Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

simplified conjugate-gradient method Related Abstracts

2 Optimization of Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Tu-Chieh Hung, Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yu-Xian Huang

Abstract:

This work employs a combined optimization procedure including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model to study the optimal geometric parameter design of double-layered microchannel heat sinks. The overall thermal resistance RT is the objective function to be minimized with number of channels, N, the channel width ratio, β, the bottom channel aspect ratio, αb, and upper channel aspect ratio, αu, as the search variables. It is shown that, for the given bottom area (10 mm×10 mm) and heat flux (100 W cm-2), the optimal (minimum) thermal resistance of double-layered microchannel heat sinks is about RT=0.12 ℃/m2W with the corresponding optimal geometric parameters N=73, β=0.50, αb=3.52, and, αu= 7.21 under a constant pumping power of 0.05 W. The optimization process produces a maximum reduction by 52.8% in the overall thermal resistance compared with an initial guess (N=112, β=0.37, αb=10.32 and, αu=10.93). The results also show that the optimal thermal resistance decreases rapidly with the pumping power and tends to be a saturated value afterward. The corresponding optimal values of parameters N, αb, and αu increase while that of β decrease as the pumping power increases. However, further increasing pumping power is not always cost-effective for the application of heat sink designs.

Keywords: Optimization, Thermal Resistance, double-layered microchannel heat sink, simplified conjugate-gradient method

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1 Flow Field Optimization for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang

Abstract:

The flow field design in the bipolar plates affects the performance of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This work adopted a combined optimization procedure, including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a completely three-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal fuel cell model, to look for optimal flow field design for a single serpentine fuel cell of size 9×9 mm with five channels. For the direct solution, the two-fluid method was adopted to incorporate the heat effects using energy equations for entire cells. The model assumes that the system is steady; the inlet reactants are ideal gases; the flow is laminar; and the porous layers such as the diffusion layer, catalyst layer and PEM are isotropic. The model includes continuity, momentum and species equations for gaseous species, liquid water transport equations in the channels, gas diffusion layers, and catalyst layers, water transport equation in the membrane, electron and proton transport equations. The Bulter-Volumer equation was used to describe electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layers. The cell output power density Pcell is maximized subjected to an optimal set of channel heights, H1-H5, and channel widths, W2-W5. The basic case with all channel heights and widths set at 1 mm yields a Pcell=7260 Wm-2. The optimal design displays a tapered characteristic for channels 1, 3 and 4, and a diverging characteristic in height for channels 2 and 5, producing a Pcell=8894 Wm-2, about 22.5% increment. The reduced channel heights of channels 2-4 significantly increase the sub-rib convection and widths for effectively removing liquid water and oxygen transport in gas diffusion layer. The final diverging channel minimizes the leakage of fuel to outlet via sub-rib convection from channel 4 to channel 5. Near-optimal design without huge loss in cell performance but is easily manufactured is tested. The use of a straight, final channel of 0.1 mm height has led to 7.37% power loss, while the design with all channel widths to be 1 mm with optimal channel heights obtained above yields only 1.68% loss of current density. The presence of a final, diverging channel has greater impact on cell performance than the fine adjustment of channel width at the simulation conditions set herein studied.

Keywords: Optimization, simplified conjugate-gradient method, flow field design, serpentine flow field, sub-rib convection

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