Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Solar Cells Related Abstracts

19 Fabrication and Properties of Al2O3/Si Quantum Well-Structured Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: Kwang-Ho Kim, Kwan-Hong Min, Pyungwoo Jang, Chisup Jung, Kyu Seomoon

Abstract:

By restricting the dimensions of silicon to less than Bohr radius of bulk crystalline silicon (∼5 nm), quantum confinement causes its effective bandgap to increase. Therefore, silicon quantum wells (QWs) using these quantum phenomena could be a good candidate to achieve high performance silicon solar cells. The Al2O3/Si QW structures were fabricated by using the successive deposition technique, as a quantum confinement device to increase the effective energy bandgap and passivation effect in Si surface for the 3rd generation solar cell applications. In Si/Al2O3 QWs, the thicknesses of Si layers and Al2O3 layers were varied between 1 to 5 nm, respectively. The roughness of deposited Si on Al2O3 was less than 4 Å in the thickness of 2 nm. By using the Al2O3/Si QW structures on Si surfaces, the lifetime measured by u-PCD technique increased as a result of passivated surface effects. The discussion about the other properties such as electrical and optical properties of the QWs structures as well as the fabricated solar cells will be presented in this paper.

Keywords: Solar Cells, Quantum Confinement, Al2O3/Si quantum well, third generation, successive deposition technique

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18 The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n- AlGaAs/ p-GaAs Solar Cells

Authors: A. Guechi, M. Chegaar

Abstract:

This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is 63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%.The efficiency decrease with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.

Keywords: Solar Cells, AlGaAs/GaAs, environmental parameters, spectral variation, SMARTS

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17 X-Ray Analysis and Grain Size of CuInx Ga1-X Se2 Solar Cells

Authors: A. I. Al-Bassam, A. M. El-Nggar

Abstract:

Polycrystalline Cu In I-x GaxSe2 thin films have been fabricated. Some physical properties such as lattice parameters, crystal structure and microstructure of Cu In I-x GaxSe2 were determined using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films with x ≥ 0.5 have a chalcopyrite structure and the films with x ≤ 0.5 have a zinc blende structure. The lattice parameters were found to vary linearly with composition over a wide range from x = 0 to x =1.0. The variation of lattice parameters with composition was found to obey Vegard's law. The variation of the c/a with composition was also linear. The quality of a wide range of Cu In I-xGaxSe2 thin film absorbers from CuInSe to CuGaSe was evaluated by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

Keywords: Solar Cells, grain size, polycrystalline, lattice parameters

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16 Silicon Surface Treatment Effect on the Structural, Optical, and Optoelectronic Properties for Solar Cell Applications

Authors: Mounir Gaidi, N. Sboui, Lotfi Hedi Khezami, Mohamed Ben Rabha, B. Bessais

Abstract:

Metal-nano particle-assisted Chemical Etching is an extraordinary developed wet etching method of producing uniform semiconductor nano structure (nano wires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and opto electronic properties was investigated. Combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and opto electronic properties are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Solar Cells, Silicon Nanowires, porous silicon, stain etching, reflectivity, lifetime

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15 Sensitivity Studies for a Pin Homojunction a-Si:H Solar Cell

Authors: Leila Ayat, Afak Meftah

Abstract:

Amorphous-silicon alloys have great promise as low cost solar cell materials. They have excellent photo-conductivity and high optical absorption to sunlight. Now PIN a-Si:H based solar cells are widely used in power generation modules. However, to improve the performance of these cells further, a better fundamental under-standing of the factors limiting cell performance in the homo junction PIN structure is necessary. In this paper we discuss the sensitivity of light J-V characteristics to various device and material parameters in PIN homo junction solar cells. This work is a numerical simulation of the output parameters of a PIN a-Si:H solar cell under AM1.5 spectrum. These parameters are the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), the fill factor (FF), the conversion efficiency. The simulation was performed with SCAPS-1D software version 3.3 developed at ELIS in Belgium by Marc Burgelman et al. The obtained results are in agreement with experiment. In addition, the effect of the thickness, doping density, capture cross sections of the gap states and the band microscopic mobilities on the output parameters of the cell are also presented.

