Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

surfactant Related Abstracts

25 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Different Stabilizers and Study of Their Size and Properties

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Ramezan zadeh 1, Majid Seifi 2, Hoda Hekmat ara 2 1Biomedical Engineering Department, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Physics Department, Guilan University, P.O. Box 41335-1914, Rasht, Iran.


Magnetic nano particles of ferric chloride were synthesised using a co-precipitation technique. For the optimal results, ferric chloride at room temperature was added to different surfactant with different ratio of metal ions/surfactant. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrum to show the presence of nanoparticles, structure and morphology. Magnetic measurements were also carried out on samples using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. To show the effect of surfactant on size distribution and crystalline structure of produced nanoparticles, surfactants with various charge such as anionic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), cationic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and neutral TritonX-100 was employed. By changing the surfactant and ratio of metal ions/surfactant the size and crystalline structure of these nanoparticles were controlled. We also show that using anionic stabilizer leads to smallest size and narrowest size distribution and the most crystalline (polycrystalline) structure. In developing our production technique, many parameters were varied. Efforts at reproducing good yields indicated which of the experimental parameters were the most critical and how carefully they had to be controlled. The conditions reported here were the best that we encountered but the range of possible parameter choice is so large that these probably only represent a local optimum. The samples for our chemical process were prepared by adding 0.675 gr ferric chloride (FeCl3, 6H2O) to three different surfactant in water solution. The solution was sonicated for about 30 min until a transparent solution was achieved. Then 0.5 gr sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a reduction agent was poured to the reaction drop by drop which resulted to participate reddish brown Fe2O3 nanoparticles. After washing with ethanol the obtained powder was calcinated in 600°C for 2h. Here, the sample 1 contained CTAB as a surfactant with ratio of metal ions/surfactant 1/2, sample 2 with CTAB and ratio 1/1, sample 3 with SDS and ratio 1/2, sample 4 SDS 1/1, sample 5 is triton-X-100 with 1/2 and sample 6 triton-X-100 with 1/1.

Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, stabilizer, co-precipitation, surfactant

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24 Investigate the Effects of Anionic Surfactant on THF Hydrate

Authors: Salah A. Al-Garyani, Yousef Swesi


Gas hydrates can be hazardous to upstream operations. On the other hand, the high gas storage capacity of hydrate may be utilized for natural gas storage and transport. Research on the promotion of hydrate formation, as related to natural gas storage and transport, has received relatively little attention. The primary objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the effects of ionic surfactants, particularly their molecular structures and concentration, on the formation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, which is often used as a model hydrate former for screening hydrate promoters or inhibitors. The surfactants studied were sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium n-hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). Our results show that, at concentrations below the solubility limit, the induction time decreases with increasing surfactant concentration. At concentrations near or above the solubility, however, the surfactant concentration no longer has any effect on the induction time. These observations suggest that the effect of surfactant on THF hydrate formation is associated with surfactant monomers, not the formation of micelle as previously reported. The lowest induction time (141.25 ± 21 s, n = 4) was observed in a solution containing 7.5 mM SDS. The induction time decreases by a factor of three at concentrations near or above the solubility, compared to that without surfactant.

Keywords: surfactant, tetrahydrofuran, hydrate, induction time, monomers, micelle

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23 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk


Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: Stability, Ultrasound, injection, surfactant, release, emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, light scattering

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22 Effect of Addition of Surfactant to the Surface Hydrophilicity and Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Nano TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Hirofumi Hinode, Winarto Kurniawan, Eden G. Mariquit, Masahiro Miyauchi


