Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 650

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Sport and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

650 Using Index of SpoPP to Analyze the Popularity of Swimming Pool Facilities in Taipei

Authors: Chuan-Liang Chien, Yu-Hui Chou, Chin-Hsung Kao

Abstract:

Based on management considerations, some school swimming pools are intent on opening only for internal swimming teaching, rather than open to the general public. Therefore, for the citizens in Taipei, the accessibility of public swimming pool may differ from the analysis of the background conditions of all public swimming pools. From the perspective of geographic space, the analysis of the penetration of public service facilities can be divided into two aspects: accessibility and availability. The comparison of the index of SpoPP (the popularity of sports facilities) is a quantitative analysis method; it is an algorithm that can be defined with the calculation of the average distance (or travel time) from the reference point to multiple venues, using the geometric mean method, and then weight the units area of those swimming pools. This study adopts a secondary data analysis method, and all the swimming pool information was cited from the official website of national sports facility database, published by the Sports Administration. Adopting the SpoPP method, this study took 456 village offices' locations as reference points to calculate the distances between the office and all the swimming pools, combined with analysis of the population, to find out the significance of the current swimming pool distribution status. The research results are as follows: 1. There are 99.34% of villages in Taipei that have an available swimming pool facilities within 15 minutes of travel time. 2. For the citizens of Taipei, the accessibility of public swimming pool differs from the analysis of the background conditions of all public swimming pools. 3. The result of multiplying SpoPP.d (geometric average distance of sports facilities) by the population of the village can be used as a reference for choosing a school swimming pool that is open to the public. 4. The sequence of the first selection of swimming pools and the total number of its village population can be used as the reference information for the future case management analysis. 5. The priority of service market population can help the targeted cases to evaluate and find out better market conditions for commissioned professional operations. In conclusion, this study shows that the distribution of resources in geographic space is prioritized by the accessibility of facilities, and the planning of public service facilities should consider the connectivity with neighboring cities.

Keywords: Sport Facilities, two-step floating catchment area, enhanced two-step floating catchment area, E2SFCA, floating catchment area method, spatial accessibility

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649 The Olympic Games’ Effect on National Company Growth

Authors: Simon Strande Henriksen

Abstract:

When a city and country decide to undertake an Olympic Games, they do so with the notion that hosting the Olympics will provide direct financial benefits to the city, country, and national companies. Like many activities, the Olympic Games tend to be more popular when it is warm, and the athletes are known, and therefore this paper will only focus on the two latest Olympic Summer Games. Cities and countries continue to invest billions of dollars in infrastructure to secure the role of being Olympic hosts. The multiple investments expect to provide both economic growth and a lasting legacy for the citizens. This study aims to determine whether host country companies experience superior economic impact from the Olympics. Building on existing work within the Olympic field of research, it asks: Do companies in host countries of the Olympic Summer Games experience a superior increase in operating revenue and return on assets compared to other comparable countries? In this context, comparable countries are the two candidates following the host city in the bidding procedure. Based on methods used by scholars, a panel data regression was conducted on revenue growth rate and return on assets, to determine if host country companies see a positive relation with hosting the Olympic Games. Combined with an analysis of motivation behind hosting the Olympics, the regression showed no significant positive relations across all analyses, besides in one instance. Indications of a relationship between company performance and economic motivation were found to be present. With the results indicating a limited effect on company growth, it is recommended that prospective host cities and countries carefully consider possible implications the role of being an Olympic host might have on national companies.

Keywords: Quantitative Analysis, multiple regression, cross-country analysis, mega-event

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648 Analyzing the Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Chinese High School Students

Authors: Juan Li, Min Wang, Hui Tian

Abstract:

In China, under the considerable pressure of 'Gaokao' –the highly competitive college entrance examination, high school teachers and parents often worry that doing physical activity would take away the students’ precious study time and may have a negative impact on the academic grades. There was a tendency to achieve high academic scores at the cost of physical exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the physical fitness and academic achievement of Chinese high school students. The participants were 968 grade one (N=457) and grade two students (N=511) with an average age of 16 years from three high schools of different levels in Beijing, China. 479 were boys, and 489 were girls. One of the schools is a top high school in China, another is a key high school in Beijing, and the other is an ordinary high school. All analyses were weighted using SAS 9.4 to ensure the representatives of the sample. The weights were based on 12 strata of schools, sex, and grades. Physical fitness data were collected using the scores of the National Physical Fitness Test, which is an annual official test administered by the Ministry of Education in China. It includes 50m run, sits and reach test, standing long jump, 1000m run (for boys), 800m run (for girls), pull-ups for 1 minute (for boys), and bent-knee sit-ups for 1 minute (for girls). The test is an overall evaluation of the students’ physical health on the major indexes of strength, endurance, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory function. Academic scores were obtained from the three schools with the students’ consent. The statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS 24. Independent-Samples T-test was used to examine the gender group differences. Spearman’s Rho bivariate correlation was adopted to test for associations between physical test results and academic performance. Statistical significance was set at p<.05. The study found that girls obtained higher fitness scores than boys (p=.000). The girls’ physical fitness test scores were positively associated with the total academic grades (rs=.103, p=.029), English (rs=.096, p=.042), physics (rs=.202, p=.000) and chemistry scores (rs=.131, p=.009). No significant relationship was observed in boys. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a positive association with physics (rs=.196, p=.000) and biology scores (rs=.168, p=.023) in girls, and with English score in boys (rs=.104, p=.029). A possible explanation for the greater association between physical fitness and academic achievement in girls rather than boys was that girls showed stronger motivation in achieving high scores in whether academic tests or fitness tests. More driven by the test results, girls probably tended to invest more time and energy in training for the fitness test. Higher fitness levels were associated with an academic benefit among girls generally in Chinese high schools. Therefore, physical fitness needs to be given greater emphasis among Chinese adolescents and gender differences need to be taken into consideration.

