Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Screening Related Abstracts

37 Cellolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Bacillus Genus Isolated from the Soil of Zailiskiy Alatau Slopes

Authors: I. Savitskaya, A. Kistaubayeva, A. Zhubanova, I. Blavachinskaiya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, A. Otarbay, A.Isabekova

Abstract:

This study was conducted for the investigation of number of cellulolytic bacteria and their ability in decomposition. Seven samples surface soil were collected on cellulose Zailiskii Alatau slopes. Cellulolitic activity of new strains of Bacillus, isolated from soil is determined. Isolated cellulose degrading bacteria were screened for determination of the highest cellulose activity by quantitative assay using Congo red, gravimetric assay and colorimetric DNS method trough of the determination of the parameters of sugar reduction. Strains are assigned to: B.subtilis, B.licheniformis, B. cereus and, В. megaterium. Bacillus strains consisting of several different types of cellulases have broad substrate specificity of cellulase complexes formed by them. Cellulolitic bacteria were recorded to have highest cellulase activity and selected for optimization of cellulase enzyme production.

Keywords: Screening, cellulose-degrading bacteria, cellulase complex, foothills soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
36 Impact of Mammographic Screening on Ethnic Inequalities in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in New Zealand

Authors: Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Ian Campbell, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of difference in the rate of screen detected breast cancer between Māori and European women on more advanced disease at diagnosis and lower survival in Māori women. Methods: All primary in-situ and invasive breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) between 1999 and 2012 in the Waikato area were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the national screening database. Association between screen versus non-screen detection and cancer stage at diagnosis and survival were compared by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Results: Māori women had 50% higher odds of being diagnosed with more advance staged cancer compared with NZ European women, a half of which was explained by the lower rate of screen detected cancer in Māori women. Significantly lower breast cancer survival rates were observed for Māori compared with NZ European and most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic groups for symptomatically detected breast cancer. No significant survival differences by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation were observed for screen detected breast cancer. Conclusions: Low rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a major contributor for more advanced stage disease at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival in Māori compared with NZ European women. Increasing screening participation for Māori has the potential to substantially reduce breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Ethnicity, Screening, inequity

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
35 Reliability and Construct Validity of the Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ)

Authors: A. Zurraini, Syed Alwi Sar, H. Helmy, H. Nazeefah

Abstract:

Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) was developed as a screening tool to detect patients with early dementia in primary care. It was developed based on 20 symptoms of dementia. From a preliminary study, EDQ had been shown to be a promising alternative for screening of early dementia. This study was done to further test on EDQ’s reliability and validity. Using a systematic random sampling, 200 elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Kuching, Sarawak had consented to participate in the study and were administered the EDQ. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to exclude patients with depression. Those who scored >21 MMSE, were retested using the EDQ. Reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (principle component with varimax rotation). The result showed that the overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was good which was 0.874. Confirmatory factor analysis on 4 factors indicated that the Cronbach’s alpha for each domain were acceptable with memory (0.741), concentration (0.764), emotional and physical symptoms (0.754) and lastly sleep and environment (0.720). Pearson correlation coefficient between the first EDQ score and the retest EDQ score among those with MMSE of >21 showed a very strong, positive correlation between the two variables, r = 0.992, N=160, P <0.001. The results of the validation study showed that Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) is a valid and reliable tool to be used as a screening tool to detect early dementia in primary care.

Keywords: Primary Care, Screening, Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ), construct validity

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
34 Motif Search-Aided Screening of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. Maculicola Genome for Genes Encoding Tertiary Alcohol Ester Hydrolases

Authors: M. L. Mangena, N. Mokoena, K. Rashamuse, M. G. Tlou

Abstract:

Tertiary alcohol ester (TAE) hydrolases are a group of esterases (EC 3.1.1.-) that catalyze the kinetic resolution of TAEs and as a result, they are sought-after for the production of optically pure tertiary alcohols (TAs) which are useful as building blocks for number biologically active compounds. What sets these enzymes apart is, the presence of a GGG(A)X-motif in the active site which appears to be the main reason behind their activity towards the sterically demanding TAEs. The genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) comprises a multitude of genes that encode esterases. We therefore, hypothesize that some of these genes encode TAE hydrolases. In this study, Psm was screened for TAE hydrolase activity using the linalyl acetate (LA) plate assay and a positive reaction was observed. As a result, the genome of Psm was screened for esterases with a GGG(A)X-motif using the motif search tool and two potential TAE hydrolase genes (PsmEST1 and 2, 1100 and 1000bp, respectively) were identified, PsmEST1 was amplified by PCR and the gene sequenced for confirmation. Analysis of the sequence data with the SingnalP 4.1 server revealed that the protein comprises a signal peptide (22 amino acid residues) on the N-terminus. Primers specific for the gene encoding the mature protein (without the signal peptide) were designed such that they contain NdeI and XhoI restriction sites for directional cloning of the PCR products into pET28a. The gene was expressed in E. coli JM109 (DE3) and the clones screened for TAE hydrolase activity using the LA plate assay. A positive clone was selected, overexpressed and the protein purified using nickel affinity chromatography. The activity of the esterase towards LA was confirmed using thin layer chromatography.

Keywords: Screening, hydrolases, tertiary alcohol esters, tertiary alcohols, Pseudomonas syringae pv, maculicola genome, esterase activity, linalyl acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
33 Novel Aminoglycosides to Target Resistant Pathogens

Authors: Nihar Ranjan, Derrick Watkins, Dev P. Arya

Abstract:

Current methods in the study of antibiotic activity of ribosome targeted antibiotics are dependent on cell based bacterial inhibition assays or various forms of ribosomal binding assays. These assays are typically independent of each other and little direct correlation between the ribosomal binding and bacterial inhibition is established with the complementary assay. We have developed novel high-throughput capable assays for ribosome targeted drug discovery. One such assay examines the compounds ability to bind to a model ribosomal RNA A-site. We have also coupled this assay to other functional orthogonal assays. Such analysis can provide valuable understanding of the relationships between two complementary drug screening methods and could be used as standard analysis to correlate the affinity of a compound for its target and the effect the compound has on a cell.

