Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Scaffolds Related Abstracts

10 In Vivo Response of Scaffolds of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó, Karina Nogueira


This study aimed to investigate the in vivo tissue response of the introduction of the bioactive mesh (BM) scaffolds using a model of tibial bone defect implants in rats. Although a previous in vivo study demonstrated a highly positive response of particulate bioactive materials in the morphological and biomechanical properties of the bone callus, the effects of material with superior bioactivity, present in form of meshes have not been studied yet. Eighty male Wistar rats with 3 mm tibial defects were used. Animals were divided into four groups: intact group (IG) – tibia without any injury; bone defect day zero (0dD) – bone defects, sacrificed immediately after injury; bone defect control group (CG) – bone defects without any filler and bone defect filled with BM scaffold. The animals of BM and CG groups were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days post-injury to compare the temporal-special effects of the scaffolds on bone healing. The histological analysis revealed an organized newly formed bone at 30 and 45 days post-surgery in the BM. Also, this group presented an increased COX-2 expression on days 15 and 30 post-surgery. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that, BM presented a positive immunoexpression of RUNX-2 during all periods evaluated. The biomechanical analysis revealed that at 15 day after surgery, no significant statistically difference was observed between BM and CG and both groups had significantly higher values of maximal load compared to 0dG and significantly lower values than IG. On days 30 and 45 post-surgery, BM presented statistically lower values of maximal load compared to the CG. Nevertheless, at the same periods, BM did not show statistically significant difference compared to the IG maximal load values (p > 0, 05). Our results revealed that the implantation of the BM scaffolds was effective in stimulating newly bone formation.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Bone, Cartilage, Scaffolds

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9 Systematic Identification and Quantification of Substrate Specificity Determinants in Human Protein Kinases

Authors: Manuel A. Alonso-Tarajano, Roberto Mosca, Patrick Aloy


Protein kinases participate in a myriad of cellular processes of major biomedical interest. The in vivo substrate specificity of these enzymes is a process determined by several factors, and despite several years of research on the topic, is still far from being totally understood. In the present work, we have quantified the contributions to the kinase substrate specificity of i) the phosphorylation sites and their surrounding residues in the sequence and of ii) the association of kinases to adaptor or scaffold proteins. We have used position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs), to represent the stretches of sequences phosphorylated by 93 families of kinases. We have found negative correlations between the number of sequences from which a PSSM is generated and the statistical significance and the performance of that PSSM. Using a subset of 22 statistically significant PSSMs, we have identified specificity determinant residues (SDRs) for 86% of the corresponding kinase families. Our results suggest that different SDRs can function as positive or negative elements of substrate recognition by the different families of kinases. Additionally, we have found that human proteins with known function as adaptors or scaffolds (kAS) tend to interact with a significantly large fraction of the substrates of the kinases to which they associate. Based on this characteristic we have identified a set of 279 potential adaptors/scaffolds (pAS) for human kinases, which is enriched in Pfam domains and functional terms tightly related to the proposed function. Moreover, our results show that for 74.6% of the kinase– pAS association found, the pAS colocalize with the substrates of the kinases they are associated to. Finally, we have found evidence suggesting that the association of kinases to adaptors and scaffolds, may contribute significantly to diminish the in vivo substrate crossed- specificity of protein kinases. In general, our results indicate the relevance of several SDRs for both the positive and negative selection of phosphorylation sites by kinase families and also suggest that the association of kinases to pAS proteins may be an important factor for the localization of the enzymes with their set of substrates.

Keywords: Scaffolds, kinase, phosphorylation, substrate specificity, adaptors, cellular colocalization

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8 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad


The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Transient Analysis, porosity, diffusion

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7 Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Halloysite Nanotube Nanocomposites Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