Keywords: Adolescents, Academic Achievement, Physical Fitness, high school

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647 Service Quality, Skier Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions in Leisure Skiing: The Case of Beijing

Authors: Shunhong Qi, Hui Tian

Abstract:

Triggered off by the forthcoming 2022 Winter Olympics, ski centers are blossoming in China, the number being 742 in 2018. Although the number of skier visits of ski resorts soared to 19.7 million in 2018, one-time skiers account for a considerable portion therein. In light of the extremely low return rates and skiing penetration level (0.5%) of leisure skiing in China, this study proposes and tests a leisure ski service performance framework which assesses the ski resorts’ service quality, skier satisfaction, as well as their impact on skiers’ behavioral intentions, with an aim to assess the success of ski resorts and provide suggestions for improvement. Three self-administered surveys and 16 interviews were conducted upon a convenience sample of leisure skiers in two major ski destinations within two hours’ drive from Beijing – Nanshan and Jundushan ski resorts. Of the 680 questionnaires distributed, 416 usable copies were returned, the response rate being 61.2%. The questionnaire used for the study was developed based on the existing literature of 'push' factors of skiers (intrinsic desire) and 'pull' factors (attractiveness of a destination), as well as leisure sport satisfaction. The scale comprises four parts: skiers’ demographic profiles, their perceived service quality (including ski resorts’ infrastructure, expense, safety and comfort, convenience, daily needs support, skill development support, and accessibility), their overall levels of satisfaction (satisfaction with the service and the experience), and their behavioral intentions (including loyalty, future visitation and greater tolerance of price increases). Skiers’ demographic profiles show that among the 220 males and 196 females in the survey, a vast majority of the skiers are age 17-39 (87.2%). 64.7% are not married, and nearly half (48.3%) of the skiers have a monthly family income exceeding 10,000 yuan (USD 1,424), and 80% are beginners or intermediate skiers. The regression examining the influence of service quality on skier satisfaction reveals that service quality accounts for 44.4% of the variance in skier satisfaction, the variables of safety and comfort, expense, skill development support, and accessibility contributing significantly in descending order. Another regression analyzing the influence of service quality as well as skier satisfaction on their behavioral intentions shows that service quality and skier satisfaction account for 39.1% of the variance in skiers’ behavioral intentions, and the significant predictors are skier satisfaction, safety and comfort, expense, and accessibility, in descending order, though a comparison between groups also indicates that for expert skiers, the significant variables are skier satisfaction, skill development support, safety, and comfort. Suggestions are thus made for ski resorts and other stakeholders to improve skier satisfaction and increase visitation: developing diversified ski courses to meet the demands of skiers of different skiing skills and to reduce crowding, adopting enough chairlifts and magic carpets, reinforcing safety measures and medical force; further exploring their various resources and lower the skiing expense on ski pass, equipment renting, accommodation and dining; adding more bus lines and/or develop platforms for skiers’ car-pooling, and offering diversified skiing activities with local flavors for better entertainment.

Keywords: Service Quality, behavioral intentions, leisure skiing, skier satisfaction

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646 An Examination of Crisis Communication in Sport: Lessons from Sport Organizations Responding to Coronavirus Disease Outbreak

Authors: Geumchan Hwang

Abstract:

Professional sport leagues in Europe and North America are shut down due to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Football leagues in Europe (e.g., La Liga, English Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1) and big four professional sport leagues in North America (e.g., National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, and National Hockey League) are indefinitely suspended or delayed. COVID-19 outbreak has a growing negative impact on economics of sport leagues. For example, loss of revenue in Europe’s top five leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated at € 4 billion and loss of revenue in the NBA was estimated at $650 million as of March 2020. In the unprecedented difficult situation, sport teams and leagues try to communicate with sport fans through diverse media platforms. In sport, however, very few studies have been done regarding how sport organizations effectively communicate with sport fans during pandemics, such as COVID-19 outbreak. Understanding sport organizations’ crisis communication is important to develop effective crisis management strategies for sport organizations. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to examine how sport organizations communicate with sport fans via online platforms in COVID-19 outbreak and how sport fans evaluate their communication strategies. 9 official sport league sites (i.e., five major football leagues in Europe and four major sport leagues in North America) and COVID-19 news articles published between January and June in 2020 will be analyzed in terms of coronavirus information, teams and players’ live update, fan interaction, fan support, and community engagement. In addition, comments posted on social media sites (i.e., Facebook and Twitter) of major sport leagues will be also analyzed to examine how sport fans perceive online messages provided by sport leagues as an effective communication strategy. To measure the effectiveness of crisis communication performance, five components (i.e., prompt, compassionate, honest, informative, and interactive) of crisis communication will be collected from leagues’ official websites information and social media posts. Upon completing data collection, content analysis method will be used to evaluate effectiveness of crisis communication among 9 professional sport leagues. The results of the study will provide athletic directors, administrators, and public relations managers in sport organizations with practical information regarding how athlete celebrities and sport organizations should interact with their fans in pandemic situations. In particular, this study will contribute to developing specific crisis management plan for sport organizations. For instance, football teams and leagues in Europe will be able to create standard manuals to minimize damages caused by disease outbreak, such as COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: Communication, Fans, COVID-19, sport leagues

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645 Impact of a Virtual Reality-Training on Real-World Hockey Skill: An Intervention Trial

Authors: Matthew Buns

Abstract:

Training specificity is imperative for successful performance of the elite athlete. Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains. However, to date there is little research investigating the use of VR for sport training. The purpose of this study was to address the question of whether virtual reality (VR) training can improve real world hockey shooting performance. Twenty four volunteers were recruited and randomly selected to complete the virtual training intervention or enter a control group with no training. Four primary types of data were collected: 1) participant’s experience with video games and hockey, 2) participant’s motivation toward video game use, 3) participants technical performance on real-world hockey, and 4) participant’s technical performance in virtual hockey. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that that the intervention group demonstrated significantly more real-world hockey accuracy [F(1,24) =15.43, p <.01, E.S. = 0.56] while shooting on goal than their control group counterparts [intervention M accuracy = 54.17%, SD=12.38, control M accuracy = 46.76%, SD=13.45]. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) repeated measures indicated significantly higher outcome scores on real-world accuracy (35.42% versus 54.17%; ES = 1.52) and velocity (51.10 mph versus 65.50 mph; ES=0.86) of hockey shooting on goal. This research supports the idea that virtual training is an effective tool for increasing real-world hockey skill.