Keywords: drugs, Screening, bacterial resistance, aminoglycosides

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
32 FTIR Spectroscopy for in vitro Screening in Microbial Biotechnology

Authors: V. Shapaval, N. K. Afseth, D. Tzimorotas, A. Kohler

Abstract:

Globally there is a dramatic increase in the demand for food, energy, materials and clean water since natural resources are limited. As a result, industries are looking for ways to reduce rest materials and to improve resource efficiency. Microorganisms have a high potential to be used as bio factories for the production of primary and secondary metabolites that represent high-value bio-products (enzymes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, bio-plastics, glucans, etc.). In order to find good microbial producers, to design suitable substrates from food rest materials and to optimize fermentation conditions, rapid analytical techniques for quantifying target bio products in microbial cells are needed. In the EU project FUST (R4SME, Fp7), we have developed a fully automated high-throughput FUST system based on micro-cultivation and FTIR spectroscopy that facilitates the screening of microorganisms, substrates and fermentation conditions for the optimization of the production of different high-value metabolites (single cell oils, bio plastics). The automated system allows the preparation of 100 samples per hour. Currently, The FUST system is in use for screening of filamentous fungi in order to find oleaginous strains with the ability to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the optimization of cheap substrates, derived from food rest materials, and the optimization of fermentation conditions for the high yield of single cell oil.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Screening, FTIR spectroscopy, FUST system

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
31 Evaluation of the Accuracy of a ‘Two Question Screening Tool’ in the Detection of Intimate Partner Violence in a Primary Healthcare Setting in South Africa

Authors: A. Saimen, E. Armstrong, C. Manitshana

Abstract:

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a global human rights violation. It is universally under diagnosed and the institution of timeous multi-faceted interventions has been noted to benefit IPV victims. Currently, the concept of using a screening tool to detect IPV has not been widely explored in a primary healthcare setting in South Africa, and it was for this reason that this study has been undertaken. A systematic random sampling of 1 in 8 women over a period of 3 months was conducted prospectively at the OPD of a Level 1 Hospital. Participants were asked about their experience of IPV during the past 12 months. The WAST-short, a two-question tool, was used to screen patients for IPV. To verify the result of the screening, women were also asked the remaining questions from the WAST. Data was collected from 400 participants, with a response rate of 99.3%. The prevalence of IPV in the sample was 32%. The WAST-short was shown to have the following operating characteristics: sensitivity 45.2%, specificity 98%,positive predictive value 98%, negative predictive value 79%. The WAST-short lacks sufficient sensitivity and therefore is not an ideal screening tool for this setting. Improvement in the sensitivity of the WAST-short in this setting may be achieved by lowering the threshold for a positive result for IPV screening, and modification of the screening questions to better reflect IPV as understood by the local population.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Screening, Intimate Partner Violence, screening tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
30 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir

Abstract:

The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: Disease, Screening, chickpea, epidemiological

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
29 Development of a New Method for the Evaluation of Heat Tolerant Wheat Genotypes for Genetic Studies and Wheat Breeding

Authors: Hameed Alsamadany, Nader Aryamanesh, Guijun Yan

Abstract:

Heat is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting wheat production worldwide. To identify heat tolerant genotypes, a newly designed system involving a large plastic box holding many layers of filter papers positioned vertically with wheat seeds sown in between for the ease of screening large number of wheat geno types was developed and used to study heat tolerance. A collection of 499 wheat geno types were screened under heat stress (35ºC) and non-stress (25ºC) conditions using the new method. Compared with those under non-stress conditions, a substantial and very significant reduction in seedling length (SL) under heat stress was observed with an average reduction of 11.7 cm (P<0.01). A damage index (DI) of each geno type based on SL under the two temperatures was calculated and used to rank the genotypes. Three hexaploid geno types of Triticum aestivum [Perenjori (DI= -0.09), Pakistan W 20B (-0.18) and SST16 (-0.28)], all growing better at 35ºC than at 25ºC were identified as extremely heat tolerant (EHT). Two hexaploid genotypes of T. aestivum [Synthetic wheat (0.93) and Stiletto (0.92)] and two tetraploid genotypes of T. turgidum ssp dicoccoides [G3211 (0.98) and G3100 (0.93)] were identified as extremely heat susceptible (EHS). Another 14 geno types were classified as heat tolerant (HT) and 478 as heat susceptible (HS). Extremely heat tolerant and heat susceptible geno types were used to develop re combinant inbreeding line populations for genetic studies. Four major QTLs, HTI4D, HTI3B.1, HTI3B.2 and HTI3A located on wheat chromosomes 4D, 3B (x2) and 3A, explaining up to 34.67 %, 28.93 %, 13.46% % and 11.34% phenotypic variation, respectively, were detected. The four QTLs together accounted for 88.40% of the total phenotypic variation. Random wheat geno types possessing the four heat tolerant alleles performed significantly better under the heat condition than those lacking the heat tolerant alleles indicating the importance of the four QTLs in conferring heat tolerance in wheat. Molecular markers are being developed for marker assisted breeding of heat tolerant wheat.