This research studied the effect of adding surfactant to the titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol-gel solution that was used to immobilize TiO2 on glass substrates by dip coating technique using TiO2 sol-gel solution mixed with different types of surfactants. After dipping into the TiO2 sol, the films were calcined and produced pure anatase crystal phase. The thickness of the thin film was varied by repeating the dip and calcine cycle. The prepared films were characterized using FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and XRD, and its photocatalytic performances were tested on degradation of an organic dye, methylene blue. Aside from its phocatalytic performance, the photo-induced hydrophilicity of thin TiO2 films surface was also studied. Characterization results showed that the addition of surfactant gave rise to characteristic patterns on the surface of the TiO2 thin film which also affects the photocatalytic activity. The addition of CTAB to the TiO2 dipping solution had a negative effect because the calcination temperature was not high enough to burn all the surfactants off. As for the surface wettability, the addition of surfactant also affected the induced surface hydrophilicity of the TiO2 films when irradiated under UV light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, surfactant, surface hydrophilicity, TiO2 thin films

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21 Identification and Quantification of Lisinopril from Pure, Formulated and Urine Samples by Micellar Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Sudhanshu Sharma


Lisinopril, 1-[N-{(s)-I-carboxy-3 phenyl propyl}-L-proline dehydrate is a lysine analog of enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril. It is long-acting, non-sulhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor that is used for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure in daily dosage 10-80 mg. Pharmacological activity of lisinopril has been proved in various experimental and clinical studies. Owing to its importance and widespread use, efforts have been made towards the development of simple and reliable analytical methods. As per our literature survey, lisinopril in pharmaceutical formulations has been determined by various analytical methodologies like polaragraphy, potentiometry, and spectrophotometry, but most of these analytical methods are not too suitable for the Identification of lisinopril from clinical samples because of the interferences caused by the amino acids and amino groups containing metabolites present in biological samples. This report is an attempt in the direction of developing a simple and reliable method for on plate identification and quantification of lisinopril in pharmaceutical formulations as well as from human urine samples using silica gel H layers developed with a new mobile phase comprising of micellar solutions of N-cetyl-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Micellar solutions have found numerous practical applications in many areas of separation science. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has gained immense popularity and wider applicability due to operational simplicity, cost effectiveness, relatively non-toxicity and enhanced separation efficiency, low aggressiveness. Incorporation of aqueous micellar solutions as mobile phase was pioneered by Armstrong and Terrill as they accentuated the importance of TLC where simultaneous separation of ionic or non-ionic species in a variety of matrices is required. A peculiarity of the micellar mobile phases (MMPs) is that they have no macroscopic analogues, as a result the typical separations can be easily achieved by using MMPs than aqueous organic mobile phases. Previously MMPs were successfully employed in TLC based critical separations of aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleotides, vitamin K1 and K5, o-, m- and p- aminophenol, amino acids, separation of penicillins. The human urine analysis for identification of selected drugs and their metabolites has emerged as an important investigation tool in forensic drug analysis. Among all chromatographic methods available only thin layer chromatography (TLC) enables a simple fast and effective separation of the complex mixtures present in various biological samples and is recommended as an approved testing for forensic drug analysis by federal Law. TLC proved its applicability during successful separation of bio-active amines, carbohydrates, enzymes, porphyrins, and their precursors, alkaloid and drugs from urine samples.

Keywords: Chromatography, surfactant, lisnopril, micellar solutions

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20 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan


Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, surfactant, hydrate, sequestration

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19 Wetting Treatement: Comparative Overview: Case of Polypropylene Top Sheet Layer on Disposable Baby Diaper

Authors: Tilouche Rahma, Sayeb Soumaya, Ben Hassen Mohamed


The wettability of materials is a very important aspect of surface science, it presents a key factor providing the best characteristic of product, especially in hygienic field. Hydrophobic polypropylene is used as nonwoven topsheet in disposable diaper, for its interesting properties (toughness, lightness...) by comparing with traditional product previously used. SURFACTANTs are widely used to reduce contact angle (water contact angles larger than 90° on smooth surfaces) and to change wetting properties. In the present work, we study ways to obtain hydrophilic polypropylene surface, by the deposition of a variety of surfactant on surfaces of varying morphology. We used two different methods for surface wetting: Spraying method and the coating method. The concentration of the wetting agent, the type of non-woven fabric and the parameters in the method for controlling, hugely affect the quality of treatment. Therefore need that the treatment is effective in terms of contact angle without affecting the mechanical properties of the nonwoven. For the assessment of the quality of treatment, two methods are used: The measurement of the contact angle and the strike trough time. Also, with subjective evaluation by Hedonic test (which involves the consumer preference (naive panel: group of moms). Finally, we selected the better treated topsheet referring to the assessment results.

