Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

urban area Related Abstracts

16 The Restoration of the Old District in the Urbanization: The Case Study of Samsen Riverside Community, Dusit District, Bangkok

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat, Tikhanporn Punluekdej

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are: 1) to discover the mechanism in the restoration process of the old district, and 2) to study the people participation in the community with related units. This research utilizes qualitative research method together with the tools used in the study of historical and anthropological disciplines. The research revealed that the restoration process of the old district started with the needs of the local people in the community. These people are considered as a young generation in the community. The leading group of the community played a vital role in the restoration process by igniting the whole idea and followed by the help from those who have lived in the area of more than fifty years. The restoration process is the genuine desire of the local people without the intervention of the local politics. The core group would coordinate with the related units in which there were, for instance, the academic institutions in order to find out the most dominant historical features of the community including its settlement. The Crown Property Bureau, as the sole-owner of the land, joined the restoration in the physical development dimension. The restoration was possible due to the cooperation between local people and related units, under the designated plans, budget, and social activities.

Keywords: Restoration, people participation, urban area, old district

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15 Sky Farming: The Alternative Concept of Green Building Using Vertical Landscape Model in Urban Area as an Effort to Achieve Sustainable Development

Authors: Nadiah Yola Putri, Nesia Putri Sharfina, Traviata Prakarti

Abstract:

This paper is a literature review presented descriptively to review the concept of green building to face the challenge of sustainable development and food in urban areas. In this paper, researchers initiated the concept of green building with sky farming method. Sky farming use vertical landscape system in order to realizing food self-sufficient green city. Sky farming relying on plantings and irrigation system efficiency in the building which is adopted the principles of green building. Planting system is done by applying hydroponic plants with Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) using energy source of solar cell and grey water from the processing of waste treatment plant. The application of sky farming in urban areas can be a recommendation for the design of environmental-friendly construction. In order to keep the land and distance efficiency, this system is a futuristic idea that would be the connector of human civilization in the future.

Keywords: Green Building, urban area, sky farming, vertical landscape

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14 Modeling Local Warming Trend: An Application of Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Khan R. Rahaman, Quazi K. Hassan

Abstract:

Global changes in climate, environment, economies, populations, governments, institutions, and cultures converge in localities. Changes at a local scale, in turn, contribute to global changes as well as being affected by them. Our hypothesis is built on a consideration that temperature does vary at local level (i.e., termed as local warming) in comparison to the predicted models at the regional and/or global scale. To date, the bulk of the research relating local places to global climate change has been top-down, from the global toward the local, concentrating on methods of impact analysis that use as a starting point climate change scenarios derived from global models, even though these have little regional or local specificity. Thus, our focus is to understand such trends over the southern Alberta, which will enable decision makers, scientists, researcher community, and local people to adapt their policies based on local level temperature variations and to act accordingly. Specific objectives in this study are: (i) to understand the local warming (temperature in particular) trend in context of temperature normal during the period 1961-2010 at point locations using meteorological data; (ii) to validate the data by using specific yearly data, and (iii) to delineate the spatial extent of the local warming trends and understanding influential factors to adopt situation by local governments. Existing data has brought the evidence of such changes and future research emphasis will be given to validate this hypothesis based on remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS product by NASA).

Keywords: Climate Change, Canada, alberta, urban area, local warming

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13 The Planning and Development of Green Public Places in Urban South Africa: A Child-Friendly Approach

Authors: E. J. Cilliers, Z. Goosen

Abstract:

The impact that urban green spaces have on sustainability and quality of life is phenomenal. This is also true for the local South African environment. However, in reality green spaces in urban environments are decreasing due to growing populations, increasing urbanization and development pressure. This further impacts on the provision of child-friendly spaces, a concept that is already limited in local context. Child-friendly spaces are described as environments in which people (children) feel intimately connected to, influencing the physical, social, emotional, and ecological health of individuals and communities. The benefits of providing such spaces for the youth are well documented in literature. This research therefore aimed to investigate the concept of child-friendly spaces and its applicability to the South African planning context, in order to guide the planning of such spaces for future communities and use. Child-friendly spaces in the urban environment of the city of Durban, was used as local case study, along with two international case studies namely Mullerpier public playground in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Kadidjiny Park in Melville, Australia. The aim was to determine how these spaces were planned and developed and to identify tools that were used to accomplish the goal of providing successful child-friendly green spaces within urban areas. The need and significance of planning for such spaces was portrayed within the international case studies. It is confirmed that minimal provision is made for green space planning within the South African context, when there is reflected on the international examples. As a result international examples and disciples of providing child-friendly green spaces should direct planning guidelines within local context. The research concluded that child-friendly green spaces have a positive impact on the urban environment and assist in a child’s development and interaction with the natural environment. Regrettably, the planning of these child-friendly spaces is not given priority within current spatial plans, despite the proven benefits of such.