Keywords: Screening, qtl mapping, bread wheat, heat tolerance, RILs, association analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
28 Ceratocystis manginecans Causal Agent of a Destructive Mangoes in Pakistan

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Asma Rashid, Shazia Iram

Abstract:

Mango sudden death is an emerging problem in Pakistan. As its prevalence is observed in almost all mango growing areas and severity varied from 2-5% in Punjab and 5-10% in Sindh. Symptoms on affected trees include bark splitting, discoloration of the vascular tissue, wilting, gummosis and at the end rapid death. Total of n= 45 isolates were isolated from different mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh. Pathogenicity of these fungal isolates was tested through artificial inoculation method on different hosts (potato tubers, detached mango leaves, detached mango twigs and mango plants) under controlled conditions and all were proved pathogenic with varying degree of aggressiveness in reference to control. The findings of the present study proved that out of these four methods, potato tubers inoculation method was the most ideal as this fix the inoculums on the target site. Increased fungal growth and spore numbers may be due to soft tissues of potato tubers from which Ceratocystis isolates can easily pass. Lesion area on potato tubers was in the range of 7.09-0.14 cm2 followed by detached mango twigs which were ranged from 0.48-0.09 cm2). All pathological results were proved highly significant at P<0.05 through ANOVA but isolate to isolate showed non-significant behaviour but they have the positive effect on lesion area. Re-isolation of respective fungi was achieved with 100 percent success which results in the verification of Koch’s postulates. DNA of fungal pathogens was successfully extracted through phenol chloroform method. Amplification was done through ITS, b-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-a) gene primers and the amplified amplicons were sequenced and compared from NCBI which showed 99-100 % similarity with Ceratocystis manginecans. Fungus Ceratocystis manginecans formed one of strongly supported sub-clades through phylogenetic tree. Results obtained through this work would be supportive in establishment of relation of isolates with their region and will give information about pathogenicity level of isolates that would be useful to develop the management policies to reduce the afflictions in orchards caused by mango sudden death.

Keywords: Screening, phylogenetic, mango, artificial inoculation, Ceratocystis manginecans

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
27 Knowledge and Attitude of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students towards Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Afaf Abdallah, Moawia Elsadig

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common women cancer among worldwide; representing 13% of female cancers. In Sudan, it ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women as other developing countries. Aim: Is to study awareness, attitude of nursing students towards cervical cancer prevention. The results: Most of the students were not aware of other screening methods than Pap smear test. However, half of the respondents showed positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination. More than two-thirds of respondents exhibited a positive attitude and were willing to undergo Pap smear in the future. Conclusion: The study shows that the majority of the participants have poor information, education would motivate nurses to participate actively in awareness raising, screening, and management.

Keywords: Knowledge, Screening, Cervical Cancer, attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
26 Screening Some Accessions of Lentil (Lens culinaris M.) for Salt Tolerance at Germination and Early Seedling Stage in Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Azene Tesfaye, Yohannes Petros, Habtamu Zeleke

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation among Ethiopian lentil, laboratory experiment were conducted to screen 12 accessions of lentil (Lens culinaris M.) for salt tolerance. Seeds of 12 Lentil accessions were grown at laboratory (Petri dish) condition with different levels of salinity (0, 2, 4, and 8 dSm-1 NaCl) for 4 weeks. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD) in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS software. Average germination time, germination percentage, seedling shoot and root traits, seedling shoot and root weight were evaluated. The two way ANOVA for varieties revealed statistically significant variation among lentil accession, NaCl level and their interactions (p<0.001) with respect to the entire parameters. It was found that salt stress significantly delays germination rate and decreases germination percentage, shoot and root length, seedling shoot and root weight of lentil accessions. The degree of decrement varied with accessions and salinity levels. Accessions 36120, 9235 and 36004 were better salt tolerant than the other accessions. As the result, it is recommended to be used as a genetic resource for the development of lentil accession and other very salt sensitive crop with improved germination under salt stress condition.

Keywords: Screening, Germination, NaCl, seedling stage, accession, lentil

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
25 Standardization of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scales - Adolescent Form (K BASC-2, PRS-A) among Korean Sample

Authors: Christine Myunghee Ahn, Sung Eun Baek, Sun Young Park

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Korean version of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children 2nd Edition, Parent Rating Scales - Adolescent Form (K BASC-2, PRS-A). The 150-item K BASC-2, PRS-A questionnaire was administered to a total of 690 Korean parents or caregivers (N=690) of adolescent children in middle school and high school. Results from the confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicate that the K BASC-2, PRS-A yielded a 3-factor solution similar to the factor structure found in the original version of the BASC-2. The internal consistencies using the Cronbach’s alpha of the composite scale scores were in the .92~ .98 range. The overall reliability and validity of the K BASC-2, PRS-A seem adequate. Structural equation modeling was used to verify the theoretical relationship among the scales of Adaptability, Withdrawal, Somatization, Depression, and Anxiety, to render additional support for internal validity. Other relevant findings, practical implications regarding the use of the KBASC-2, PRS-A and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Screening, behavioral assessment system, cross-cultural validity, parent report

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
24 The Necessity of Screening for Internalizing Mental Health Problems in Primary School Educational Settings

Authors: Atefeh Ahmadi, Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa

Abstract:

Mental health problems that children introspect them are hardly identified. The internalizing nature of Anxiety Disorders as the most prevalent psychological diseases, make them been under recognized by parents and teachers and so become under attended by school counsellors and subsequently under referred to clinicians. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of Anxiety Disorders to clarify if it is necessary to run screening programs in rural educational settings. Spence children anxiety scale-malay-child for the first time in Malaysia distributed among 640 Malay rural primary school students aged from 9-11 years old. Cut-off score was considered one standard deviation more than the mean of all students’ scores. The results of descriptive analyses revealed the mean for scores of SCAS was 32.84 and 15.6% of students had high level of anxiety. In addition, the level and prevalence of six types of anxiety disorders based on SCAS were described. In regards to the study outcomes, screening for anxiety disorders in academic settings could prevent and reduce their side effects by early identification.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, Screening, primary schools, SCAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
23 IT-Aided Business Process Enabling Real-Time Analysis of Candidates for Clinical Trials

Authors: Matthieu-P. Schapranow

Abstract:

Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires the screening of a big number of potential candidates, i.e. the testing for trial-specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, which is a time-consuming and complex task. Today, a significant amount of time is spent on identification of adequate trial participants as their selection may affect the overall study results. We introduce a unique patient eligibility metric, which allows systematic ranking and classification of candidates based on trial-specific filter criteria. Our web application enables real-time analysis of patient data and assessment of candidates using freely definable inclusion and exclusion criteria. As a result, the overall time required for identifying eligible candidates is tremendously reduced whilst additional degrees of freedom for evaluating the relevance of individual candidates are introduced by our contribution.