Keywords: video game, Virtual Training, hockey skills, esports

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644 Ordinal Regression with Fenton-Wilkinson Order Statistics: A Case Study of an Orienteering Race

Authors: Joonas Paakkonen

Abstract:

In sports, individuals and teams are typically interested in final rankings. Final results, such as times or distances, dictate these rankings, or places. Places can be further associated with ordered random variables, commonly referred to as order statistics. In this work, we provide a case study of a real-world orienteering relay race Jukola 2019, for which we derive an accurate order statistical ordinal regression model that predicts final team places with team changeover-times. The prediction model is based on the educated assumption that individual leg-times follow lognormal distributions. We also show that a good curve fit for the place-predictor is sigmoidal, which correctly predicts that elite teams significantly outperform the rest of the teams, and that at certain changeover-times place increases linearly with changeover-time. We utilize Fenton-Wilkinson approximations of changeover-times alongside an estimator for the total number of teams as in the German tank problem. We numerically verify that our Fenton-Wilkinson method yields a highly accurate regression model for final team places even when the size of the training set is only 5% of whole data set. Our results show that our method yields lower root-mean-square-errors in place prediction than several widely-used, and even more complicated, prediction models.

Keywords: Sports Analytics, Orienteering, order statistics, log-normal distribution, ordinal regression, Fenton-Wilkinson approximation, German tank problem, sports modeling

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643 Deep Learning Based Unsupervised Sport Scene Recognition and Highlights Generation

Authors: Ksenia Meshkova

Abstract:

With increasing amount of multimedia data, it is very important to automate and speed up the process of obtaining meta. This process means not just recognition of some object or its movement, but recognition of the entire scene versus separate frames and having timeline segmentation as a final result. Labeling datasets is time consuming, besides, attributing characteristics to particular scenes is clearly difficult due to their nature. In this article, we will consider autoencoders application to unsupervised scene recognition and clusterization based on interpretable features. Further, we will focus on particular types of auto encoders that relevant to our study. We will take a look at the specificity of deep learning related to information theory and rate-distortion theory and describe the solutions empowering poor interpretability of deep learning in media content processing. As a conclusion, we will present the results of the work of custom framework, based on autoencoders, capable of scene recognition as was deeply studied above, with highlights generation resulted out of this recognition. We will not describe in detail the mathematical description of neural networks work but will clarify the necessary concepts and pay attention to important nuances.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Computer Vision, Representation Learning, autoencoders

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642 Strategic Management Model for High Performance Sports Centers

Authors: Jose Ramon Sanabria Navarro, Yahilina Silveira Perez, Valentin Molina Moreno, Digna Dionisia Perez Bravo

Abstract:

The general objective of this research is to conceive a model of strategic direction for Latin American high-performance sports centers for the improvement of their results. The sample is 62 managers, 187 trainers, 2930 athletes and 62 expert researchers from centers in Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia and Argentina, for 3241. The measurement instrument includes 12 key variables in the process of management strategies which are consolidated with the factorial analysis and the ANOVA of a factor through the SPSS 24.0. The reliability of the scale obtained an alpha higher than 0.7 in each sample. In this sense, a model is obtained that taxes the deficiencies detected in the diagnosis, based on the needs of the members of these organizations, considering criteria and theories of the strategic direction in the improvement of the organizational results. The validation of the model for high performance sports centers of the countries analyzed aims to develop joint strategies to generate synergies in their operational mode, which leads to enhance the sports organization.

Keywords: Decision Making, Information Management, Control, sports organization

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641 History Impact of Cuba's Sports Results on Panamerican Games

Authors: Jose Ramon Sanabria Navarro, Yahilina Silveira Perez

Abstract:

The Pan American Games are one of the best regional sports integration events for the Americas, thousands of athletes from different countries are integrated based on obtaining satisfactory sports results and bringing the glory of the national identity of the sport to their country. There are countries that despite the small number of inhabitants have obtained very satisfactory results such as Cuba. Objective: To analyze the impact of Cuba's sports results in the Pan American Games. The methodology was based on the postulates of the materialist dialectic since the investigated reality was studied from historicity, systematicity and in its systemic character. The population and sample consisted of 41 countries of the American continent, and the 15 events carried out to date were analyzed. The impact of Cuba is very relevant because it is the country that has the second place by country in terms of number of medals, is among the first in terms of medals per inhabitants and in general sense of all the indicators treated assumes the fourth place integral. What is the current status of Cuba's sports results in Pan American Games? Having as a general objective, analyze the impact of Cuba's sports results in the Pan American Games. The hypotheses that will lead this research have the following methodological and interaction order: H1: Cuba's performance in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the amount of medals obtained. H2: The amount of medals from Cuba in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the general podium for countries of these regional events. H3: The amount of medals obtained by Cuba in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the number of inhabitants. H4: The amount of medals obtained by Cuba positively impacts the overall result of the countries. H5: Cuba's performance in the Panamerican Sports Games positively impacts the overall results of these regional events. In general, it is possible to demonstrate the impact of Cuba's sports performance in Pan American Games and the organizational sports structure that has allowed the country to obtain them is evidenced.

Keywords: Sport, Cuba, history of sport, sports games, regional events

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640 The Socio-Emotional Vulnerability of Professional Rugby Union Athletes

Authors: Hannah Kuhar

Abstract:

This paper delves into the attitudes of professional and semi-professional rugby union athletes in regard to socio-emotional vulnerability, or the willingness to express the full spectrum of human emotion in a social context. Like all humans, athletes of all sports regularly experience feelings of shame, powerlessness, and loneliness, and often feel unable to express such feelings due to factors including lack of situational support, absence of adequate expressive language and lack of resource. To this author’s knowledge, however, no previous research has considered the particular demographic of professional rugby union athletes, despite the sport’s immense popularity and economic contribution to global communities. Hence, this paper aims to extend previous research by exploring the experiences of professional rugby union athletes and their unwillingness and inability to express socio-emotional vulnerability. By having a better understanding of vulnerability in rugby and sports, this paper is able to contribute to the growing field of mental health and wellbeing research, particularly towards the emerging themes of resilience and belonging. Based on qualitative fieldwork conducted over a period of seven months across France and Australia, via the mechanisms of semi-structured interview and observation, this work uses the field theory framework of Pierre Bourdieu to construct an analysis of multidisciplinary thought. Approaching issues of gender, sexuality, physicality, education, and family, this paper shows that socio-emotional vulnerability is experienced by all players regardless of their background, in a variety of ways. Common themes and responses are drawn to show the universality of rugby’s pitfalls, which have previously been limited to specific demographics in isolation of their broader contexts. With the author themselves a semi-professional athlete, the provision of unique ‘insider’ access facilitates a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of first-hand athlete experiences, often unexplored within the context of the academic arena. The primary contention of this paper is to argue that by celebrating socio-emotional vulnerability, there becomes an opportunity to improve on-field team outcomes. Ultimately, players play better when they feel supported by their teammates, and this logic extends to the outcome of the team when socio-emotional team initiatives are widely embraced. The creation of such a culture requires deliberate and purposeful efforts, where player ownership and buy-in are high. Further study in this field may assist teams to better understand the elements which contribute to strong team culture and to strong results on the pitch.

Keywords: Vulnerability, athletes, Rugby, France, Bourdieu

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639 Analysis of Career Support Programs for Olympic Athletes in Japan with Fifteen Conceptual Categories

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, Kaori Tsutsui, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake

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The Japan Sports Agency has made efforts to unify several career support programs for Olympic athletes prior to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. One of the programs, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA) was established in 2008 for Olympic athletes at their retirement. Research focusing on the service content of sport career support programs can help athletes experience a more positive transition. This study was designed to investigate the service content of the JCA program in relation to athletes’ career transition needs, including any differences of the reasons for retirement between Summer/Winter and Male/Female Olympic athletes, and to suggest the directions of how to unify the career support programs in Japan after hosting the Olympic Games using sport career transition models. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed the JCA director who started and managed the program since its inception, and a total of 15 conceptual categories were generated by the analysis. Four conceptual categories were in the result of “JCA situation”, 4 conceptual categories were in the result of “Athletes using JCA”, and 7 conceptual categories were in the result of “JCA current difficulties”. Through the analysis it was revealed that: the JCA had occupational supports for both current and retired Olympic athletes; other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in JCA and the difficulties collaborating with other sports organizations; and there are differences in tendencies of visiting JCA, financial situations, and career choices depending on Summer/Winter and Male/Female athletes.

Keywords: career support programs, causes of career termination, Olympic athlete, Olympic committee

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638 Identify and Prioritize the Sustainable Development of Sports Venues Using New and Degradable Energies with a Hierarchical Analysis Approach

Authors: Mahsaossadat Pourrahmati Khelejan

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The purpose of this research was to identify and prioritize the sustainable development of sports venues using new and degradable energies with using the AHP Hierarchical Analysis approach. The research method is a descriptive strategy with regard to the direction of implementation and is a hierarchical research with a practical purpose. In this study, 30 experts (physical education faculty members, geography professors, accredited sports venues managers, and renewable energy engineers) were selected using purposeful sampling method as the research population. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire on the factors affecting the sustainable development of sports venues by using new technologies and degradable energy. Finally, the research questionnaire was designed with four components and 21 items. All steps were performed by using Expert Choice software. The importance of indicators that influence the sustainable development of sports venues is highlighted by the use of clean and degradable energy, for example: 1. Economic factor, weighing 0.420 2. Environmental index, weighing 0. 320 3. Physical index, weighing 0.148 4. Social index, weighing 0.122.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sports Venues, Degradable Energies, Prioritize

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637 Combined Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Decitin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Ayoub Saeidi, Nikoo Khosravi, Hanieh Nohbaradar, Seyedeh Parya Barzanjeh, Hassane Zouhal

Abstract:

Exercise training and herbs supplement represent have role in the treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear combined effects of exercise training and herbs supplements on diabetic risk markers. This study aimed to determine the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercise and broccoli supplementation on decitin-1 and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes. Forty-four type 2 diabetes men (age, 48.52 ± 4.36) were randomly allocated to training -supplement (TS, n = 11), training- placebo (TP, n = 11), supplement (S, n = 11) and control- placebo (CP, n = 11) groups. The combined exercise program included 12 weeks, three sessions per week, that each session contained 45 minutes of resistance training with intensity 60-70% of one maximal repetition and 30 minutes aerobic training (running) with intensity 60-70% of maximum heart rate. In addition supplement groups consumed 10 grams of Broccoli per day for 12 weeks. Plasma Decitin-1, HOMA-IR, Insulin, glucose and body composition were assessed before and after training. Plasma Dectin-1, HOMA-IR, glucose and BMI significantly decreased in TS, TP and S groups compared with CP group (P < .05). In addition Insulin and skeletal muscles mass showed significant increase in TS and TP groups compared with S and CP groups (P < .05). It is concluded that both combined exercise training (aerobic-resistance) or broccoli supplement can improve plasma Decitin-1 and insulin resistance in two diabetic patients however combine of exercise training and broccoli supplement have more effective on these markers.

Keywords: insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, combined training, broccoli supplements, decitin-1

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636 The Effects of Passive and Active Recoveries on Responses of Platelet Indices and Hemodynamic Variables to Resistance Exercise

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Sajad Ahmadizad, Fatemeh Hoseinzadeh, Atefe Sarvestan

Abstract:

The exercise recovery is an important variable in designing resistance exercise training. This study determined the effects of passive and active recoveries on responses of platelet indices and hemodynamic variables to resistance exercise. Twelve healthy subjects (six men and six women, age, 25.4 ±2.5 yrs) performed two types of resistance exercise protocols (six exercises including upper- and lower-body parts) at two separate sessions with one-week intervening. First resistance protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 80% of 1RM with 2 min passive rest between sets and exercises; while, the second protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 60% of 1RM followed by active recovery included six repetitions of the same exercise at 20% of 1RM. The exercise volume was equalized. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 1-hour recovery, and analyzed for fibrinogen and platelet indices. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP), were measured before, immediately after exercise and every 5 minutes during recovery. Data analyzes showed a significant increase in SBP (systolic blood pressure), HR, rate of pressure product (RPP) and PLT in response to resistance exercise (P<0.05) and that changes for HR and RPP were significantly different between two protocols (P<0.05). Furthermore, MPV and P_LCR did not change in response to resistance exercise, though significant reductions were observed after 1h recovery compared to before and after exercise (P<0.05). No significant changes in fibrinogen and PDW following two types of resistance exercise protocols were observed (P>0.05). On the other hand, no significant differences in platelet indices were found between the two protocols (P>0.05). Resistance exercise induces changes in platelet indices and hemodynamic variables, and that these changes are not related to the type of recovery and returned to normal levels after 1h recovery.