Keywords: surfactant, hydrophobic, Hydrophilic, topsheet polypropylene

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18 Chemical Reaction Method for Growing Uniform Photomechanical Organic Crystlas

Authors: Rabih O. Al-Kaysi, Lingyan Zhu, Muhannah K. Al-Muhannah, Christopher J. Bardeen


(E)-3-(Anthracen-9-yl)acrylic acid (9-AYAA) 1 exhibits a strong photomechanical response in bulk crystals but is challenging to grow in microcrystalline form. High quality microcrystals of this molecule could not be grown using techniques like sublimation, reprecipitation, and the floating drop method. If the tertbutyl ester of 9-AYAA is used as a starting material, however, high quality, size-uniform microwires could be grown via acid catalyzed hydrolysis. 9-AYAA microwires with uniform length and thickness were produced after a suspension of (E)-tert-butyl 3-(anthracen-9-yl)acrylate ester 2 microparticles was tumble-mixed in a mixture of phosphoric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate at 35 °C. The dependence of the results on temperature, surfactant and precursor concentration, and mixing mode was investigated. This chemical reaction-growth method was extended to grow microplates of 9-anthraldehyde 3 using the corresponding acylal 4 as the starting material. Under 475 nm irradiation, the 9-AYAA microwires undergo a photoinduced coiling–uncoiling transition, while the 9-anthraldehyde microplates undergo a folding–unfolding transition.

Keywords: surfactant, photomechanical, organic crystals, uniform

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17 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye


As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: wastewater, Biogas, foaming, surfactant, anaerobic digester

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16 Pickering Dry Emulsion System for Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drug (Fenofibrate)

Authors: Nitin Jadhav, Pradeep R. Vavia


Poor water soluble drugs are difficult to promote for oral drug delivery as they demonstrate poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility and dissolution in GIT fluid. Nowadays lipid based formulations especially self microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is found as the most effective technique. With all the impressive advantages, the need of high amount of surfactant (50% - 80%) is the major drawback of SMEDDS. High concentration of synthetic surfactant is known for irritation in GIT and also interference with the function of intestinal transporters causes changes in drug absorption. Surfactant may also reduce drug activity and subsequently bioavailability due to the enhanced entrapment of drug in micelles. In chronic treatment these issues are very conspicuous due to the long exposure. In addition the liquid self microemulsifying system also suffers from stability issues. Recently one novel approach of solid stabilized micro and nano emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has very admirable properties such as high stability, absence or very less concentration of surfactant and easily converts into the dry form. So here we are exploring pickering dry emulsion system for dissolution enhancement of anti-lipemic, extremely poorly water soluble drug (Fenofibrate). Oil moiety for emulsion preparation was selected mainly on the basis of higher solubility of drug. Captex 300 was showed higher solubility for fenofibrate, hence selected as oil for emulsion. With Silica (solid stabilizer); Span 20 was selected to improve the wetting property of it. Emulsion formed by Silica and Span20 as stabilizer at the ratio 2.5:1 (silica: span 20) was found very stable at the particle size 410 nm. The prepared emulsion was further preceded for spray drying and formed microcapsule evaluated for in-vitro dissolution study, in-vivo pharmacodynamic study and characterized for DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, optical microscopy etc. The in vitro study exhibits significant dissolution enhancement of formulation (85 % in 45 minutes) as compared to plain drug (14 % in 45 minutes). In-vivo study (Triton based hyperlipidaemia model) exhibits significant reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol with formulation as compared to plain drug indicating increasing in fenofibrate bioavailability. DSC and XRD study exhibit loss of crystallinity of drug in microcapsule form. FTIR study exhibit chemical stability of fenofibrate. SEM and optical microscopy study exhibit spherical structure of globule coated with solid particles.