Keywords: Data Analysis, clinical trials, Clustering, Screening, in-memory technology, eligibility metric

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
22 Key Findings on Rapid Syntax Screening Test for Children

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi, Thilini Lokubalasuriya, Shakeela Saleem, Dinusha Nonis, Isuru Dharmaratne, Lakshika Udugama

Abstract:

Introduction: Late identification of language difficulties in children could result in long-term negative consequences for communication, literacy and self-esteem. This highlights the need for early identification and intervention for speech, language and communication difficulties. Speech and language therapy is a relatively new profession in Sri Lanka and at present, there are no formal standardized screening tools to assess language skills in Sinhala-speaking children. The development and validation of a short, accurate screening tool to enable the identification of children with syntactic difficulties in Sinhala is a current need. Aims: 1) To develop test items for a Sinhala Syntactic Structures (S3 Short Form) test on children aged between 3;0 to 5;0 years 2) To validate the test of Sinhala Syntactic Structures (S3 Short Form) on children aged between 3; 0 to 5; 0 years Methods: The Sinhala Syntactic Structures (S3 Short Form) was devised based on the Renfrew Action Picture Test. As Sinhala contains post-positions in contrast to English, the principles of the Renfrew Action Picture Test were followed to gain an information score and a grammar score but the test devised reflected the linguistic-specificity and complexity of Sinhala and the pictures were in keeping with the culture of the country. This included the dative case marker ‘to give something to her’ (/ejɑ:ʈə/ meaning ‘to her’), the instrumental case marker ‘to get something from’ (/ejɑ:gən/ meaning ‘from him’ or /gɑhən/ meaning ‘from the tree’), possessive noun (/ɑmmɑge:/ meaning ‘mother’s’ or /gɑhe:/ meaning ‘of the tree’ or /male:/ meaning ‘of the flower’) and plural markers (/bɑllɑ:/ bɑllo:/ meaning ‘dog/dogs’, /mɑlə/mɑl/ meaning ‘flower/flowers’, /gɑsə/gɑs/ meaning ‘tree/trees’ and /wɑlɑ:kulə/wɑlɑ:kulu/ meaning ‘cloud/clouds’). The picture targets included socio-culturally appropriate scenes of the Sri Lankan New Year celebration, elephant procession and the Buddhist ‘Wesak’ ceremony. The test was piloted with a group of 60 participants and necessary changes made. In phase 1, the test was administered to 100 Sinhala-speaking children aged between 3; 0 and 5; 0 years in one district. In this presentation on phase 2, the test was administered to another 100 Sinhala-speaking children aged between 3; 0 to 5; 0 in three districts. In phase 2, the selection of the test items was assessed via measures of content validity, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability. The age of acquisition of each syntactic structure was determined using content and grammar scores which were statistically analysed using t-tests and one-way ANOVAs. Results: High percentage agreement was found on test-retest reliability on content validity and Pearson correlation measures and on inter-rater reliability. As predicted, there was a statistically significant influence of age on the production of syntactic structures at p<0.05. Conclusions: As the target test items included generated the information and the syntactic structures expected, the test could be used as a quick syntactic screening tool with preschool children.

Keywords: Language, Screening, Syntax, Sinhala

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
21 Nutritional Status of Surgical and Orthopedic Patients: 3B Ward

Authors: Jitaree Tantiyasawatdikul, Bantita Jadnok, Sarunya Tijana

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional status is an important factor before, during, and after an operation. It can help wound healing. If the patients have good nutritional status before and after an operation, wound healing can occur more easily. It can strengthen the immune system leading to decreased infection, reduced length of stay, and reducing the cost to patients and caregivers. Therefore, screening to evaluate the nutritional status of patients in 3B becomes the database for further developing the treatment and also will lead to excellent service from the interdisciplinary team. Objective: To study the nutritional status of patients in surgical ward 3B at Surgical and Orthopedics Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital. Method: A descriptive study, to evaluate the nutritional status of 86 patients admitted in 3B between October 2014 and March 2015.The instruments used in this study consisted of two parts: 1) personal data, 2) Screening nutritional status. The data were analyzed by percentage and mean. Results: A sample population of 86 patients aged 22-81 years old, mean age 52.59years, 90.69% are married, female were 55.81%, regular diet 70.93%, patients with no problem oral cavity was 87.21%.The sample population had high incidence of CA 47.67% and secondly cardiovascular disease 36.05 %. Patients with high-risk nutrition was 12.79 % including 45.45% cardiovascular disease and 36.36% CA. Screening of nutritional status of high-risk nutrition was 39.36% severe triceps skinfold (TSF), severe mid-arm muscle circumference(MAMC) 9.09% and severe total lymphocyte 39.36%. Conclusion: The result of nutritional status screening of surgical ward 3B found 12.79% patients with high-risk nutrition including 45.45% with cardiovascular disease .There was no problem with oral cavity and eating.

