organic compounds-contaminated water purification is limited mainly because of the large amount of ferric sludge formed during the treatment, where ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is used as the activator of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation processes. Reuse of ferric sludge collected from clarifiers to substitute Fe(II) salts allows reducing the total cost of Fenton-type treatment technologies and minimizing the accumulation of hazardous ferric waste. Dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) from the sludge to liquid phase at acidic pH and autocatalytic transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by phenolic compounds (tannic acid, lignin, phenol, catechol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone) added or present as water/wastewater constituents were found to be essentially involved in the Fenton-based oxidation mechanism. Observed enhanced formation of highly reactive species, hydroxyl radicals, resulted in a substantial organic contaminant degradation increase. Sludge reuse at acidic pH and in the presence of ferric iron reductants is a novel strategy in the Fenton-based treatment application for organic compounds-contaminated water purification.

Keywords: Water Treatment, organic pollutant, ferric sludge recycling, ferric iron reductant

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
29 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz

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In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: Optimization, Water Treatment, coagulation process, turbidity removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
28 BTEX Removal from Water: A Comparative Analysis of Efficiency of Low Cost Adsorbents and Granular Activated Carbon

Authors: Juliet Okoli

Abstract:

The removal of BTEX (Benzene, toluene, Ethylbenzene and p-Xylene) from water by orange peel and eggshell compared to GAC were investigated. The influence of various factors such as contact time, dosage and pH on BTEX removal by virgin orange peel and egg shell were accessed using the batch adsorption set-up. These were also compared to that of GAC which serves as a benchmark for this study. Further modification (preparation of Activated carbon) of these virgin low-cost adsorbents was also carried out. The batch adsorption result showed that the optimum contact time, dosage and pH for BTEX removal by virgin LCAs were 180 minutes, 0.5g and 7 and that of GAC was 30mintues, 0.2g and 7. The maximum adsorption capacity for total BTEX showed by orange peel and egg shell were 42mg/g and 59mg/g respectively while that of GAC was 864mg/g. The adsorbent preference for adsorbate were in order of X>E>T>B. A comparison of batch and column set-up showed that the batch set-up was more efficient than the column set-up. The isotherm data for the virgin LCA and GAC prove to fit the Freundlich isotherm better than the Langmuir model, which produced n values >1 in case of GAC and n< 1 in case of virgin LCAs; indicating a more appropriate adsorption of BTEX onto the GAC. The adsorption kinetics for the three studied adsorbents were described well by the pseudo-second order, suggesting chemisorption as the rate limiting step. This was further confirmed by desorption study, as low levels of BTEX (<10%) were recovered from the spent adsorbents especially for GAC (<3%). Further activation of the LCAs which was compared to the virgin LCAs, revealed that the virgin LCAs had minor higher adsorption capacity than the activated LCAs. Economic analysis revealed that the total cost required to clean-up 9,600m3 of BTEX contaminated water using LCA was just 2.8% lesser than GAC, a difference which could be considered negligible. However, this area still requires a more detailed cost-benefit analysis, and if similar conclusions are reached; a low-cost adsorbent, easy to obtain are still promising adsorbents for BTEX removal from aqueous solution; however, the GAC are still more superior to these materials.

Keywords: Water Treatment, activated carbon, low cost adsorbents, BTEX removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
27 Potassium Acetate - Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Baba Yahya Danjuma, Abdulsalam Surajudeen

Abstract:

Considerable concerns have been raised over the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. In this study, coconut shell based activated carbon was produced through chemical activation with potassium acetate (PAAC) for adsorption of benzene and toluene. The porous carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis and nitrogen adsorption tests. Adsorption of benzene and toluene on the porous carbons were conducted at varying concentrations (50-250 mg/l). The high BET surface area of 622 m2/g and highly heteroporous adsorbent prepared gave good removal efficiencies of 79 and 82% for benzene and toluene respectively, with 32% yield. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with all the models having R2 > 0.94. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 192 mg/g and 227 mg/g for benzene and toluene respectively. The Webber and Chakkravorti equilibrium parameter (RL) values are between 0 and 1 confirming the favourability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The PAAC produced can be used effectively to salvage environmental pollution problems posed by VOCs through a sustainable process.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Adsorption, equilibrium and kinetics studies, potassium acetate