Keywords: Stability, surfactant, silica, captex 300, fenofibrate, pickering dry emulsion, span20

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15 Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction

Authors: Abhishek Chandra, Man Singh


Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm, spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic > Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6% of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.

Keywords: Amino Acid, surfactant, methylene blue, silver nanoparticle

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14 Bioaccessibility of Vitamin A Nanoemulsion: Influence of Carrier Oil and Surfactant Concentration

Authors: R. N. Astya, E. S. Nugraha, S. P. Nurheni, Hoerudin


Vitamin A deficiency remains to be among the major malnutrition problems in Indonesia. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin which renders it difficult to be fortified in water-based foods and beverages. Furthermore, its low solubility and stability in aqueous system may limit its bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanoemulsification of vitamin A may solve these problems. The objective of this study was to investigate bioaccessibility of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate/RP) nanoemulsion as influenced by two types of carrier oil (Virgin Coconut Oil/VCO and corn oil/CO) and surfactant concentrations (polysorbate 20/Tween 20 3% and 6%). Oil in water (o/w) nanoemulsions of vitamin A was produced through a combination of high shear-high pressure homogenization technique. The results showed that RP-VCO nanoemulsions were 121.62 nm (3%) and 115.40 (6%) nm in particle size, whereas RP-CO nanoemulsions were 154.72 nm (3%) and 134.00 nm (6%) in particle size. As for VCO nanoemulsions, the bioaccessibility of vitamin A was shown to be 89.84% and 55.32%, respectively. On the other hand, CO nanoemulsions produced vitamin A bioaccessibility of 53.66% and 44.85%, respectively. In general, VCO nanoemulsions showed better bioaccessibility of vitamin A than CO nanoemulsions. In this study, RP-VCO nanoemulsion with 3% Tween 20 had the highest ζ-potential value (-26.5 mV) and produced the highest bioaccessibility of vitamin A (89.84%, P<0.05). Additionally, the vitamin A nanoemulsion was stable even for after a week of freeze and thaw treatment. Following the freeze and thaw treatment, the vitamin A nanoemulsion showed good stability without aggregation and separation. These results would be useful for designing effective vitamin A delivery systems for food and beverage applications.

Keywords: surfactant, carrier oil, bioaccessibility, vitamin A nanoemulsion

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13 Water-in-Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions Prepared by Modified Low Energy: Emulsion Drop Size and Stability, Physical Properties, and Emission Characteristics

Authors: M. R. Noor El-Din, Marwa R. Mishrif, R. E. Morsi, E. A. El-Sharaky, M. E. Haseeb, Rania T. M. Ghanem


This paper studies the physical and rheological behaviours of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions prepared by modified low energy method. Twenty of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions were prepared using mixed nonionic surfactants of sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (MTS) at Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of 10 and a working temperature of 20°C. The influence of the prepared nanoemulsions on the physical properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, and calorific value was studied. Also, nanoemulsion systems were subjected to rheological evaluation. The effect of water loading percentage (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 wt.%) on rheology was assessed at temperatures range from 20 to 60°C with temperature interval of 10 for time lapse 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Results show that all of the sets nanoemulsions exhibited a Newtonian flow character of low-shear viscosity in the range of 132 up to 191 1/s, and followed by a shear-thinning region with yield value (Non-Newtonian behaviour) at high shear rate for all water ratios (5 to 10 wt.%) and at all test temperatures (20 to 60°C) for time ageing up to 3 months. Also, the viscosity/temperature relationship of all nanoemulsions fitted well Arrhenius equation with high correlation coefficients that ascertain their Newtonian behavior.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, surfactant, diesel fuel, alternative fuel

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12 Effect of Select Surfactants on Activities of Soil Enzymes Involved in Nutrient Cycling