Keywords: Built Environment, Green spaces, urban area, child-friendly spaces, public places

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12 [Keynote Talk]: Monitoring of Ultrafine Particle Number and Size Distribution at One Urban Background Site in Leicester

Authors: Sarkawt M. Hama, Paul S. Monks, Rebecca L. Cordell

Abstract:

Within the Joaquin project, ultrafine particles (UFP) are continuously measured at one urban background site in Leicester. The main aims are to examine the temporal and seasonal variations in UFP number concentration and size distribution in an urban environment, and to try to assess the added value of continuous UFP measurements. In addition, relations of UFP with more commonly monitored pollutants such as black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter (PM2.5), and the lung deposited surface area(LDSA) were evaluated. The effects of meteorological conditions, particularly wind speed and direction, and also temperature on the observed distribution of ultrafine particles will be detailed. The study presents the results from an experimental investigation into the particle number concentration size distribution of UFP, BC, and NOX with measurements taken at the Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN) monitoring site in Leicester. The monitoring was performed as part of the EU project JOAQUIN (Joint Air Quality Initiative) supported by the INTERREG IVB NWE program. The total number concentrations (TNC) were measured by a water-based condensation particle counter (W-CPC) (TSI model 3783), the particle number concentrations (PNC) and size distributions were measured by an ultrafine particle monitor (UFP TSI model 3031), the BC by MAAP (Thermo-5012), the NOX by NO-NO2-NOx monitor (Thermos Scientific 42i), and a Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM, TSI 3550) was used to measure the LDSA (reported as μm2 cm−3) corresponding to the alveolar region of the lung between November 2013 and November 2015. The average concentrations of particle number concentrations were observed in summer with lower absolute values of PNC than in winter might be related mainly to particles directly emitted by traffic and to the more favorable conditions of atmospheric dispersion. Results showed a traffic-related diurnal variation of UFP, BC, NOX and LDSA with clear morning and evening rush hour peaks on weekdays, only an evening peak at the weekends. Correlation coefficients were calculated between UFP and other pollutants (BC and NOX). The highest correlation between them was found in winter months. Overall, the results support the notion that local traffic emissions were a major contributor of the atmospheric particles pollution and a clear seasonal pattern was found, with higher values during the cold season.

Keywords: size distribution, urban area, traffic emissions, UFP

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11 An Application of Remote Sensing for Modeling Local Warming Trend

Authors: Khan R. Rahaman, Quazi K. Hassan

Abstract:

Global changes in climate, environment, economies, populations, governments, institutions, and cultures converge in localities. Changes at a local scale, in turn, contribute to global changes as well as being affected by them. Our hypothesis is built on a consideration that temperature does vary at local level (i.e., termed as local warming) in comparison to the predicted models at the regional and/or global scale. To date, the bulk of the research relating local places to global climate change has been top-down, from the global toward the local, concentrating on methods of impact analysis that use as a starting point climate change scenarios derived from global models, even though these have little regional or local specificity. Thus, our focus is to understand such trends over the southern Alberta, which will enable decision makers, scientists, researcher community, and local people to adapt their policies based on local level temperature variations and to act accordingly. Specific objectives in this study are: (i) to understand the local warming (temperature in particular) trend in context of temperature normal during the period 1961-2010 at point locations using meteorological data; (ii) to validate the data by using specific yearly data, and (iii) to delineate the spatial extent of the local warming trends and understanding influential factors to adopt situation by local governments. Existing data has brought the evidence of such changes and future research emphasis will be given to validate this hypothesis based on remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS product by NASA).

Keywords: Climate Change, Canada, alberta, urban area, local warming

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10 Identifying Characteristics of Slum in Palembang Riverbanks Area, Indonesia

Authors: Rhaptyalyani Herno Della, Nyimas Septi Rika Putri, Rika Nabila

Abstract:

The growth of population and economic activities in urban areas needs support economic development, needs to be balanced with adequate environmental infrastructure development. Settlement can avoid from rundown condition and uninhabitable if the development of urban area accordance with healthy development. Identifying database of slum in this study reference to the Review of the Spatial Plan Development of Palembang City, Laws of Public Works Department about Technical Guidelines on the Quality Improvement Housing and Slum and Urban Spatial Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. A case study for identifying in Palembang riverbanks area are located in two districts; Ilir Timur I and Ilir Timur II. This study do the identification of slum areas based on several variables about physical and non physical aspect, then the result of identification are used to define a policy that can be used to improve the area.