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26 Silver-Doped Magnetite Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants

Authors: Hanna Abbo, Siyasanga Noganta, Salam Titinchi

Abstract:

The global lack of clean water for human sanitation and other purposes has become an emerging dilemma for human beings. The presence of organic pollutants in wastewater produced by textile industries, leather manufacturing and chemical industries is an alarming matter for a safe environment and human health. For the last decades, conventional methods have been applied for the purification of water but due to industrialization these methods fall short. Advanced oxidation processes and their reliable application in degradation of many contaminants have been reported as a potential method to reduce and/or alleviate this problem. Lately it has been assumed that incorporation of some metal nanoparticles such as magnetite nanoparticles as photocatalyst for Fenton reaction which could improve the degradation efficiency of contaminants. Core/shell nanoparticles, are extensively studied because of their wide applications in the biomedical, drug delivery, electronics fields and water treatment. The current study is centred on the synthesis of silver-doped Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst. Magnetically separable [email protected]@TiO2 composite with core–shell structure were synthesized by the deposition of uniform anatase TiO2 NPs on [email protected] by using titanium butoxide (TBOT) as titanium source. Then, the silver is doped on SiO2 layer by hydrothermal method. Integration of magnetic nanoparticles was suggested to avoid the post separation difficulties associated with the powder form of the TiO2 catalyst, increase of the surface area and adsorption properties. The morphology, structure, composition, and magnetism of the resulting composites were characterized and their photocatalytic activities were also evaluated. The results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs were uniformly deposited on the [email protected] surface. The silver nanoparticles were also uniformly distributed on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The aim of this work is to study the suitability of photocatalysis for the treatment of aqueous streams containing organic pollutants such as methylene blue which is selected as a model compound to represent one of the pollutants existing in wastewaters. Various factors such as initial pollutant concentration, photocatalyst dose and wastewater matrix were studied for their effect on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic model pollutants using the as synthesized catalysts and compared with the commercial titanium dioxide (Aeroxide P25). Photocatalysis was found to be a potential purification method for the studied pollutant also in an industrial wastewater matrix with the removal percentages of over 81 % within 15 minutes. Methylene blue was removed most efficiently and its removal consumed the least of energy in terms of the specific applied energy. The magnetic Ag/SiO2/TiO2 composites show high photocatalytic performance and can be recycled three times by magnetic separation without major loss of activity, which meant that they can be used as efficient and conveniently renewable photocatalyst.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Titanium, organic pollutant, magnetite nanoparticles, photocatalyst

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25 Nanocellulose Incorporated Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin

Abstract:

Recently, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has gained considerable interest as a promising biomaterial due to their outstanding properties such as high surface area, high mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The NCC also has good stability in water which is compatible for mixing of water based polymer solution or emulsions with NCC. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) contained different amount of lignocellulosic materials such as lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose is the most significant materials that can be extracted from EFB as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). In this work the nanocrystalline cellulose were produced through acid hydrolysis together with ultrasound technique. The morphology of NCC was characterized by TEM, thermal behavior has been studied with DSC, TGA analysis. Structural properties were illustrated X-Ray diffraction as well as FTIR. The hydrogel was produced using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with different concentration of NCC. The hydrogel composite was characterized by swelling ratio, crosslinking density, mechanical properties and morphology.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Hydrogel, Nanocellulose, oil palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
24 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column: Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors, especially when the water being treated had a low DO (such as leachate and high organic content waters), or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Thus, the present project aims to fill a part of this gap in the literature by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the design of an EC reactor (ECR1). In order to investigate the performance of ECR1, water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L, which is equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: Water Treatment, dissolved oxygen, electrocoagulation, flow column