Authors: Frieda Eivazi, Nikita L. Mullings


Soils are recipient for surfactants in herbicide formulations. Surfactants entering the soil environment can possibly disrupt different chemical, physical and biological interactions. Therefore, it is critical that we understand the fate, behavior and transport of surfactants upon entering the soil. A comprehensive study was conducted to examine effect of surfactants on nutrient uptake, microbial community, and enzyme activity. The research was conducted in the greenhouse growing corn (Zea mays) as a test plant in a factorial experiment (three surfactants at two different rates with control, and three herbicides) organized as randomized blocked design. Surfactants evaluated were Activator 90, Agri-Dex, and Thrust; herbicides were glyphosate, atrazine, and bentazon. Treatments examined were surfactant only, herbicide only, and surfactant + herbicide combinations. Corn was planted in fertilized soils (silt loam and silty clay) with moisture content maintained at the field capacity for optimum growth. This paper will report results of above mentioned treatments on acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, beta-glucosaminidase, and dehydrogenase activities. In general, there were variations in the enzyme activities with some inhibition and some being enhanced by the treatments. Activator 90 appeared to have the highest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities. Atrazine application significantly decreased the activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase in both soils; however, combination of Atrazine + Agridex increased the acid phosphatase activity while significantly inhibiting the other enzyme activities in soils. It was concluded that long-term field studies are needed to validate changes in nutrient uptake, microbial community and enzyme activities due to surfactant-herbicide combination effects.

Keywords: Herbicides, Nutrient Cycling, surfactant, soil enzymes

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11 Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier

Authors: B. Guezzen, B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi


In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.

Keywords: surfactant, cadmium, emulsion liquid membrane, carrier

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10 Poly (Acrylonitrile-Co-Methylacrylate)/Poly N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Sezai Sarac, Fatma Zehra Engin Sagirli, Eyup Sabri Kayali


In this study, Poly (acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate)/N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole ([P(AN-co-MA)]-NMPy and [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy) core–shell nanoparticles were obtained by in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDBS and SDS) by using ammonium per sulphate in the aqueous medium. The spectroscopic characterizations during the formation of nanocomposites were studied using Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer (Uv-Vis). Electrical conductivity of the emulsion solution was measured by Conductivity Meter from aqueous sample solution. Also, yield of the powder nanocomposites was measured. SDBS and SDS used for investigation of surfactant effect on yield, electrical conductivity and polymerization process. Determination of polymerization yield, (FTIR-ATR) and (Uv-Vis) prove that the SDBS surfactant become more incorporated into the conducting polymers and there is strong interaction between the [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy derivatives which prepared by these surfactants. The similar inclusion of SDS into conducting polymers was not observed, there is a remarkable difference at nanocomposites which prepared with SDS.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, surfactant, core-shell, pyrole

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9 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh


Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Rheology, natural, CFD, viscosity, surfactant, crude oil

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8 Lab Activities for Introducing Nanoscience to Teachers and Students

Authors: Riam Abu-Much, Muhamad Hugerat


Nanoscience has become one of the main science fields in the world; its importance is reflected in both society and industry; therefore, it is very important to intensify educational programs among teachers and students that aim to introduce "Nano Concepts" to them. Two different lab activities were developed for demonstrating the importance of nanoscale materials using unique points of view. In the first, electrical conductive films made of silver nanoparticles were fabricated. The silver nanoparticles were protected against aggregation using electrical conductive polypyrrole, which acts also as conductive bridge between them. The experiments show a simpler way for fabricating conductive thin film than the much more complicated and costly conventional method. In the second part, the participants could produce emulsions of liposome structures using Phosphatidylcholine as a surfactant, and following by minimizing the size of it from micro-scale to nanometer scale (400 nm), using simple apparatus called Mini-Extruder, in that way the participants could realize the change in solution transparency, and the effect of Tyndall when the size of the liposomes is reduced. Freshmen students from the Academic Arab College for Education in Haifa, Israel, who are studying to become science teachers, participated in this lab activity as part of the course "Chemistry in the Lab". These experiments are appropriate for teachers, high school and college students.