Keywords: Solar Cells, Sensitivity, thin film, amorphous silicon p-i-n junctions

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14 Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles for Novel Applications

Authors: P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien, Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik

Abstract:

The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great interest over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulphide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulphides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be applied to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferro-fluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Noble metal like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: Solar Cells, thin film, liquid/liquid interface, assembling nanoparticles, core/shell, recording media

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13 Electronic, Magnetic and Optic Properties in Halide Perovskites CsPbX3 (X= F, Cl, I)

Authors: A. Zitouni, S. Bentata, T. Lantri, B. Bouadjemi, Z. Aziz, Souidi Amel, W.Bensaali

Abstract:

We performed first-principle calculations, the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method is used to calculate structural, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of cubic halide perovskites CsPbX3 (X= F,I). We employed for this study the GGA approach and for exchange is modeled using the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential to predicting the accurate band gap of these materials. The optical properties (namely: the real and imaginary parts of dielectric functions, optical conductivities and absorption coefficient absorption make this halide perovskites promising materials for solar cells applications.

Keywords: Solar Cells, FP-LAPW, absorption coefficient, MBJ, halide perovskites, optoelectronic properties

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12 Temperature Dependent Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of CuO-ZnO Nanorods Based Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Venkatesan Annadurai, Kannan Ethirajalu, Anu Roshini Ramakrishnan

Abstract:

Copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) based coaxial (CuO-ZnO nanorods) heterojunction has been the interest of various research communities for solar cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors applications. Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type material with the band gap of 1.5 eV and it is considered to be an attractive absorber material in solar cells applications due to its high absorption coefficient and long minority carrier diffusion length. Similarly, n-type ZnO nanorods possess many attractive advantages over thin films such as, the light trapping ability and photosensitivity owing to the presence of oxygen related hole-traps at the surface. Moreover, the abundant availability, non-toxicity, and inexpensiveness of these materials make them suitable for potentially cheap, large area, and stable photovoltaic applications. However, the efficiency of the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction based devices is greatly affected by interface defects which generally lead to the poor performance. In spite of having much potential, not much work has been carried out to understand the interface quality and transport mechanism involved across the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction. Therefore, a detailed investigation of CuO-ZnO heterojunction is needed to understand the interface which affects its photovoltaic performance. Herein, we have fabricated the CuO-ZnO nanorods based heterojunction by simple hydrothermal and electrodeposition technique and investigated its interface quality by carrying out temperature (300 –10 K) dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements under dark and illumination of visible light. Activation energies extracted from the temperature dependent I-V characteristics reveals that recombination and tunneling mechanism across the interfacial barrier plays a significant role in the current flow.

Keywords: Solar Cells, nanorods, heterojunction, electrical transport

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11 Elaboration and Characterization of CdxZn1-XS Thin Films Deposed by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Zellagui Rahima, Chaumont Denis, Boughelout Abderrahman, Adnane Mohamed

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Thin films of CdxZn1-xS were deposed by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates for photovoltaic applications. The thin films CdZnS were synthesized by chemical bath (CBD) with different deposition protocols for optimized the parameter of deposition as the temperature, time of deposition, concentrations of ion and pH. Surface morphology, optical and chemical composition properties of thin film CdZnS were investigated by SEM, EDAX, spectrophotometer. The transmittance is 80% in visible region 300 nm – 1000 nm; it has been observed in that films the grain size is between 50nm and 100nm measured by SEM image and we also note that the shape of particle is changing with the change in concentration. This result favors of application these films in solar cells; the chemical analysis with EDAX gives information about the presence of Cd, Zn and S elements and investigates the stoichiometry.

Keywords: Solar Cells, thin film, transmition, cdzns

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10 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: Graphene, Solar Cells, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction

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9 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté

Abstract:

Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: Solar Cells, oxide, impedance, hybrid perovskite

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8 Analysis of Grid Connected High Concentrated Photovoltaic Systems for Peak Load Shaving in Kuwait

Authors: Adel A. Ghoneim

Abstract:

Air conditioning devices are substantially utilized in the summer months, as a result maximum loads in Kuwait take place in these intervals. Peak energy consumption are usually more expensive to satisfy compared to other standard power sources. The primary objective of the current work is to enhance the performance of high concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) systems in an attempt to minimize peak power usage in Kuwait using HCPV modules. High concentrated PV multi-junction solar cells provide a promising method towards accomplishing lowest pricing per kilowatt-hour. Nevertheless, these cells have various features that should be resolved to be feasible for extensive power production. A single diode equivalent circuit model is formulated to analyze multi-junction solar cells efficiency in Kuwait weather circumstances taking into account the effects of both the temperature and the concentration ratio. The diode shunt resistance that is commonly ignored in the established models is considered in the present numerical model. The current model results are successfully validated versus measurements from published data to within 1.8% accuracy. Present calculations reveal that the single diode model considering the shunt resistance provides accurate and dependable results. The electrical efficiency (η) is observed to increase with concentration to a specific concentration level after which it reduces. Implementing grid systems is noticed to increase with concentration to a certain concentration degree after which it decreases. Employing grid connected HCPV systems results in significant peak load reduction.