Keywords: Screening, Nutritional status, surgical patients, Srinagarind Hospital

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
20 Diabetic Screening in Rural Lesotho, Southern Africa

Authors: Marie-Helena Docherty, Sion Edryd Williams

Abstract:

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, type 2 diabetes represents over 90% of all types of diabetes with the number of diabetic patients expected to rise. This represents a huge economic burden in an area already contending with high rates of other significant diseases, including the highest worldwide prevalence of HIV. Diabetic complications considerably impact on morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological data for the region quotes high rates of retinopathy (7-63%), neuropathy (27-66%) and microalbuminuria (10-83%). It is therefore imperative that diabetic screening programmes are established. It is recognised that in many parts of the developing world the implementation and management of such programmes is limited by a lack of available resources. The International Diabetes Federation produced guidelines in 2012 taking these limitations into account suggesting that all diabetic patients should have access to basic screening. These guidelines are consistent with the national diabetic guidelines produced by the Lesotho Medical Council. However, diabetic care in Lesotho is delivered at the local level, with variable levels of quality. A cross sectional study was performed in the outpatient department of Maluti Hospital in Mapoteng, Lesotho, a busy rural hospital in the Berea district. Demographic data on gender, age and modality of treatment were collected over a six-week time period. Information regarding 3 basic screening parameters was obtained. These parameters included eye screening (defined as a documented ophthalmology review within the last 12 months), foot screening (defined as a documented foot health assessment by any health care professional within the last 12 months) and secondary prevention (defined as a documented blood pressure and lipid profile reading within the last 12 months). These parameters were selected on the basis of the absolute minimum level of resources in Maluti Hospital. Renal screening was excluded, as the hospital does not have access to reliable renal profile checks or urinalysis. There is however a fully functioning on-site ophthalmology department run by a senior ophthalmologist with the ability to provide retinal photography, retinal surgery and photocoagulation therapy. Data was collected on 183 type 2 diabetics. 112 patients were male and 71 were female. The average age was 43 years. 4 patients were diet controlled, 140 patients were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (metformin and/or glibenclamide), and 39 patients were on a combination of insulin and oral hypoglycaemics. In the preceding 12 months, 5 patients had undergone eye screening (3%), 24 patients had undergone foot screening (13%), and 31 patients had lipid profile testing (17%). All patients had a documented blood pressure reading (100%). Our results show that screening is poorly performed in the basic indicators suggested by the IDF and the Lesotho Medical Council. On the basis of these results, a screening programme was developed using the mnemonic SaFE; secondary prevention, foot and eye care. This is simple, memorable and transferable between healthcare professionals. In the future, the expectation would be to expand upon this current programme to include renal screening, and to further develop screening pertaining to secondary prevention.

Keywords: Complications, Rural, Screening, Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
19 The Inclusive Human Trafficking Checklist: A Dialectical Measurement Methodology

Authors: Maria C. Almario, Pam Remer, Jeff Resse, Kathy Moran, Linda Theander Adam

Abstract:

The identification of victims of human trafficking and consequential service provision is characterized by a significant disconnection between the estimated prevalence of this issue and the number of cases identified. This poses as tremendous problem for human rights advocates as it prevents data collection, information sharing, allocation of resources and opportunities for international dialogues. The current paper introduces the Inclusive Human Trafficking Checklist (IHTC) as a measurement methodology with theoretical underpinnings derived from dialectic theory. The presence of human trafficking in a person’s life is conceptualized as a dynamic and dialectic interaction between vulnerability and exploitation. The current papers explores the operationalization of exploitation and vulnerability, evaluates the metric qualities of the instrument, evaluates whether there are differences in assessment based on the participant’s profession, level of knowledge, and training, and assesses if users of the instrument perceive it as useful. A total of 201 participants were asked to rate three vignettes predetermined by experts to qualify as a either human trafficking case or not. The participants were placed in three conditions: business as usual, utilization of the IHTC with and without training. The results revealed a statistically significant level of agreement between the expert’s diagnostic and the application of the IHTC with an improvement of 40% on identification when compared with the business as usual condition While there was an improvement in identification in the group with training, the difference was found to have a small effect size. Participants who utilized the IHTC showed an increased ability to identify elements of identity-based vulnerabilities as well as elements of fraud, which according to the results, are distinctive variables in cases of human trafficking. In terms of the perceived utility, the results revealed higher mean scores for the groups utilizing the IHTC when compared to the business as usual condition. These findings suggest that the IHTC improves appropriate identification of cases and that it is perceived as a useful instrument. The application of the IHTC as a multidisciplinary instrumentation that can be utilized in legal and human services settings is discussed as a pivotal piece of helping victims restore their sense of dignity, and advocate for legal, physical and psychological reparations. It is noteworthy that this study was conducted with a sample in the United States and later re-tested in Colombia. The implications of the instrument for treatment conceptualization and intervention in human trafficking cases are discussed as opportunities for enhancement of victim well-being, restoration engagement and activism. With the idea that what is personal is also political, we believe that the careful observation and data collection in specific cases can inform new areas of human rights activism.

Keywords: Measurement, Human trafficking, Screening, Vulnerability, Exploitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
18 Coupling of Microfluidic Droplet Systems with ESI-MS Detection for Reaction Optimization

Authors: Detlev Belder, Julia R. Beulig, Stefan Ohla

Abstract:

In contrast to off-line analytical methods, lab-on-a-chip technology delivers direct information about the observed reaction. Therefore, microfluidic devices make an important scientific contribution, e.g. in the field of synthetic chemistry. Herein, the rapid generation of analytical data can be applied for the optimization of chemical reactions. These microfluidic devices enable a fast change of reaction conditions as well as a resource saving method of operation. In the presented work, we focus on the investigation of multiphase regimes, more specifically on a biphasic microfluidic droplet systems. Here, every single droplet is a reaction container with customized conditions. The biggest challenge is the rapid qualitative and quantitative readout of information as most detection techniques for droplet systems are non-specific, time-consuming or too slow. An exception is the electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The combination of a reaction screening platform with a rapid and specific detection method is an important step in droplet-based microfluidics. In this work, we present a novel approach for synthesis optimization on the nanoliter scale with direct ESI-MS detection. The development of a droplet-based microfluidic device, which enables the modification of different parameters while simultaneously monitoring the effect on the reaction within a single run, is shown. By common soft- and photolithographic techniques a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip with different functionalities is developed. As an interface for the MS detection, we use a steel capillary for ESI and improve the spray stability with a Teflon siphon tubing, which is inserted underneath the steel capillary. By optimizing the flow rates, it is possible to screen parameters of various reactions, this is exemplarity shown by a Domino Knoevenagel Hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. Different starting materials, catalyst concentrations and solvent compositions are investigated. Due to the high repetition rate of the droplet production, each set of reaction condition is examined hundreds of times. As a result, of the investigation, we receive possible reagents, the ideal water-methanol ratio of the solvent and the most effective catalyst concentration. The developed system can help to determine important information about the optimal parameters of a reaction within a short time. With this novel tool, we make an important step on the field of combining droplet-based microfluidics with organic reaction screening.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mass Spectrometry, Screening, droplet, organic reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
17 Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Day-Care Centres

