Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

valsartan Related Abstracts

2 Comparative Study between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Ulcerative Colitis Induced Experimentally in Rats

Authors: Azza H. El-Medany, Hanan H. Hagar, Jamila H. El-Medany

Abstract:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of chronic inflammatory diseases primarily affecting colon with unknown etiology. Some researches papers mentioned the possibility of the use of drugs that affect the angiotensin II in reducing the complication of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential protective and therapeutic effects of captopril and valsartan on ulcerative colitis induced experimentally in rats using acetic acid. The results were assessed by histological assessment of colonic tissues and measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), transforming growth factor (TGF-1B), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), reduced glutathione (GSH) and platelet activating factor (PAF) levels in colonic tissues. Oral pre-treatment with captopril or valsartan in a dose of 30 mgkg-1 body weight for 2 weeks before induction of colitis (prophylactic groups) and continuously for 2 weeks after induction (therapeutic groups) significantly reduce MDA, TNF-α, PAF, TGF-1B and ACE levels in colonic tissues as compared to acetic acid control group. Also, a significant increase in GSH level was observed in colonic tissues. Captopril and valsartan attenuated the macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage induced by acetic acid. These results suggest that either captopril or valsartan may be effective as prophylactic or treatment of UC through inhibition of ACE and scavenging effect on oxygen-derived free radicals.

Keywords: reduced glutathione, captopril, valsartan, angiotensin converting enzyme, tumor necrosis factor

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1 Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Valsartan in Dog following a Single Oral Administration

Authors: In-Hwan Baek

Abstract:

Valsartan is a potent and highly selective antagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and is widely used for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of the valsartan in dogs following oral administration of a single dose using quantitative modeling approaches. Forty beagle dogs were randomly divided into two group. Group A (n=20) was administered a single oral dose of valsartan 80 mg (Diovan® 80 mg), and group B (n=20) was administered a single oral dose of valsartan 160 mg (Diovan® 160 mg) in the morning after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following oral administration. The plasma concentrations of the valsartan were determined using LC-MS/MS. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using WinNonlin Standard Edition software, and modeling approaches were performed using maximum-likelihood estimation via the expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm with sampling using ADAPT 5 software. After a single dose of valsartan 80 mg, the mean value of maximum concentration (Cmax) was 2.68 ± 1.17 μg/mL at 1.83 ± 1.27 h. The area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC24h) value was 13.21 ± 6.88 μg·h/mL. After dosing with valsartan 160 mg, the mean Cmax was 4.13 ± 1.49 μg/mL at 1.80 ± 1.53 h, the AUC24h was 26.02 ± 12.07 μg·h/mL. The Cmax and AUC values increased in proportion to the increment in valsartan dose, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of elimination rate constant, half-life, apparent of total clearance, and apparent of volume of distribution were not significantly different between the doses. Valsartan pharmacokinetic analysis fits a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination following a single dose of valsartan 80 mg and 160 mg. In addition, high inter-individual variability was identified in the absorption rate constant. In conclusion, valsartan displays the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in dogs, and Subsequent quantitative modeling approaches provided detailed pharmacokinetic information of valsartan. The current findings provide useful information in dogs that will aid future development of improved formulations or fixed-dose combinations.

Keywords: Modeling, Pharmacokinetics, valsartan, dose-dependent

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