Keywords: resistance exercise, platelet indices, hemodynamic variables, recovery intensity

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635 A Perspective and Conceptual Approach on Mediator-Centered Education in Sports Coach and Physical Education Teacher Competencies

Authors: Tobias Vogt, Daniel Klein

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Sports literacy emerges on the basis of extensive competencies that result from pertinent skill acquisition. Within physical education teachers’ and sports coaches’ (i.e., mediators) education, established theories of educational sciences and, at least in part, training sciences (e.g., on sport-specific movement learning, performance) form the basis of different qualification systems (e.g., physical education curricula in schools, club/federation structures). Each system aims to didactically and methodologically qualify best for a goal-oriented (i.e., meeting the learning objective) as well as setting-related (i.e., adequate for the target group and learning environment) teaching and coaching process, respectively. However, often referred to as mediating competency remains to be specified, if not classified. Based on reviewing competency-based qualification systems in Germany (i.e., a core curriculum on physical education in schools as well as the ‘framework guidelines for the qualification in the area of the German Sports Federation’) and linked to international standards, we suggest a perspective and conceptual approach on a mediator-centered education in sports coach and physical education teacher competencies.

Keywords: Skill Acquisition, mediating competency, school sport, sports literacy

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634 MAOD Is Estimated by Sum of Contributions

Authors: David W. Hill, Linda W. Glass, Jakob L. Vingren

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Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), the gold standard measure of anaerobic capacity, is the difference between the oxygen cost of exhaustive severe intensity exercise and the accumulated oxygen consumption (O2; mL·kg–1). In theory, MAOD can be estimated as the sum of independent estimates of the phosphocreatine and glycolysis contributions, which we refer to as PCr+glycolysis. Purpose: The purpose was to test the hypothesis that PCr+glycolysis provides a valid measure of anaerobic capacity in cycling and running. Methods: The participants were 27 women (mean ± SD, age 22 ±1 y, height 165 ± 7 cm, weight 63.4 ± 9.7 kg) and 25 men (age 22 ± 1 y, height 179 ± 6 cm, weight 80.8 ± 14.8 kg). They performed two exhaustive cycling and running tests, at speeds and work rates that were tolerable for ~5 min. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2; mL·kg–1·min–1) was measured in warmups, in the tests, and during 7 min of recovery. Fingerprick blood samples obtained after exercise were analysed to determine peak blood lactate concentration (PeakLac). The VO2 response in exercise was fitted to a model, with a fast ‘primary’ phase followed by a delayed ‘slow’ component, from which was calculated the accumulated O2 and the excess O2 attributable to the slow component. The VO2 response in recovery was fitted to a model with a fast phase and slow component, sharing a common time delay. Oxygen demand (in mL·kg–1·min–1) was determined by extrapolation from steady-state VO2 in warmups; the total oxygen cost (in mL·kg–1) was determined by multiplying this demand by time to exhaustion and adding the excess O2; then, MAOD was calculated as total oxygen cost minus accumulated O2. The phosphocreatine contribution (area under the fast phase of the post-exercise VO2) and the glycolytic contribution (converted from PeakLac) were summed to give PCr+glycolysis. There was not an interaction effect involving sex, so values for anaerobic capacity were examined using a two-way ANOVA, with repeated measures across method (PCr+glycolysis vs MAOD) and mode (cycling vs running). Results: There was a significant effect only for exercise mode. There was no difference between MAOD and PCr+glycolysis: values were 59 ± 6 mL·kg–1 and 61 ± 8 mL·kg–1 in cycling and 78 ± 7 mL·kg–1 and 75 ± 8 mL·kg–1 in running. Discussion: PCr+glycolysis is a valid measure of anaerobic capacity in cycling and running, and it is as valid for women as for men.

Keywords: Running, Cycling, treadmill, lactate, anaerobic, glycolysis, alactic, ergometer, lactic, oxygen deficit, phosphocreatine

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633 Moved by Music: The Impact of Music on Fatigue, Arousal and Motivation During Conditioning for High to Elite Level Female Artistic Gymnasts

Authors: Chante J. De Klerk

Abstract:

The potential of music to facilitate superior performance during high to elite level gymnastics conditioning instigated this research. A team of seven gymnasts completed a fixed conditioning programme eight times, alternating the two variable conditions. Four sessions of each condition were conducted: without music (session 1), with music (session 2), without music (3), with music (4), without music (5), and so forth. Quantitative data were collected in both conditions through physiological monitoring of the gymnasts, and administration of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Statistical analysis of the physiological data made it possible to quantify the presence as well as the magnitude of the musical intervention’s impact on various aspects of the gymnasts' physiological functioning during conditioning. The SIMS questionnaire results were used to evaluate if their motivation towards conditioning was altered by the intervention. Thematic analysis of qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews revealed themes reflecting the gymnasts’ sentiments towards the data collection process. Gymnast-specific descriptions and experiences of the team as a whole were integrated with the quantitative data to facilitate greater dimension in establishing the impact of the intervention. The results showed positive physiological, motivational, and emotional effects. In the presence of music, superior sympathetic nervous activation, and energy efficiency, with more economic breathing, dominated the physiological data. Fatigue and arousal levels (emotional and physiological) were also conducive to improved conditioning outcomes compared to conventional conditioning (without music). Greater levels of positive affect and motivation emerged in analysis of both the SIMS and interview data sets. Overall, the intervention was found to promote psychophysiological coherence during the physical activity. In conclusion, a strategically constructed musical intervention, designed to accompany a gymnastics conditioning session for high to elite level gymnasts, has ergogenic potential.