Authors: Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Synnve Schjølberg, Trond Diseth

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders emerging in early development characterized by impairment in social communication skills and a restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. Early identification and interventions potentially improve development and quality of life of children with ASD. Symptoms of ASD are apparent through the second year of life, yet diagnostic age are still around 4 years of age. This study explored whether symptoms associated with ASD are possible to identify in typical Norwegian day-care centers in the second year of life. Results of this study clearly indicates that most described symptoms also are identifiable by day-care staff, and that a short observation list of 5 symptoms clearly identify children with ASD from a sample of normal developing peers.

Keywords: autism, Screening, early identification, day-care

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
16 Screening and Improved Production of an Extracellular β-Fructofuranosidase from Bacillus Sp

Authors: Lynette Lincoln, Sunil S. More

Abstract:

With the rising demand of sugar used today, it is proposed that world sugar is expected to escalate up to 203 million tonnes by 2021. Hydrolysis of sucrose (table sugar) into glucose and fructose equimolar mixture is catalyzed by β-D-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.26), commonly called as invertase. For fluid filled center in chocolates, preparation of artificial honey, as a sweetener and especially to ensure that food stuffs remain fresh, moist and soft for longer spans invertase is applied widely and is extensively being used. From an industrial perspective, properties such as increased solubility, osmotic pressure and prevention of crystallization of sugar in food products are highly desired. Screening for invertase does not involve plate assay/qualitative test to determine the enzyme production. In this study, we use a three-step screening strategy for identification of a novel bacterial isolate from soil which is positive for invertase production. The primary step was serial dilution of soil collected from sugarcane fields (black soil, Maddur region of Mandya district, Karnataka, India) was grown on a Czapek-Dox medium (pH 5.0) containing sucrose as the sole C-source. Only colonies with the capability to utilize/breakdown sucrose exhibited growth. Bacterial isolates released invertase in order to take up sucrose, splitting the disaccharide into simple sugars. Secondly, invertase activity was determined from cell free extract by measuring the glucose released in the medium at 540 nm. Morphological observation of the most potent bacteria was examined by several identification tests using Bergey’s manual, which enabled us to know the genus of the isolate to be Bacillus. Furthermore, this potent bacterial colony was subjected to 16S rDNA PCR amplification and a single discrete PCR amplicon band of 1500 bp was observed. The 16S rDNA sequence was used to carry out BLAST alignment search tool of NCBI Genbank database to obtain maximum identity score of sequence. Molecular sequencing and identification was performed by Xcelris Labs Ltd. (Ahmedabad, India). The colony was identified as Bacillus sp. BAB-3434, indicating to be the first novel strain for extracellular invertase production. Molasses, a by-product of the sugarcane industry is a dark viscous liquid obtained upon crystallization of sugar. An enhanced invertase production and optimization studies were carried out by one-factor-at-a-time approach. Crucial parameters such as time course (24 h), pH (6.0), temperature (45 °C), inoculum size (2% v/v), N-source (yeast extract, 0.2% w/v) and C-source (molasses, 4% v/v) were found to be optimum demonstrating an increased yield. The findings of this study reveal a simple screening method of an extracellular invertase from a rapidly growing Bacillus sp., and selection of best factors that elevate enzyme activity especially utilization of molasses which served as an ideal substrate and also as C-source, results in a cost-effective production under submerged conditions. The invert mixture could be a replacement for table sugar which is an economic advantage and reduce the tedious work of sugar growers. On-going studies involve purification of extracellular invertase and determination of transfructosylating activity as at high concentration of sucrose, invertase produces fructooligosaccharides (FOS) which possesses probiotic properties.

Keywords: Screening, submerged fermentation, molasses, Bacillus sp, invertase

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
15 Susceptibility of Different Clones of Eucalyptus Species against Gall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle in Punjab, India

Authors: Ashwinder K. Dhaliwal, G. P. S. Dhillon

Abstract:

Eucalyptus is one of the most important forest tree species that can tolerate and grow well on degraded and unfertile soils which are not suitable for other tree species. Besides this, these trees have a short rotation and good economic value. However, the gall inducing wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle has been reported from many countries throughout the world. The spread of L. invasa is of huge economic concern as more than 20,000 ha of young Eucalyptus trees have already been affected in southern states of India. The host plant resistance being the first line of defense against insect pests demands the screening of different germplasm source against L. invasa. Keeping this in view, fourteen different clones of Eucalyptus spp. were evaluated for their susceptibility to L. invasa from a replicated clonal trial planted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The degree of gall infestation was recorded from three plants of each clone in each replication. Three branches selected from the lower, middle and upper canopy of the trees were selected for recording the total number of galls induced by L. invasa. The statistical analysis was done as per the procedure laid down for completely randomised block design (CRBD), analysis of variance (ANOVA), critical difference (CD) and variance components using Proc GLM (SAS software 9.3, SAS Institute Ltd. U.S.A). All possible treatment means were compared with Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 1 % probability level. The results showed that the clones C-9, C-45 and C-42 were completely free from the infestation of L. invasa. However, there was minor infestation of L. invasa on C-2135, C-413, C-407, C-35, C-72 and C-37 clones. The clone C-6 was severely infested by L. invasa followed by C-11, C-12, F-316 and C-25 clones. The information generated by this study will be helpful for future breeding and use in afforestation programmes.