Keywords: Infrastructure, slum, urban area, riverbanks area

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9 Urban Land Use Type Analysis Based on Land Subsidence Areas Using X-Band Satellite Image of Jakarta Metropolitan City, Indonesia

Authors: Ratih Fitria Putri, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Hiroaki Kuze

Abstract:

Jakarta Metropolitan City is located on the northwest coast of West Java province with geographical location between 106º33’ 00”-107º00’00”E longitude and 5º48’30”-6º24’00”S latitude. Jakarta urban area has been suffered from land subsidence in several land use type as trading, industry and settlement area. Land subsidence hazard is one of the consequences of urban development in Jakarta. This hazard is caused by intensive human activities in groundwater extraction and land use mismanagement. Geologically, the Jakarta urban area is mostly dominated by alluvium fan sediment. The objectives of this research are to make an analysis of Jakarta urban land use type on land subsidence zone areas. The process of producing safer land use and settlements of the land subsidence areas are very important. Spatial distributions of land subsidence detection are necessary tool for land use management planning. For this purpose, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) method is used. The DInSAR is complementary to ground-based methods such as leveling and global positioning system (GPS) measurements, yielding information in a wide coverage area even when the area is inaccessible. The data were fine tuned by using X-Band image satellite data from 2010 to 2013 and land use mapping data. Our analysis of land use type that land subsidence movement occurred on the northern part Jakarta Metropolitan City varying from 7.5 to 17.5 cm/year as industry and settlement land use type areas.

Keywords: urban area, land use analysis, land subsidence mapping, X-band satellite image

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8 Occurrence of High Nocturnal Surface Ozone at a Tropical Urban Area

Authors: A. Chakraborty, S. Gupta, S. Dey, P. Sibanda

Abstract:

The occurrence of high nocturnal surface ozone over a tropical urban area (23̊ 32′16.99″ N and 87̊ 17′ 38.95″ E) is analyzed in this paper. Five incidences of nocturnal ozone maxima are recorded during the observational span of two years (June, 2013 to May, 2015). The maximum and minimum values of the surface ozone during these five occasions are 337.630 μg/m3 and 13.034 μg/m3 respectively. HYSPLIT backward trajectory analyses and wind rose diagrams support the horizontal transport of ozone from distant polluted places. Planetary boundary layer characteristics, concentration of precursor (NO2) and meteorology are found to play important role in the horizontal and vertical transport of surface ozone during nighttime.

Keywords: Meteorology, Planetary Boundary Layer, urban area, nocturnal ozone, horizontal transport

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7 A Study on Relationship of Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status with Obesity in Indian Children

Authors: Sushma Ghildyal, Sanjay Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the purpose to understand the relationship of lifestyle and Socio-Economic status with child obesity among 1000 boys aged from 16 to 18 years of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh State in India. The study was conducted in both urban and rural area of the District. Ten schools i.e. five from urban area and five from rural area were selected by using purposive sampling. Healthy boys of class 10th, 11th and 12th were taken as subjects for the study. Prior consent was obtained from school authority. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each subject. Anthropometric measurements were Standing Height, Weight, Biceps skin folds, Triceps skin folds, Sub-scapular skin folds and Supra-iliac skin folds taken by Lange’s skin fold caliper. Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status were obtained by questionnaires. In order to assess the BMI, Body fat %, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status; descriptive analyses were done. To find out the significant association of obesity with lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status Chi-square test was used. To find out significant difference between obesity of Urban and Rural children t-test was applied. Level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The conclusions drawn were: (1) The result showed that in urban area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.6% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 6.2% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 25.4% above average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.8% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 3.6% and 0.4% low and very low level adaptive lifestyle. (2) In rural area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.00% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 9.4% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 24.8% average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.0% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 15.2% below average and 3.0% very low level adaptive lifestyle.(3) In urban area 12.8% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 56.6% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 30.2% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.2% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (4) In rural area 1.4% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 15.2% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 51.6% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.8% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (5) In urban area 21.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (6) In rural area 0.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (7) In overall Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 10.7% children of 16-18 years were obese. (8) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of urban area children of 16-18 years. (9) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of urban area children of 16-18 years (10) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of rural area children of 16-18 years of Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh. (11) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of rural area children of 16-18 years. (12) Results showed significant difference between urban and rural area children of 16-18 years in respect to obesity of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: Obesity, socio-economic status, Lifestyle, rural area, urban area

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6 Analysis of Spatial Disparities of Population for Delicate Configuration of Public Service Facilities:Case of Gongshu District, Hangzhou, China

Authors: Ruan Yi-Chen, Li Wang-Ming, Fang Yuan

Abstract:

With the rapid growth of urbanization in China in recent years, public services are in short supply because of expanding population and limitation of financial support, which makes delicate configuration of public service facilities to become a trend in urban planning. Besides, the facility configuration standard implemented in China is equal to the whole the urban area without considering internal differences in it. Therefore, this article focuses on population Spatial disparities analysis in order to optimize facility configuration in communities of main city district. The used data, including population of 93 communities during 2010 to 2015, comes from GongShu district, Hangzhou city, PRC. Through the analysis of population data, especially the age structure of those communities, the communities finally divided into 3 types. Obviously, urban public service facilities allocation situation directly affect the quality of residents common lives, which turns out that deferent kinds of communities with deferent groups of citizens will have divergences in facility demanding. So in the end of the article, strategies of facility configuration will be proposed based on the population analysis in order to optimize the quantity and location of facilities with delicacy.

Keywords: urban area, delicacy, facility configuration, population spatial disparities

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5 Sustainable Housing in Steel: Prospects for Future World of Developing Countries

Authors: Poorva Kulkarni

Abstract:

Developing countries are having significant additions to existing population of urban areas with loads of migrants from rural areas. There is a tremendous need to provide accommodation facility to cater to rapidly growing urban population. This leads to unprecedented growth in urban areas since the temporary shelters are constructed with any available material. Architecture in a broader sense serves to humanity in terms of making life of people happy and comfortable by providing comfortable shelters. It is also the need of the time for an architect to be extremely sensitive towards nature by providing design solution of human shelters with minimum impact on the environment. The sensitive approach towards designing of housing units and provision of comfortable and affordable housing units should go hand in hand for future growth of developing countries. Steel has proved itself a versatile material in terms of strength, uniformity and ease of operation and many such other advantages. Steel can be used as the most promising material for modern construction practices. The current research paper focuses on how effectively steel can be used probably in combination with other construction material to achieve the mentioned objectives for sustainable housing. The research available on sustainable housing in steel is studied along with few case studies of buildings with the efficient use of steel providing a solution with affordability and minimum harm to the environment. The research will conclude the effective solutions exploring possibilities of use of steel for sustainable housing units. The researcher shows how the use of steel in combination with other materials for human shelters can promote sustainable housing for community living which is the need of the time.

Keywords: steel, Sustainable Housing, urban area, community living

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4 Third Places for Social Sustainability: A Planning Framework Based on Local and International Comparisons

Authors: E. J. Cilliers, Z. Goosen

Abstract:

Social sustainability, as an independent perspective of sustainable development, has gained some acknowledgement, becoming an important aspect in sustainable urban planning internationally. However, limited research aiming at promoting social sustainability within urban areas exists within the South African context. This is mainly due to the different perspectives of sustainable development (e.g., Environmental, Economic, and Social) not being equally prioritized by policy makers and supported by implementation strategies, guidelines, and planning frameworks. The enhancement of social sustainability within urban areas relies on urban dweller satisfaction and the quality of urban life. Inclusive cities with high-quality public spaces are proposed within this research through implementing the third place theory. Third places are introduced as any place other than our homes (first place) and work (second place) and have become an integrated part of sustainable urban planning. As Third Places consist of every place 'in between', the approach has taken on a large role of the everyday life of city residents, and the importance of planning for such places can only be measured through identifying and highlighting the social sustainability benefits thereof. The aim of this research paper is to introduce third place planning within the urban area to ultimately enhance social sustainability. Selected background planning approaches influencing the planning of third places will briefly be touched on, as the focus will be placed on the social sustainability benefits provided through third place planning within an urban setting. The study will commence by defining and introducing the concept of third places within urban areas as well as a discussion on social sustainability, acting as one of the three perspectives of sustainable development. This will gain the researcher an improved understanding on social sustainability in order for the study to flow into an integrated discussion of the benefits Third places provide in terms of social sustainability and the impact it has on improved quality of life within urban areas. Finally, a visual case study comparison of local and international examples of third places identified will be illustrated. These international case studies will contribute towards the conclusion of this study where a local gap analysis will be formulated, based on local third place evidence and international best practices in order to formulate a strategic planning framework on improving social sustainability through third place planning within the local South African context.