Keywords: Motivation, Fatigue, arousal, gymnastics conditioning, musical intervention, psychophysiological coherence

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632 The Analysis of Competitive Balance Progress among Five Most Valuable Football Leagues from 1966 to 2015

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Zahra Bozorgzadeh, Leila Zakizadeh, Siavash Hamidzadeh

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From the sport economy experts point of view, the existence of competitive balance among sport leagues and its numerous effects on league is an important and undeniable issue. In general, sport events fans are so eager to unpredictable results of competition in order to reach the top of excitement and necessary motivation for following competitions. The purpose of this research is to consider and compare the competitive balance among five provisional European football leagues (Spain, England, Italy, France and Germany) during 1966 - 2015 seasons. Research data are secondary and obtained from Premier League final tables of selected countries in 1966 - 2015 seasons. For analyzing data, C5 and C5ICB indicators used. whatever these indicators be less, more balance establishes in the league and vice-versa. The result showed that Le champion of France reached from 1,259 to 1,395; Italy Serie-A league from 1,316 to 1,432; England premier league from 1, 342 to 1,455; Germany Bundesliga from 1,238 to 1,465 and Spain La liga from 1,295 to 1,495. So by comparing C5ICB charts during 1966 - 2015 seasons, La liga of Spain moved more toward imbalance and enjoyed less balance with other European Leagues. Also, La champion of France during the mentioned season, enjoyed less imbalance and preserved its relative balance with monotonous process. It seems that football in France has been followed as stable during 1966 to 2015, and prediction of results was more difficult and competitions were so attractive for spectators, but in Italy, England, Germany, and Spain there were less balance, respectively.

Keywords: Competition, Competitive Balance, professional football league, C5ICB

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631 Case Study on the Effects of Early Mobilization in the Post-Surgical Recovery of Athletes with Open Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Repair

Authors: Blair Arthur Agero Jr., Lucia Garcia Heras

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The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is one of the crucial stabilizing ligaments of the wrist. The TFCC is also subject to excessive stress amongst performance athletes and enthusiasts. The excessive loading of the TFCC may lead to a partial or complete rupture that requires surgery. The recovery from an open TFCC surgical repair may take several months. Immobilization of the repaired wrist for a given period is part of all the current protocols in the post-surgical treatment. The immobilization to prevent the rotation of the forearm can last from six weeks to eight weeks with the wrist held in a neutral position. In all protocols reviewed, the pronosupination is only initiated between the 6th week and 8th week or even later after the cast is removed. The prolonged immobilization can cause stiffness of the wrist and hand. Furthermore, the entire period of post-surgical hand therapy has its economic impact, especially for performing athletes. However, delayed mobilization, specifically rotation of the wrist, is necessary to allow ligament healing. This study aims to report the effects of early mobilization of the wrist in athletes who had an open surgical repair of the TFCC. The surgery was done by the co-author, and the hand therapy was implemented by the main author. The cases documented spans from 2014 to 2019 and were all performed in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. All selected participants in this case study were provided with a follow-up questionnaire to ascertain their current condition since their surgery. The respondents reported high satisfaction in the results of their treatment and have verified zero re-rupture of their TFCC despite mobilizing and rotating the wrist at the third-week post-surgery during their hand therapy. There is also a negligible number of respondents who reported a limitation in their ranges of pronosupination. This case study suggests that early mobilization of the wrist after an open TFCC surgical repair can be more beneficial to the patient as opposed to the traditional treatment of prolonged immobilization. However, it should be considered that the patients selected in this case study are professional performance athletes and advanced fitness enthusiasts. Athletes are known to withstand vigorous physical stress in their training that may correlate to their ability to better cope with the progressive stress that was implemented during their hand therapy. Nevertheless, this approach has its merits, and application of it may be adjusted for patients with a similar injury and surgical procedure.

Keywords: Hand Therapy, performance athlete, TFCC repair, wrist ligament

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630 Quantifying Fatigue during Periods of Intensified Competition in Professional Ice Hockey Players: Magnitude of Fatigue in Selected Markers

Authors: Eoin Kirwan, Christopher Nulty, Declan Browne

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The professional ice hockey season consists of approximately 60 regular season games with periods of fixture congestion occurring several times in the average season. These periods of congestion provide limited time for recovery, exposing the athletes to the risk of competing whilst not fully recovered. Although a body of research is growing with respect to monitoring fatigue, particularly during periods of congested fixtures in team sports such as rugby and soccer, it has received little to no attention thus far in ice hockey athletes. Consequently, there is limited knowledge on monitoring tools that might effectively detect a fatigue response and the magnitude of fatigue that can accumulate when recovery is limited by competitive fixtures. The benefit of quantifying and establishing fatigue status is the ability to optimise training and provide pertinent information on player health, injury risk, availability and readiness. Some commonly used methods to assess fatigue and recovery status of athletes include the use of perceived fatigue and wellbeing questionnaires, tests of muscular force and ratings of perceive exertion (RPE). These measures are widely used in popular team sports such as soccer and rugby and show promise as assessments of fatigue and recovery status for ice hockey athletes. As part of a larger study, this study explored the magnitude of changes in adductor muscle strength after game play and throughout a period of fixture congestion and examined the relationship between internal game load and perceived wellbeing with adductor muscle strength. Methods 8 professional ice hockey players from a British Elite League club volunteered to participate (age = 29.3 ± 2.49 years, height = 186.15 ± 6.75 cm, body mass = 90.85 ± 8.64 kg). Prior to and after competitive games each player performed trials of the adductor squeeze test at 0˚ hip flexion with the lead investigator using hand-held dynamometry. Rate of perceived exertion was recorded for each game and from data of total ice time individual session RPE was calculated. After each game players completed a 5- point questionnaire to assess perceived wellbeing. Data was collected from six competitive games, 1 practice and 36 hours post the final game, over a 10 – day period. Results Pending final data collection in February Conclusions Pending final data collection in February.