Keywords: Screening, Susceptibility, gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, eucalyptus clones

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
14 Flora of Seaweeds and the Preliminary Screening of the Fungal Endophytes

Authors: Asmida Ismail, Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim

Abstract:

Seaweeds are economically important as they have the potential of being utilized, the capabilities and opportunities for further expansion as well as the availability of other species for future development. Hence, research on the diversity and distribution of seaweeds have to be expanded whilst the seaweeds are one of the Malaysian marine valuable heritage. The study on the distribution of seaweeds at Pengerang, Johor was carried out between February and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu. The study sites are located at the south-southeast of Peninsular Malaysia where the Petronas Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Project Development (RAPID) are in progress. In future, the richness of seaweeds in Pengerang will vanish soon due to the loss of habitat prior to RAPID project. The research was completed to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the present of fungal endophyte isolated from the seaweed. The sample was calculated by using quadrat with 25-meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were preserved, identified, processed in the laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The complete thallus specimens for fungal endophyte screening were chosen meticulously, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in the freezer for further process. A total of 29 species has been identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and there was a significant change in community structure of seaweeds. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. This evidence can be related to the high habitat preference such as types of shores which is rocky, sandy and having lagoon and bay. These can enhance the existence of the seaweeds community due to variations of the habitat. Eighteen seaweed species were selected and screened for the capability presence of fungal endophyte; Sargassum polycystum marked having the highest number of fungal endophyte compared to the other species. These evidence has proved the seaweed have capable of accommodating a lot of species of fungal endophytes. Thus, these evidence leads to positive consequences where further research should be employed.

Keywords: Diversity, Screening, macroalgae, Seaweed, fungal endophyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
13 Determination of Medians of Biochemical Maternal Serum Markers in Healthy Women Giving Birth to Normal Babies

Authors: Noreen Noreen, Aamir Ijaz, Hamza Akhtar

Abstract:

Background: Screening plays a major role to detect chromosomal abnormalities, Down syndrome, neural tube defects and other inborn diseases of the newborn. Serum biomarkers in the second trimester are useful in determining risk of most common chromosomal anomalies; these test include Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Unconjugated Oestriol (UEȝ)and inhibin-A. Quadruple biomarkers are worth test in diagnosing the congenital pathology during pregnancy, these procedures does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in Pakistan, so the median value is lacking for population in Pakistan. Objective: To determine median values of biochemical maternal serum markers in local population during second trimester maternal screening. Study settings: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi. Methods: Cross-Sectional study for estimation of reference values. Non-probability consecutive sampling, 155 healthy pregnant women, of 30-40 years of age, will be included. As non-parametric statistics will be used, the minimum sample size is 120. Result: Total 155 women were enrolled into this study. The age of all women enrolled ranged from 30 to39 yrs. Among them, 39 per cent of women were less than 34 years. Mean maternal age 33.46±2.35 SD and maternal body weight were 54.98±2.88. Median value of quadruple markers calculated from 15-18th week of gestation that will be used for calculation of MOM for screening of trisomy21 in this gestational age. Median value at 15 week of gestation were observed hCG 36650 mIU/ml, AFP 23.3 IU/ml, UEȝ 3.5 nmol/L, InhibinA 198 ng/L, at 16 week of gestation hCG 29050 mIU/ml, AFP 35.4 IU/ml, UEȝ 4.1 nmol/L, InhibinA 179 ng/L, at 17 week of gestation hCG 28450 mIU/ml, AFP 36.0 IU/ml, UEȝ 6.7 nmol/L, InhibinA 176 ng/L and at 18 week of gestation hCG 25200 mIU/ml, AFP 38.2 IU/ml, UEȝ 8.2 nmol/L, InhibinA 190 ng/L respectively.All the comparisons were significant (p-Value <0.005) with 95% confidence Interval (CI) and level of significance of study set by going through literature and set at 5%. Conclusion: The median values for these four biomarkers in Pakistani pregnant women can be used to calculate MoM.

Keywords: Screening, down syndrome, quadruple test, second trimester, serum biomarkers

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
12 Media Coverage of Cervical Cancer in Malawi: A National Sample of Newspapers and a Radio Station

Authors: Elida Tafupenji Kamanga

Abstract:

Cancer of the cervix remains one of the high causes of death among Malawian women. Despite the government introduction of free screening services throughout the country, patronage still remains low and lack of knowledge high. Given the critical role mass media plays in relaying different information to the public including health and its influence on health behaviours, the study sought to analyse Malawi media coverage of the disease and its effectiveness. The findings of the study will help inform media advocacy directed at changing any coverage impeding the effective dissemination of cervical cancer message which consequently will help increase awareness and accessing of screening behaviours among women. A content analysis of 29 newspapers and promotional messages on cervical from a local radio station was conducted for the period from 2012 to 2015. Overall the results showed media coverage in terms of content and frequency increased for the four-year period. However, of concern was the quality of information both media presented to the public. The lapse in information provided means there is little education taking place through the media which could be contributing to the knowledge gap the women have thereby affecting their decision to screen. Also lack of adequate funding to media institutions and lack of collaboration between media institutions and stakeholders involved in the fight against the disease were noted as other contributing factors to low coverage of the disease. Designing messages that are not only informative and educative but also innovative may help increase awareness; improve the knowledge gap and potential adoption of preventive screening behaviour by Malawian women. Conversely, good communication between the media institutions and researchers involved in the fight against the disease through the channelling of new findings back to the public as well as increasing funding towards similar cause should be considered.