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
23 Utilization of Watermelon Rind Extract as Green Anti-Scalent for Cooling Water Systems

Authors: Elsayed G. Zaki, Nora A. Hamad, Hadeel G. El-Shorbagy

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The effect of watermelon rind extract as green inhibitors for the formation of calcium sulphate scale have been investigated using conductivity measurements concurrently with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopic examinations. Mineral scales were deposited from the brine solution by cathodic polarization of the steel surface. The results show up that the anti-scaling property of the extracts could be attributed to the presence of citrulline. In solution, citrulline retards calcium sulphate precipitation via formation of a complex with the calcium cations. Thin, smooth and non adherent film formed over the steel surface, under cathodic polarization, by the deposition of the calcium- citrulline complex. The stability of the aqueous extracts with time was also investigated.

Keywords: Water Treatment, scale inhibitor, anti-scaling, green extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
22 Improvement of Water Quality of Al Asfar Lake Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Jamal Radaideh

Abstract:

Al-Asfar Lake is located about 14 km east of Al-Ahsa and is one of the most important wetland lakes in the Al Ahsa/Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ahsa is may be the largest oasis in the world, having an area of 20,000 hectares, in addition, it is of the largest and oldest agricultural centers in the region. The surplus farm irrigation water beside additional water supplied by treated wastewater from Al-Hofuf sewage station is collected by a drainage network and discharged into Al-Asfar Lake. The lake has good wetlands, sand dunes as well as large expanses of open and shallow water. Salt tolerant vegetation is present in some of the shallow areas around the lake, and huge stands of Phragmites reeds occur around the lake. The lake presents an important habitat for wildlife and birds, something not expected to find in a large desert. Although high evaporation rates in the range of 3250 mm are common, the water remains in the evaporation lakes during all seasons of the year is used to supply cattle with drinking water and for aquifer recharge. Investigations showed that high concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity discharge to Al Asfar Lake from the D2 drain exist. It is expected that the majority of BOD, COD and N originates from wastewater discharge and leachate from surplus irrigation water which also contribute to the majority of P and salinity. The significant content of nutrients and biological oxygen demand reduces available oxygen in the water. The present project aimed to improve the water quality of the lake using constructed wetland trains which will be built around the lake. Phragmites reeds, which already occur around the lake, will be used.

Keywords: Water Quality, Water Treatment, constructed wetland, Al Asfar lake

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21 Biofouling Control during the Wastewater Treatment in Self-Support Carbon Nanotubes Membrane: Role of Low Voltage Electric Potential

Authors: Chidambaram Thamaraiselvan, Carlos Dosoretz

Abstract:

This work will explore the influence of low voltage electric field, both alternating (AC) and direct (DC) currents, on biofouling control to highly electrically conductive self-supporting carbon nanotubes (CNT) membranes at conditions which encourage bacterial growth. A mutant strain of Pseudomonas putida S12 was used a model bacterium. The antibiofouling studies were performed with flow-through mode connecting an electric circuit in resistive mode. Major emphasis was placed on AC due to its ability of repulsing and inactivating bacteria. The observations indicate that an AC potential >1500 mV, 1 kHz frequency, 100 Ω external resistance on ground side and pulse wave above the offset (+0.45) almost completely prevented attachment of bacteria (>98.5%) and bacterial inactivation (95.3±2.5%). Findings suggest that at the conditions applied, direct electron transfer might be dominant in a decrease of cell viability. AC resulted more effective than DC, both in terms of biofouling reduction compared to cathodic DC and in terms of cell inactivation compared to anodic DC. This electrically polarized CNT membranes offer a viable antibiofouling strategy to hinder biofouling and simplify membrane care during filtration.