Keywords: Solar Cells, grid connected, peak load, high concentrated photovoltaic systems

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7 Graphene Materials for Efficient Hybrid Solar Cells: A Spectroscopic Investigation

Authors: Mohammed Khenfouch, Fokotsa V. Molefe, Bakang M. Mothudi

Abstract:

Nowadays, graphene and its composites are universally known as promising materials. They show their potential in a large field of applications including photovoltaics. This study reports on the role of nanohybrids and nanosystems known as strong light harvesters in the efficiency of graphene hybrid solar cells. Our system included Graphene/ZnO/Porphyrin/P3HT layers. Moreover, the physical properties including surface/interface, optical and vibrational properties were also studied. Our investigations confirmed the interaction between the different components as well as the sensitivity of their photonics to the synthesis conditions. Remarkable energy and charge transfer were detected and deeply investigated. Hence, the optimization of the conditions will lead to the fabrication of higher conversion efficiency in graphene solar cells.

Keywords: Optoelectronics, Graphene, Solar Cells, nanohybrids

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6 Study of Lamination Quality of Semi-Flexible Solar Modules with Special Textile Materials

Authors: S. Maleczek, K. Drabczyk, Z. Starowicz, P. Zieba

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The army, police and fire brigade commonly use dedicated equipment based on special textile materials. The properties of these textiles should ensure human life and health protection. Equally important is the ability to use electronic equipment and this requires access to the source of electricity. Photovoltaic cells integrated with such textiles can be solution for this problem in the most of outdoor circumstances. One idea may be to laminate the cells to textile without changing their properties. The main goal of this work was analyzed lamination quality of special designed semi-flexible solar module with special textile materials as a backsheet. In the first step of investigation, the quality of lamination was determined using device equipped with dynamometer. In this work, the crystalline silicon solar cells 50 x 50 mm and thin chemical tempered glass - 62 x 62 mm and 0.8 mm thick - were used. The obtained results showed the correlation between breaking force and type of textile weave and fiber. The breaking force was in the ranges: 4.5-5.5 N, 15-20 N and 30-33 N depending on the type of wave and fiber type. To verify these observations the microscopic and FTIR analysis of fibers was performed. The studies showed the special textile can be used as a backsheet of semi-flexible solar modules. This work presents a new composition of solar module with special textile layer which, to our best knowledge, has not been published so far. Moreover, the work presents original investigations on adhesion of EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate) polymer to textile with respect to fiber structure of laminated substrate. This work is realized for the GEKON project (No. GEKON2/O4/268473/23/2016) sponsored by The National Centre for Research and Development and The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management.

Keywords: Solar Cells, flexible solar modules, lamination process, textile for photovoltaics

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5 An Investigation on the Suitability of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered GMZO Thin Films: For All Sputtered Buffer-Less Solar Cells

Authors: Shailendra Kumar, Amitesh Kumar, Vivek Garg, Brajendra S. Sengar, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Shaibal Mukherjee

Abstract:

CuInGaSe (CIGSe) is the dominant thin film solar cell technology. The band alignment of Buffer/CIGSe interface is one of the most crucial parameters for solar cell performance. In this article, the valence band offset (VBOff) and conduction band offset (CBOff) values of Cu(In0.70Ga0.30)Se/ 1 at.% Ga: Mg0.25Zn0.75O (GMZO) heterojunction, grown by dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS), are calculated to understand the carrier transport mechanism at the heterojunction for the realization of all sputtered buffer-less solar cells. To determine the valence band offset (VBOff), ∆E_V at GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction interface, the standard method based on core-level photoemission is utilized. The value of ∆E_V can be evaluated by considering common core-level peaks. In our study, the values of (Valence band onset)VBOn, obtained by linear extrapolation method for GMZO and CIGSe films are calculated to be 2.86 and 0.76 eV. In the UPS spectra peak positions of Se 3d is observed in UPS spectra at 54.82 and 54.7 eV for CIGSe film and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively, while the peak position of Mg 2p is observed at 50.09 and 50.12 eV for GMZO and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively. The optical band gap of CIGSe and GMZO are obtained from absorption spectra procured from spectroscopic ellipsometry are 1.26 and 3.84 eV respectively. The calculated average values of ∆E_v and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. We investigated the band-offset properties at the GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction to verify the suitability of the GMZO for the realization of the buffer-less solar cells. The calculated average values of ∆E_V and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B.S.S and A.K acknowledge CSIR and V.G acknowledge UGC, India for their fellowships. B.S.S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: Solar Cells, CIGSe, DIBS, GMZO, UPS