Keywords: Case study, Colloid, surfactant, emulsion, liposome

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7 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Sebastien Poncet, Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Saïd Elkoun


The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Stability, Dispersion, Thermal Conductivity, Preparation, surfactant, Al2O3, transient hot wire

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6 Facile Surfactant-Assisted Green Synthesis of Stable Biogenic Gold Nanoparticles with Potential Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Sneha Singh, Abhimanyu Dev, Vinod Nigam


The major issue which decides the impending use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in nanobiotechnological applications is their particle size and stability. Often the AuNPs obtained biomimetically are considered useless owing to their instability in the aqueous medium and thereby limiting the widespread acceptance of this facile green synthesis procedure. So, the use of nontoxic surfactants is warranted to stabilize the biogenic nanoparticles (NPs). But does the surfactant only play a role in stabilizing by being adsorbed to the NPs surface or can it have any other significant contribution in synthesis process and controlling their size as well as shape? Keeping this idea in mind, AuNPs were synthesized by using surfactant treated (lechate) and untreated (cell lysate supernatant) Bacillus licheniformis cell extract. The cell extracts mediated reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4) in the presence of non-ionic surfactant, Tween 20 (TW20), and its effect on the AuNPs stability was studied. Interestingly, the surfactant used in the study served as potential alternative to harvest cellular enzymes involved in bioreduction process in a hassle free condition. The surfactants ability to solubilize/leach membrane proteins and simultaneously stabilizing the AuNPs could have advantage from process point of view as it will reduce the time and economics involve in the nanofabrication of biogenic NPs. The synthesis was substantiated with UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering study, FTIR spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. The Zeta potential of AuNPs solutions was measured routinely to corroborate the stability observations recorded visually. Highly stable, ultra-small AuNPs of 2.6 nm size were obtained from the study. Further, the biological efficacy of the obtained AuNPs as potential antibacterial agent was evaluated against Bacilllus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli by observing the zone of inhibition. This potential of AuNPs of size < 3 nm as antibacterial agent could pave way for development of new antimicrobials and overcoming the problems of antibiotics resistance

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Antibacterial, surfactant, bioreduction

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5 Inhibiting Effects of Zwitterionic Surfactant on the Erosion-Corrosion of API X52 Steel in Oil Sands Slurry

Authors: M. A. Deyab


The effect of zwitterionic surfactant (ZS) on erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands slurry was studied using Tafel polarization and anodic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of API X52 steel was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZS inhibited the erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands' slurry, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ZS concentration but decreased with increasing temperature. Polarization curves indicate that ZS act as a mixed type of inhibitor. Inhibition efficiencies of ZS in the dynamic condition are not as effective as that obtained in the static condition.

Keywords: Corrosion, surfactant, erosion-corrosion, oil sands slurry

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4 Effect of Chemical Concentration on the Rheology of Inks for Inkjet Printing

Authors: L. Wang, Y. Chen, M. G. Tadesse, J. Yu, V. Nierstrasz, C. Loghin


Viscosity and surface tension are the fundamental rheological property of an ink for inkjet printing. In this work, we optimized the viscosity and surface tension of inkjet inks by varying the concentration of glycerol with water, PEDOT:PSS with glycerol and water, finally by adding the surfactant. The surface resistance of the sample was characterized by four-probe measurement principle. The change in volume of PEDOT:PSS in water, as well as the change in weight of glycerol in water has got a great influence on the viscosity on both temperature dependence and shear dependence behavior of the ink solution. The surface tension of the solution changed from 37 to 28 mN/m due to the addition of Triton. Varying the volume of PEDOT:PSS and the volume of glycerol in water has a great influence on the viscosity of the ink solution for inkjet printing. Viscosity drops from 12.5 to 9.5 mPa s with the addition of Triton at 25 oC. The PEDOT:PSS solution was found to be temperature dependence but not shear dependence as it is a Newtonian fluid. The sample was used to connect the light emitting diode (LED), and hence the electrical conductivity, with a surface resistance of 0.158 KΩ/square, was sufficient enough to give transfer current for LED lamp. The rheology of the inkjet ink is very critical for the successful droplet formation of the inkjet printing.