Keywords: Water Treatment, biofouling control, bacterial attachment, low electric potential

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20 Development and Implementation of a Business Technology Program Based on Techniques for Reusing Water in a Colombian Company

Authors: Miguel A. Jimenez Barros, Elyn L. Solano Charris, Luis E. Ramirez, Lauren Castro Bolano, Carlos Torres Barreto, Juliana Morales Cubillo

Abstract:

This project sought to mitigate the high levels of water consumption in industrial processes in accordance with the water-rationing plan promoted at national and international level due to the water consumption projections published by the United Nations. Water consumption has three main uses, municipal (common use), agricultural and industrial where the latter consumes a minimum percentage (around 20% of the total consumption). Awareness on world water scarcity, a Colombian company responsible for generation of massive consumption products, decided to implement politics and techniques for water treatment, recycling, and reuse. The project consisted in a business technology program that permits a better use of wastewater caused by production operations. This approach reduces the potable water consumption, generates better conditions of water in the sewage dumps, generates a positive environmental impact for the region, and is a reference model in national and international levels. In order to achieve the objective, a process flow diagram was used in order to define the industrial processes that required potable water. This strategy allowed the industry to determine a water reuse plan at the operational level without affecting the requirements associated with the manufacturing process and even more, to support the activities developed in administrative buildings. Afterwards, the company made an evaluation and selection of the chemical and biological processes required for water reuse, in compliance with the Colombian Law. The implementation of the business technology program optimized the water use and recirculation rate up to 70%, accomplishing an important reduction of the regional environmental impact.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Reverse osmosis, Potable water, bio-reactor

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19 Application of Nanoparticles on Surface of Commercial Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Removal of Contaminants from Water

Authors: Ahmad Kayvani Fard, Gordon Mckay, Muataz Hussien

Abstract:

Adsorption/sorption is believed to be one of the optimal processes for the removal of heavy metals from water due to its low operational and capital cost as well as its high removal efficiency. Different materials have been reported in literature as adsorbent for heavy metal removal in waste water such as natural sorbents, organic polymers (synthetic) and mineral materials (inorganic). The selection of adsorbents and development of new functional materials that can achieve good removal of heavy metals from water is an important practice and depends on many factors, such as the availability of the material, cost of material, and material safety and etc. In this study we reported the synthesis of doped Activated carbon and Carbon nanotube (CNT) with different loading of metal oxide nanoparticles such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and their application in removal of heavy metals, hydrocarbon, and organics from waste water. Commercial AC and CNT with different loadings of mentioned nanoparticle were prepared and effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption kinetic, and concentration effects are studied and optimum condition for removal of heavy metals from water is reported. The prepared composite sorbent is characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique, and Zeta potential. The composite materials showed higher removal efficiency and superior adsorption capacity compared to commercially available carbon based adsorbent. The specific surface area of AC increased by 50% reaching up to 2000 m2/g while the CNT specific surface area of CNT increased by more than 8 times reaching value of 890 m2/g. The increased surface area is one of the key parameters along with surface charge of the material determining the removal efficiency and removal efficiency. Moreover, the surface charge density of the impregnated CNT and AC have enhanced significantly where can benefit the adsorption process. The nanoparticles also enhance the catalytic activity of material and reduce the agglomeration and aggregation of material which provides more active site for adsorbing the contaminant from water. Some of the results for treating wastewater includes 100% removal of BTEX, arsenic, strontium, barium, phenolic compounds, and oil from water. The results obtained are promising for the use of AC and CNT loaded with metal oxide nanoparticle in treatment and pretreatment of waste water and produced water before desalination process. Adsorption can be very efficient with low energy consumption and economic feasibility.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Adsorption, Carbon Nanotube, heavy metal, activated carbon

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18 Removal of Problematic Organic Compounds from Water and Wastewater Using the Arvia™ Process

Authors: Akmez Nabeerasool, Michaelis Massaros, Nigel Brown, David Sanderson, David Parocki, Charlotte Thompson, Mike Lodge, Mikael Khan

Abstract:

The provision of clean and safe drinking water is of paramount importance and is a basic human need. Water scarcity coupled with tightening of regulations and the inability of current treatment technologies to deal with emerging contaminants and Pharmaceuticals and personal care products means that alternative treatment technologies that are viable and cost effective are required in order to meet demand and regulations for clean water supplies. Logistically, the application of water treatment in rural areas presents unique challenges due to the decentralisation of abstraction points arising from low population density and the resultant lack of infrastructure as well as the need to treat water at the site of use. This makes it costly to centralise treatment facilities and hence provide potable water direct to the consumer. Furthermore, across the UK there are segments of the population that rely on a private water supply which means that the owner or user(s) of these supplies, which can serve one household to hundreds, are responsible for the maintenance. The treatment of these private water supply falls on the private owners, and it is imperative that a chemical free technological solution that can operate unattended and does not produce any waste is employed. Arvia’s patented advanced oxidation technology combines the advantages of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration within a single unit; the Organics Destruction Cell (ODC). The ODC uniquely uses a combination of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration to destroy organics. Key to this innovative process is an alternative approach to adsorption. The conventional approach is to use high capacity adsorbents (e.g. activated carbons with high porosities and surface areas) that are excellent adsorbents, but require complex and costly regeneration. Arvia’s technology uses a patent protected adsorbent, Nyex™, which is a non-porous, highly conductive, graphite based adsorbent material that enables it to act as both the adsorbent and as a 3D electrode. Adsorbed organics are oxidised and the surface of the Nyex™ is regenerated in-situ for further adsorption without interruption or replacement. Treated water flows from the bottom of the cell where it can either be re-used or safely discharged. Arvia™ Technology Ltd. has trialled the application of its tertiary water treatment technology in treating reservoir water abstracted near Glasgow, Scotland, with promising results. Several other pilot plants have also been successfully deployed at various locations in the UK showing the suitability and effectiveness of the technology in removing recalcitrant organics (including pharmaceuticals, steroids and hormones), COD and colour.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Adsorption, Electrochemical Oxidation, Arvia™ process

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17 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy

Abstract:

As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: Desalination, Water Treatment, Water Purification, scarcity of fresh water

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16 Iron Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Fabricated Calcite Ooids

Authors: Al-Sayed A. Bakr, W. A. Makled

Abstract:

The precipitated low magnesium calcite ooids in assembled softening unit from natural Mediterranean seawater samples were used as adsorbent media in a comparative study with granular activated carbon media in a two separated single-media filtration vessels (operating in parallel) for removal of iron from aqueous solutions. In each vessel, the maximum bed capacity, which required to be filled, was 13.2 l and the bed filled in the vessels of ooids and GAC were 8.6, and 6.6 l, respectively. The operating conditions applied to the semi-pilot filtration unit were constant pH (7.5), different temperatures (293, 303 and 313 k), different flow rates (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 l/min), different initial Fe(II) concentrations (15–105 mg/ l) and the calculated adsorbent masses were 34.1 and 123 g/l for GAC and calcite ooids, respectively. At higher temperature (313 k) and higher flow rate (60 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities for ferrous ions by GAC and calcite ooids filters were 3.87 and 1.29 mg/g and at lower flow rate (20 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities were 2.21 and 3.95 mg/g, respectively. From the experimental data, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to verify the adsorption performance. Therefore, the calcite ooids could act as new highly effective materials in iron removal from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Filtration, activated carbon, calcite ooids, Fe(II) removal

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15 Household Low Temperature MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) Virus Inactivation Using a Hot Bubble Column Evaporator

Authors: Adrian Garrido Sanchis, Richard Pashley

Abstract:

The MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) virus was used as a surrogate to estimate the inactivation rates for enteric viruses when using a hot air bubble column evaporator (HBCE) system in the treatment of household wastewater. In this study, we have combined MS2 virus surface charging properties with thermal inactivation rates, using an improved double layer plaque assay technique, in order to assess the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water. When bubbling a continuous flow of dry air, at 200°C, only heats the aqueous solution in the bubble column to about 50°C. Viruses are not inactivated by this solution temperature, as confirmed separately from water bath heating experiments. Hence, the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water appeared to be caused entirely by collisions between the hot air bubbles and the virus organisms. This new energy efficient treatment for water reuse applications can reduce the thermal energy required to only 25% (about 113.7 kJ/L) of that required for boiling (about 450 kJ/L).