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4 The Role of Graphene Oxide on Titanium Dioxide Performance for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Abdelmajid Timoumi, Salah Alamri, Hatem Alamri

Abstract:

TiO₂ Graphene Oxide (TiO₂-GO) nanocomposite was prepared using the spin coating technique of suspension of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets and Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TIP). The prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to examine their structures and morphologies. UV-vis transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies. From the TiO₂-GO samples, a 0.25 μm thin layer on a piece of glass 2x2 cm was created. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-deposited layers are amorphous in nature. The surface morphology images demonstrate that the layers grew in distributed with some spherical/rod-like and partially agglomerated TiGO on the surface of the composite. The Atomic Force Microscopy indicated that the films are smooth with slightly larger surface roughness. The analysis of optical absorption data of the layers showed that the values of band gap energy decreased from 3.46 eV to 1.40 eV, depending on the grams of GO doping. This reduction might be attributed to electron and/or hole trapping at the donor and acceptor levels in the TiO₂ band structure. Observed results have shown that the inclusion of GO in the TiO₂ matrix have exhibited significant and excellent properties, which would be promising for application in the photovoltaic application.

Keywords: Thin Films, Solar Cells, Graphene Oxide, titanium dioxide

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3 Implementation of Industrial Ecology Principles in the Production and Recycling of Solar Cells and Solar Modules

Authors: Gintaras Denafas, Julius Denafas, Irina Kliopova

Abstract:

Three opportunities for implementation of industrial ecology principles in the real industrial production of c-Si solar cells and modules are presented in this study. It includes: material flow dematerialisation, product modification and industrial symbiosis. Firstly, it is shown how the collaboration between R&D institutes and industry helps to achieve significant reduction of material consumption by a) refuse from phosphor silicate glass cleaning process and b) shortening of silicon nitride coating production step. Secondly, it was shown how the modification of solar module design can reduce the CO2 footprint for this product and enhance waste prevention. It was achieved by implementing a frameless glass/glass solar module design instead of glass/backsheet with aluminium frame. Such a design change is possible without purchasing new equipment and without loss of main product properties like efficiency, rigidity and longevity. Thirdly, industrial symbiosis in the solar cell production is possible in such case when manufacturing waste (silicon wafer and solar cell breakage) also used solar modules are collected, sorted and supplied as raw-materials to other companies involved in the production chain of c-Si solar cells. The obtained results showed that solar cells produced from recycled silicon can have a comparable electrical parameters like produced from standard, commercial silicon wafers. The above mentioned work was performed at solar cell producer Soli Tek R&D in the frame of H2020 projects CABRISS and Eco-Solar.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Recycling, Solar Cells, Process Optimisation, waste prevention, solar modules

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2 Internet of Things Edge Device Power Modelling and Optimization Simulator

Authors: Cian O'Shea, Ross O'Halloran, Peter Haigh

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. They are becoming widely adopted in many industries, including health care, building energy management, and conditional monitoring. As the scale of WSN deployments increases, the cost and complexity of battery replacement and disposal become more significant and in time may become a barrier to adoption. Harvesting ambient energies provide a pathway to reducing dependence on batteries and in the future may lead to autonomously powered sensors. This work describes a simulation tool that enables the user to predict the battery life of a wireless sensor that utilizes energy harvesting to supplement the battery power. To create this simulator, all aspects of a typical WSN edge device were modelled including, sensors, transceiver, and microcontroller as well as the energy source components (batteries, solar cells, thermoelectric generators (TEG), supercapacitors and DC/DC converters). The tool allows the user to plug and play different pre characterized devices as well as add user-defined devices. The goal of this simulation tool is to predict the lifetime of a device and scope for extension using ambient energy sources.

Keywords: Simulation, Energy harvesting, Solar Cells, Wireless Sensor Network, IoT, supercapacitor, TEG, edge device

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1 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: W. Liu, S. Li, J. Yu, A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, A. Abas, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker

Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Solar Cells, reflection, Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured

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