Keywords: viscosity, surfactant, surface tension, shear rate

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3 Comparative Studies on Spontaneous Imbibition of Surfactant/Alkaline Solution in Carbonate Rocks

Authors: M. Asgari, N. Heydari, N. Shojai Kaveh, S. N. Ashrafizadeh


Chemical flooding methods are having importance in enhanced oil recovery to recover the trapped oil after conventional recovery, as conventional oil resources become scarce. The surfactant/alkaline process consists of injecting alkali and synthetic surfactant. The addition of surfactant to injected water reduces oil/water IFT and/or alters wettability. The alkali generates soap in situ by reaction between the alkali and naphthenic acids in the crude oil. Oil recovery in fractured reservoirs mostly depends on spontaneous imbibition (SI) of brine into matrix blocks. Thus far, few efforts have been made toward understanding the relative influence of capillary and gravity forces on the fluid flow. This paper studies the controlling mechanisms of spontaneous imbibition process in chalk formations by consideration of type and concentration of surfactants, CMC, pH and alkaline reagent concentration. Wetting properties of carbonate rock have been investigated by means of contact-angle measurements. Interfacial-tension measurements were conducted using spinning drop method. Ten imbibition experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure and various temperatures from 30°C to 50°C. All experiments were conducted above the CMC of each surfactant. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of ultimate oil recovery and reveal that wettability alteration achieved by nonionic surfactant, which led to imbibition of brine sample containing the nonionic surfactant, while IFT value was not in range of ultra low. The displacement of oil was initially dominated by capillary forces. However, for cationic surfactant, gravity forces was the dominant force for oil production by surfactant solution to overcome the negative capillary pressure.

Keywords: Capillary, Gravity, Wettability, surfactant, alkaline, imbibition

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2 Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents

Authors: D. Erdenechimeg, T. Bujinlkham, N. Erdenepurev


The anti-corrosion performance of fatty acid coated mild steel samples is studied. Samples of structural steel coated with collector reagents deposited from surfactant in ethanol solution and overcoated with an epoxy barrier paint. A quantitative corrosion rate was determined by linear polarization resistance method using biopotentiostat/galvanostat 400. Coating morphology was determined by scanning electronic microscopy. A test for hydrophobic surface of steel by surfactant was done. From the samples, the main component or high content iron was determined by chemical method and other metal contents were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Prior to measuring the corrosion rate, mechanical and chemical treatments were performed to prepare the test specimens. Overcoating the metal samples with epoxy barrier paint after exposing them with surfactant the corrosion rate can be inhibited by 34-35 µm/year.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, surfactant, linear polarization resistance

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1 Conversion of Carcinogenic Liquid-Wastes of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Industry to ‎an Environmentally Safe Product: Corrosion Inhibitor and Biocide

Authors: Mohamed A. Hegazy


Most of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) petrochemical companies produce huge amount of byproduct which characterized as carcinogenic liquid-wastes, insoluble in water, highly corrosive and highly offensive. This byproduct is partially use, a small part, in the production of hydrochloric acid and the huge part is a waste. Therefore, the aim of this work was to conversion of such PVC wastes, to an environmentally safe product that act as a corrosion Inhibitor for metals in ‎aqueous media and as a biocide for microorganisms. This conversion method was accomplished mainly to protect the environment and to produce high economic value-products. The conversion process was established and the final product was tested for the toxicity, water solubility in comparison to the crude product. Furthermore, the end product was tested as a corrosion inhibitor in 1M HCl and as a broad-spectrum biocide against standard microbial strains and against the environmentally isolated Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) microbial community.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, surfactant, PVC, biocide, SRB

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