Keywords: readiness, ice hockey, Conjested fixtures, fatigue monitoring

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629 Examining Employers’ Health Responsibility

Authors: Ildikó Balatoni, Nikolett Kosztin

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In this study the importance of maintaining the mental and physical health of employees was examined from the perspective of the employers. To this end companies in Hajdú-Bihar county of Hungary that are within in the TOP 100 based on their net revenue were interviewed. Economic sectors that were represented the most in this survey were processing, services, trade, agriculture, and construction. We examined whether or not companies provided any benefits to their employees concerning health awareness. Among respondents those who offered various services of medical specialists and/or discounted gym or swim passes in addition to compulsory medical examinations were hard to find, however more employers organize health and sports days. Nevertheless, a significant albeit very shallow positive correlation were found between the number of offered benefits vs. total gross income and vs. number of employees (r2=0.2555, p<0.001 and r2=0.1196 and p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, while workplace health promotion is necessary it requires a change in employers’attitudes.

Keywords: Health, employers, employees, corporate health promotion

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628 Core Stability Index for Healthy Young Sri Lankan Population

Authors: V. M. B. K. T. Malwanage, S. Samita

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Core stability is one of the major determinants that contribute to preventing injuries, enhance performance, and improve quality of life of the human. Endurance of the four major muscle groups of the central ‘core’ of the human body is identified as the most reliable determinant of core stability amongst the other numerous causes which contribute to readily make one’s core stability. This study aimed to develop a ‘Core Stability Index’ to confer a single value for an individual’s core stability based on the four endurance test scores. Since it is possible that at least some of the test scores are not independent, possibility of constructing a single index using the multivariate method exploratory factor analysis was investigated in the study. The study sample was consisted of 400 healthy young individuals with the mean age of 23.74 ± 1.51 years and mean BMI (Body Mass Index) of 21.1 ± 4.18. The correlation analysis revealed highly significant (P < 0.0001) correlations between test scores and thus construction an index using these highly inter related test scores using the technique factor analysis was justified. The mean values of all test scores were significantly different between males and females (P < 0.0001), and therefore two separate core stability indices were constructed for the two gender groups. Moreover, having eigen values 3.103 and 2.305 for males and females respectively, indicated one factor exists for all four test scores and thus a single factor based index was constructed. The 95% reference intervals constructed using the index scores were -1.64 to 2.00 and -1.56 to 2.29 for males and females respectively. These intervals can effectively be used to diagnose those who need improvement in core stability. The practitioners should find that with a single value measure, they could be more consistent among themselves.

Keywords: Quality of Life, muscle endurance, construction of indices, endurance test scores

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627 Building Cardiovascular Fitness through Plyometric Training

Authors: Theresa N. Uzor

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The word cardiovascular fitness is a topic of much interest to people of Nigeria, especially during this time, some heart diseases run in families. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply-rich blood to the working muscle tissues. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity such as plyometric training. Plyometric is a form of advanced fitness training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in the sports performance by coaches and athletes. Plyometric training involves a rapid stretching of muscle (eccentric phase) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. However, the most basic example of true plyometric training is running and can be safe for a wide variety of populations. This paper focused on building cardiovascular health through Plyometric Training. The centre focus of the article is cardiovascular fitness and plyometric training with factors of cardiovascular fitness. Plyometric training at any age provides multiple benefits even beyond weight control and weight loss, decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases, among other benefits of plyometric training to cardiovascular fitness. Participation in plyometric training will increase metabolism of an individual, thereby burning more calories even when at rest and reduces weight is also among the benefits of plyometric training. Some guidelines were recommended for planning plyometric training programme to minimise the chance of injury. With plyometric training in Nigeria, fortune can change for good, especially now that there has been an increase in cardiovascular diseases within the society for great savings would be saved.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, aerobic, concentric, plyometric, stretch-shortening cycle

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626 Mental Health of Female Runners - Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Katalin Gocze, Gabriella Kiss, Zsuzsanna Gurdan, Krisztian Kvell, Attila Trabert

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Introduction: On a worldwide scale running has become an increasingly popular leisure time activity during the past decade. Since the participation rate of women has risen significantly the aim of our study was to analyze the mental status, sleeping habits and the prevalence of depression among female runners. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis included the use of validated and globally used surveys for the comprehensive evaluation of insomnia (AIS), depression (BDI), exercise dependence (EDS) and exercise addiction (EAI). Recreational and amateur female runners participating at half-marathon events in Hungary were asked to take part in our pilot study. Results: Participants mean age was 42.03±9.03 years. The prevalence of imsomnia was 18.87%. 60.34% has worries regarding their weight and 43.1% think that they have an actual weight problem. 77.6% stated that their body weight has an influence on their mood. 2.7% displayed borderline clinical depression, the prevalence of mild mood disorders was 10.81%. 17.2% had previously problems with disordered eating. Participants had a mean total EDS score of 46.94±15.55 and a mean total of 13.49±3.80 on EAI. Component scores were the highest for tolerance (a need for increased amounts of exercise to achieve the desired effect or a diminished effect occurs with continued use of the same amount of exercise). Conclusion: Even tough running can help improve mental health, tackle depression and overcome adversity, athletes are at risk of experiencing psychological difficulties which have an impact on their physical perfomance as well. Further research can help initiate targeted educational and screening programs to ensure that female athletes find a path to emotional well-being.

Keywords: Running, Depression, insomnia, Exercise Dependence, Exercise Addiction, Eating Disorder

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625 Yoga Offers Protection for Premenstrual Syndrome

Authors: Katalin Gocze, Vanda A Nemes, Charlotte Briest

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Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a psychoneuroendocrinological disorder adversely affecting life-quality for over 80% of hormonally active women. PMS has a negative impact on women’s daily life in terms of work, interpersonal relationships and leisure time activities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of a yoga intervention focusing on the female pelvic area. Materials and methods: 34 women (ages 18-40) with PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome Screening Tool) and no previous experience in yoga were recruited and randomly assigned to either the yoga or the control group. The intervention consisted of 90’ yoga sessions twice a week and a daily 15’ self-practice module with carefully chosen yogic exercises addressing the reproductive organs by toning the pelvic floor and opening the hips as well as relieving stress and improving concentration. Severity of symptoms of PMS was assessed at the beginning and after the 8-week-long intervention. Pre- and post-program data collection included physical and psychological parameters and the evaluation of ACOQ PMS questionnaire and daily symptom diary. Results: Age and educational background were similar in the control and intervention group with an overall mean age of 29.11±4.78 years. PSST scores significantly improved in the yoga group (p=0.002), while difference in the control group’s pre and post-program values were non-significant (p=0.38). Perception and tolerance of anxiety and stress was significantly better after the intervention (p=0.008). As for changes in physical symptoms distinct improvement was registered for breast tenderness (p=0.028) and for meteorism (p=0.015). Discussion: Yoga’s success originates from the synergic positive effects of stress relief and regular physical activity. Benefits (both mental and physical) of strategically planned, focused yoga practice are apparent even after shorter time periods and can help women with PMS manage or eliminate symptoms in order to improve their life-quality.