Keywords: Screening, Cervical Cancer, Effectiveness, media coverage

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
11 Development of an Interactive and Robust Image Analysis and Diagnostic Tool in R for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Harpreet Singh, Priya Ranjan, Kumar Dron Shrivastav, Ankan Mukherjee Das, Arti Taneja, Rajiv Janardhanan

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer among women worldwide which can be cured if detected early. Manual pathology which is typically utilized at present has many limitations. The current gold standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is exhaustive and time-consuming because it relies heavily on the subjective knowledge of the oncopathologists which leads to mis-diagnosis and missed diagnosis resulting false negative and false positive. To reduce time and complexities associated with early diagnosis, we require an interactive diagnostic tool for early detection particularly in developing countries where cervical cancer incidence and related mortality is high. Incorporation of digital pathology in place of manual pathology for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis can increase the precision and strongly reduce the chances of error in a time-specific manner. Thus, we propose a robust and interactive cervical cancer image analysis and diagnostic tool, which can categorically process both histopatholgical and cytopathological images to identify abnormal cells in the least amount of time and settings with minimum resources. Furthermore, incorporation of a set of specific parameters that are typically referred to for identification of abnormal cells with the help of open source software -’R’ is one of the major highlights of the tool. The software has the ability to automatically identify and quantify the morphological features, color intensity, sensitivity and other parameters digitally to differentiate abnormal from normal cells, which may improve and accelerate screening and early diagnosis, ultimately leading to timely treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: Digital Pathology, Screening, Early Detection, Cervical Cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
10 The Benefit of a Universal Screening Program for Lipid Disorders in Two to Ten Years Old Lebanese Children

Authors: Nicolas Georges, Akiki Simon, Bassil Naim, Nawfal Georges, Abi Fares Georges

Abstract:

Introduction: Dyslipidemia has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. While the development of atherosclerotic lesions begins in childhood and progresses throughout life, data on the prevalence of dyslipidemic children in Lebanon is lacking. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the benefit of a protocol for universal screening for lipid disorder in Lebanese children aged between two and ten years old. Materials and Methods: A total of four hundred children aged 2 to 10 years old (51.5% boys) were included in the study. The subjects were recruited from private pediatric clinics after parental consent. Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured and non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. The values were categorized according to 2011 Expert on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. Results: The overall prevalence of high TC ( ≥ 200 mg/dL), high non-HDL-C ( ≥ 145 mg/dL), high LDL ( ≥ 130 mg/dL), high TG ( ≥ 100 mg/dL) and low HDL ( < 40 mg/dL) was respectively 19.5%, 23%, 19%, 31.8% and 20%. The overall frequency of dyslipidemia was 51.7%. In a bivariate analysis, dyslipidemia in children was associated with a BMI ≥ 95ᵗʰ percentile and parents having TC > 240 mg/dL with a P value respectively of 0.006 and 0.0001. Furthermore, high TG was independently associated with a BMI ≥ 95ᵗʰ percentile (P=0.0001). Children with parents having TC > 240 mg/dL was significantly correlated with high TC, high non-HDL-C and high LDL (P=0.0001 for all variables). Finally, according to the Pediatric dyslipidemia screening guidelines from the 2011 Expert Panel, 62.3% of dyslipidemic children had at least 1 risk factor that qualified them for screening while 37.7% of them didn’t have any risk factor. Conclusions: It is preferable to review the latest pediatric dyslipidemia screening guidelines by performing a universal screening program since a third of our dyslipidemic Lebanese children have been missed.

Keywords: Screening, Dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk factors, Lebanese children

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
9 Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees

Authors: David Alejandro Torres-Lopez, Lilia Albores-Gallo, Ronald Soto-Calderon, Roberto Lagunes-Cordoba

Abstract:

Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees (ASQ-DAT) is a screening instrument that assesses the risk of autism in children between 12 and 47 months, being the first free observational instrument created according to the criteria of the DSM-5 that can be applied by teachers in nurseries. The people in charge of answering the questionnaires are the daycare assistants. Its application presents a series of previous activities with which daycare assistants are familiar (dance, games, oral narration and breakfast), which are executed with the children and then answer a questionnaire with dichotomous questions "Yes/No" in approximately 3 minutes per child. The instrument was developed with the participation of nurseries according to the protocols of the creation of psychometric instruments of the Classical Test Theory having as a gold standard ADOS-2 Modules T and 1. The results of the investigation show that the use of ASQ-DAT combined with the application of M-CHAT / RF provides more information about the risk of ASD in young children, which allows improvements in the screening.

Keywords: Diagnosis, autism, Screening, daycare

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
8 Exploring Attitudes and Experiences of the Cervical Screening Programme in Brighton, United Kingdom

Authors: Kirsty Biggs, Peter Larsen-Disney

Abstract:

Background: The UK cervical screening programme significantly reduces cancer mortality through the early detection of abnormal cells. Despite this, over a quarter of eligible women choose not to attend their appointment. Objective: To qualitatively explore patients’ barriers to attending cervical smear appointments and identify key trends of cervical screening behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes in primary and secondary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate smear services in Brighton and Hove using questionnaires in general practice and colposcopy. 226 patients participated in the voluntary questionnaire between 10/11/2017 and 02/02/2018. 118 patients were recruited from general practice surgeries and 108 from the colposcopy department. Women were asked about their smear knowledge, self-perceived risks factors, prior experiences and reasons for non-attendance. Demographic data was also collected. Results: Approximately a third of women did not engage in smear testing services. This was consistent across primary and secondary care groups. Over 90% were aware of the role of the screening process in relation to cervical cancer; however, over two thirds believed the smear was also a tool to screen for other pathologies. The most commonly cited reasons for non-attendance were negative emotions or previous experiences. Inconvenient appointment times were also commonly described. In a comparison of attenders versus non-attenders previous negative experiences (p < 0.01) and number of identified risk factors (p = 0.02) were statistically significant with non-attenders describing more prior negative smears and identifying more risk factors. Smear knowledge, risk perception and perceived importance of screening were not significant. Negative previous experiences were described in relation to poor bedside manner, pain, embarrassment and staff competency. Conclusions: In contrary to the literature, our white Caucasian cohort experienced significant barriers to accessing smear services. Women’s prior negative experiences are overriding their perceived importance to attend the screening programme; therefore, efforts need to focus on improving clinical experiences through auditing tools, training and providing a supportive appointment setting. Positive changes can also be expected by improving appointment availabilities with extended hours and self-booking systems.

Keywords: Cervical, Screening, barriers, smear, Papanicolaou

Procedia PDF Downloads 25