Keywords: Water Treatment, Water reuse, MS2 virus inactivation, hot bubble column evaporator

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14 Cadmium Adsorption by Modified Magnetic Biochar

Authors: Chompoonut Chaiyaraksa, Chanida Singbubpha, Kliaothong Angkabkingkaew, Thitikorn Boonyasawin

Abstract:

Heavy metal contamination in an environment is an important problem in Thailand that needs to be addressed urgently, particularly contaminated with water. It can spread to other environments faster. This research aims to study the adsorption of cadmium ion by unmodified biochar and sodium dodecyl sulfate modified magnetic biochar derived from Eichhornia Crassipes. The determination of the adsorbent characteristics was by Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, X-ray Diffractometer, and the pH drift method. This study also included the comparison of adsorption efficiency of both types of biochar, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics. The pH value at the point of zero charges of the unmodified biochar and modified magnetic biochar was 7.40 and 3.00, respectively. The maximum value of adsorption reached when using pH 8. The equilibrium adsorption time was 5 hours and 1 hour for unmodified biochar and modified magnetic biochar, respectively. The cadmium adsorption by both adsorbents followed Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin – Radushkevich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The adsorption process was spontaneous at high temperatures and non-spontaneous at low temperatures. It was an endothermic process, physisorption in nature, and can occur naturally.

Keywords: Water Treatment, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Eichhornia crassipes, magnetic biochar

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13 Effect of Proteoliposome Concentration on Salt Rejection Rate of Polysulfone Membrane Prepared by Incorporation of Escherichia coli and Halomonas elongata Aquaporins

Authors: Aysenur Ozturk, Aysen Yildiz, Hilal Yilmaz, Pinar Ergenekon, Melek Ozkan

Abstract:

Water scarcity is one of the most important environmental problems of the World today. Desalination process is regarded as a promising solution to solve drinking water problem of the countries facing with water shortages. Reverse osmosis membranes are widely used for desalination processes. Nano structured biomimetic membrane production is one of the most challenging research subject for improving water filtration efficiency of the membranes and for reducing the cost of desalination processes. There are several researches in the literature on the development of novel biomimetic nanofiltration membranes by incorporation of aquaporin Z molecules. Aquaporins are cell membrane proteins that allow the passage of water molecules and reject all other dissolved solutes. They are present in cell membranes of most of the living organisms and provide high water passage capacity. In this study, GST (Glutathione S-transferas) tagged E. coli aquaporinZ and H. elongate aquaporin proteins, which were previously cloned and characterized, were purified from E. coli BL21 cells and used for fabrication of modified Polysulphone Membrane (PS). Aquaporins were incorporated on the surface of the membrane by using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipids as carrier liposomes. Aquaporin containing proteoliposomes were immobilized on the surface of the membrane with m-phenylene-diamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) rejection layer. Water flux, salt rejection and glucose rejection performances of the thin film composite membranes were tested by using Dead-End Reactor Cell. In this study, effect of proteoliposome concentration, and filtration pressure on water flux and salt rejection rate of membranes were investigated. Type of aquaporin used for membrane fabrication, flux and pressure applied for filtration were found to be important parameters affecting rejection rates. Results suggested that optimization of concentration of aquaporin carriers (proteoliposomes) on the membrane surface is necessary for fabrication of effective composite membranes used for different purposes.

Keywords: Desalination, Water Treatment, Aquaporins, biomimmetic membranes

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