Keywords: Social Sustainability, urban area, planning benefits, third places

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3 Testing Nature Based Solutions for Air Quality Improvement: Aveiro Case Study

Authors: J. Ferreira, C. Silveira, A. Ascenso, A. I. Miranda, B. Augusto, S. Rafael, S. Coelho, A. Monteiro, P. Roebeling

Abstract:

Innovative nature-based solutions (NBSs) can provide answers to the challenges that urban areas are currently facing due to urban densification and extreme weather conditions. The effects of NBSs are recognized and include improved quality of life, mental and physical health and improvement of air quality, among others. Part of the work developed in the scope of the UNaLab project, which aims to guide cities in developing and implementing their own co-creative NBSs, intends to assess the impacts of NBSs on air quality, using Eindhoven city as a case study. The state-of-the-art online air quality modelling system WRF-CHEM was applied to simulate meteorological and concentration fields over the study area with a spatial resolution of 1 km2 for the year 2015. The baseline simulation (without NBSs) was validated by comparing the model results with monitored data retrieved from the Eindhoven air quality database, showing an adequate model performance. In addition, land use changes were applied in a set of simulations to assess the effects of different types of NBSs. Finally, these simulations were compared with the baseline scenario and the impacts of the NBSs were assessed. Reductions on pollutant concentrations, namely for NOx and PM, were found after the application of the NBSs in the Eindhoven study area. The present work is particularly important to support public planners and decision makers in understanding the effects of their actions and planning more sustainable cities for the future.

Keywords: Air quality, urban area, modelling approach, nature based solutions

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2 A Brief Review of Urban Green Vegetation (Green Wall) in Reduction of Air Pollution

Authors: Masoumeh Pirhadi

Abstract:

Air pollution is becoming a major health problem affecting millions. In support of this observation, the world health organization estimates that many people feel unhealthy due to pollution. This is a coupled fact that one of the main global sources of air pollution in cities is greenhouse gas emissions due heavy traffic. Green walls are developed as a sustainable strategy to reduce pollution by increasing vegetation in developed areas without occupying space in the city. This concept an offer advantageous environmental benefits and they can also be proposed for aesthetic purposes, and today they are used to preserve the urban environment. Green walls can also create environments that can promote a healthy lifestyle. Findings of multiple studies also indicate that Green infrastructure in cities is a strategy for improving air quality and increasing the sustainability of cities. Since these green solutions (green walls) act as porous materials that affect the diffusion of air pollution they can also act as a removing air vents that clean the air. Therefore, implementation of this strategy can be considered as a prominent factor in achieving a cleaner environment.

Keywords: Air Pollution, urban area, green wall, green vegetation

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1 Aerosol Characterization in a Coastal Urban Area in Rimini, Italy

Authors: Dimitri Bacco, Arianna Trentini, Fabiana Scotto, Flavio Rovere, Daniele Foscoli, Cinzia Para, Paolo Veronesi, Silvia Sandrini, Claudia Zigola, Michela Comandini, Marilena Montalti, Marco Zamagni, Vanes Poluzzi

Abstract:

The Po Valley, in the north of Italy, is one of the most polluted areas in Europe. The air quality of the area is linked not only to anthropic activities but also to its geographical characteristics and stagnant weather conditions with frequent inversions, especially in the cold season. Even the coastal areas present high values of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) because the area closed between the Adriatic Sea and the Apennines does not favor the dispersion of air pollutants. The aim of the present work was to identify the main sources of particulate matter in Rimini, a tourist city in northern Italy. Two sampling campaigns were carried out in 2018, one in winter (60 days) and one in summer (30 days), in 4 sites: an urban background, a city hotspot, a suburban background, and a rural background. The samples are characterized by the concentration of the ionic composition of the particulates and of the main a hydro-sugars, in particular levoglucosan, a marker of the biomass burning, because one of the most important anthropogenic sources in the area, both in the winter and surprisingly even in the summer, is the biomass burning. Furthermore, three sampling points were chosen in order to maximize the contribution of a specific biomass source: a point in a residential area (domestic cooking and domestic heating), a point in the agricultural area (weed fires), and a point in the tourist area (restaurant cooking). In these sites, the analyzes were enriched with the quantification of the carbonaceous component (organic and elemental carbon) and with measurement of the particle number concentration and aerosol size distribution (6 - 600 nm). The results showed a very significant impact of the combustion of biomass due to domestic heating in the winter period, even though many intense peaks were found attributable to episodic wood fires. In the summer season, however, an appreciable signal was measured linked to the combustion of biomass, although much less intense than in winter, attributable to domestic cooking activities. Further interesting results were the verification of the total absence of sea salt's contribution in the particulate with the lower diameter (PM2.5), and while in the PM10, the contribution becomes appreciable only in particular wind conditions (high wind from north, north-east). Finally, it is interesting to note that in a small town, like Rimini, in summer, the traffic source seems to be even more relevant than that measured in a much larger city (Bologna) due to tourism.

Keywords: Aerosol, urban area, biomass burning, seacoast

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