Keywords: Yoga, Premenstrual Syndrome, psychological impact, life-quality, physical symptoms

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624 Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Injury and Stress Fractures in Male and Female Runners

Authors: Balazs Patczai, Katalin Gocze, Gabriella Kiss, Dorottya Szabo, Tibor Mintal

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Introduction: Running has become increasingly popular on a global scale in the past decades. Amateur athletes are taking their sport to a new level in an attempt to surpass their performance goals. The aim of our study was to assess the musculoskeletal condition of amateur runners and the prevalence of injuries with a special focus on stress fracture risk. Methods: The cross sectional analysis included ankle mobility, hamstring and lower back flexibility, the use of Renne’s test for iliotibial band syndrome, functional tests for trunk and rotary stability, and measurements of bone density. Data was collected at 2 major half-marathon events in Hungary. Results: Participants (n=134) mean age was 41.76±8.57 years (males: 40.67±8.83, females: 42.08±8.56). Measures of hamstring and lower back flexibility fell into the category of good for both genders (males: 7.13±6.83cm, females: 10.17±6.67cm). No side asymmetry nor gender differences were characteristic in the case of ankle mobility. Trunk stability was significantly better for males than in females (p=0.004). Markers of bone health were in the low normal range for females and were significantly better for males (T-score: p=0.003, T-ratio: p=0.014, Z-score: p=0.034, Z-ratio: p=0.011). 5.2% of females had a previous stress fracture and 24.1% experienced irregular menstrual cycles during the past year. As for the knowledge on the possible association of energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and their effect on bone health, Only 8.6% of females have heard of the female athlete triad either during their studies or from a health professional. Discussion: The overall musculoskeletal state was satisfactory for both genders both physically and functionally. More attention and effort should be placed on primary and secondary prevention of amateur runners. Very few active women are well informed about the effects of low energy availability and menstrual dysfunction and the negative impact these have on bone health.

Keywords: Running, Bone Health, Flexibility, stress fracture

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623 Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation

Authors: Luen Chow Chan

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With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.

Keywords: bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height

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622 A Study for Turkish Underwater Sports Federation Athletes: Evaluation of the Street Foods Consumption

Authors: Su Tezel

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The paper deals with licensed athletes affiliated with the Turkish Underwater Sports Federation to assess the consumption status of street food. The aim of the paper is the frequency of training during competition preparatory training or season periods, the athletes' economic situation, social life, work-life or education situations are the directs them to street food? Also to evaluate the importance that athletes attach to their nutritional status. Data were collected with survey method. 141 underwater sports athletes participated in the survey. Empirical findings on 141 respondents are related to athletes' demographic information, which underwater sports branch they doing (underwater hockey, underwater rugby and free diving), with whom they live, training hours and frequency, street food consumption frequency and preferences, which type drinks they prefer drink with or without street foods and other similar things. Most of the athletes were male (64.5%), female (35.5%) and the most athletes from the sports branches included in the survey belong to underwater hockey (95.7%). 93.7% of athletes have a training time between 08:00 pm to 00:00 am and the frequency of consuming street food after training is 88%. As a remarkable result, 48% of the reasons for consuming street food easy access to street foods after training. Statistical analyzes were made with the data obtained and the status of street food consumption of athletes, whether they were suitable for professional athlete nutrition and their attitudes were evaluated.

Keywords: Nutrition, Street foods, underwater hockey, underwater sport

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621 The Comparison of Dismount Skill between National and International Men’s Artistic Gymnastics in Parallel Bars Apparatus

Authors: Chen ChihYu, Tang Wen Tzu, Chen Kuang Hui

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Aim —To compare the dismount skill between Taiwanese and elite international gymnastics in parallel bars following the 2017-2020 code of points. Methods—The gymnasts who advanced to the parallel bars event finals of these four competitions including World Championships, Universiade, the National Games of Taiwan, and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games of Taiwan both 2017 and 2019 were selected in this study. The dismount skill of parallel bars was analyzed, and the average difficulty score was compared by one-way ANOVA. Descriptive statistics were applied to present the type of dismount skill and the difficulty of each gymnast in these four competitions. The data from World Championships and Universiade were combined as the international group (INT), and data of Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games were also combined as the national group (NAT). The differences between INT and NAT were analyzed by the Chi-square test. The statistical significance of this study was set at α= 0.05. Results— i) There was a significant difference in the mean parallel bars dismount skill in these four competitions analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Both dismount scores of World Championships and Universiade were significantly higher than in Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games (0.58±0.08 & 0.56±0.08 > 0.42±0.06 & 40±0.06, p < 0.05). ii) Most of the gymnasts in World Championships and Universiade selected the 0.6-point skill as the parallel bars dismount element, and for the Taiwanese National Games and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games, most of the gymnasts performed the 0.4-point dismount skill. iii) The result of the Chi-square test has shown that there was a significant difference in the selection of parallel bars dismount skill. The INT group used the E or E+ difficulty element as the dismount skill, and the NAT group selected the D or D- difficulty element. Conclusion— The level of parallel bars dismount in Taiwanese gymnastics is inferior to elite international gymnastics. It is suggested that Taiwanese gymnastics must try to practice the F difficulty dismount (double salto forward tucked with half twist) in the future.

Keywords: Element, Artistic Gymnastics World Championships, dismount, difficulty score

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