Authors: Z. Terzopoulou, I. Koliakou, D. Bikiaris


Tissue engineering offers a new approach to regenerate diseased or damaged tissues such as bone. Great effort is devoted to eliminating the need of removing non-degradable implants at the end of their life span, with biodegradable polymers playing a major part. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is one of the best candidates for this purpose due to its high permeability, good biodegradability and exceptional biocompatibility, which has stimulated extensive research into its potential application in the biomedical fields. However, PCL degrades much slower than other known biodegradable polymers and has a total degradation of 2-4 years depending on the initial molecular weight of the device. This is due to its relatively hydrophobic character and high crystallinity. Consequently, much attention has been given to the tunable degradation of PCL to meet the diverse requirements of biomedicine. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester that lacks bioactivity, so when used in bone tissue engineering, new bone tissue cannot bond tightly on the polymeric surface. Therefore, it is important to incorporate reinforcing fillers into PCL matrix in order to result in a promising combination of bioactivity, biodegradability, and strength. Natural clay halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were incorporated into PCL polymeric matrix, via in situ ring-opening polymerization of caprolactone, in concentrations 0.5, 1 and 2.5 wt%. Both unmodified and modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTES) HNTs were used in this study. The effect of nanofiller concentration and functionalization with end-amino groups on the physicochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposites was studied. Mechanical properties were found enhanced after the incorporation of nanofillers, while the modification increased further the values of tensile and impact strength. Thermal stability of PCL was not affected by the presence of nanofillers, while the crystallization rate that was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Polarized Light Optical Microscopy (POM) increased. All materials were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis in phosphate buffer in the presence of lipases. Due to the hydrophilic nature of HNTs, the biodegradation rate of nanocomposites was higher compared to neat PCL. In order to confirm the effect of hydrophilicity, contact angle measurements were also performed. In vitro biomineralization test confirmed that all samples were bioactive as mineral deposits were detected by X-ray diffractometry after incubation in SBF. All scaffolds were tested in relevant cell culture using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) to demonstrate their biocompatibility

Keywords: Biomaterials, Nanocomposites, Tissue Engineering, Scaffolds

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6 Hydroxyapatite Nanorods as Novel Fillers for Improving the Properties of PBSu

Authors: I. Koliakou, D. Bikiaris, M. Nerantzaki


This study evaluates the hypothesis that the incorporation of fibrous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) with high crystallinity and high aspect ratio, synthesized by hydrothermal method, into Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu), improves the bioactivity of the aliphatic polyester and affects new bone growth inhibiting resorption and enhancing bone formation. Hydroxyapatite nanorods were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal procedure. First, the HPO42- -containing solution was added drop-wise into the Ca2+-containing solution, while the molar ratio of Ca/P was adjusted at 1.67. The HA precursor was then treated hydrothermally at 200°C for 72 h. The resulting powder was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and EDXA. Afterwards, PBSu nanocomposites containing 2.5wt% (nHA) were prepared by in situ polymerization technique for the first time and were examined as potential scaffolds for bone engineering applications. For comparison purposes composites containing either 2.5wt% micro-Bioglass (mBG) or 2.5wt% mBG-nHA were prepared and studied, too. The composite scaffolds were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD. Mechanical testing (Instron 3344) and Contact Angle measurements were also carried out. Enzymatic degradation was studied in an aqueous solution containing a mixture of R. Oryzae and P. Cepacia lipases at 37°C and pH=7.2. In vitro biomineralization test was performed by immersing all samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days. Biocompatibility was assessed using rat Adipose Stem Cells (rASCs), genetically modified by nucleofection with DNA encoding SB100x transposase and pT2-Venus-neo transposon expression plasmids in order to attain fluorescence images. Cell proliferation and viability of cells on the scaffolds were evaluated using fluoresce microscopy and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Finally, osteogenic differentiation was assessed by staining rASCs with alizarine red using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) method. TEM image of the fibrous HAp nanoparticles, synthesized in the present study clearly showed the fibrous morphology of the synthesized powder. The addition of nHA decreased significantly the contact angle of the samples, indicating that the materials become more hydrophilic and hence they absorb more water and subsequently degrade more rapidly. In vitro biomineralization test confirmed that all samples were bioactive as mineral deposits were detected by X-ray diffractometry after incubation in SBF. Metabolic activity of rASCs on all PBSu composites was high and increased from day 1 of culture to day 14. On day 28 metabolic activity of rASCs cultured on samples enriched with bioceramics was significantly decreased due to possible differentiation of rASCs to osteoblasts. Staining rASCs with alizarin red after 28 days in culture confirmed our initial hypothesis as the presence of calcium was detected, suggesting osteogenic differentiation of rACS on PBSu/nHAp/mBG 2.5% and PBSu/mBG 2.5% composite scaffolds.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Scaffolds, poly(butylene succinate), hydroxyapatite nanorods

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5 Prospects of Low Immune Response Transplants Based on Acellular Organ Scaffolds

Authors: Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Anatoly Shekhter, Elena Petersen


Transplantation is an effective treatment option for patients suffering from different end-stage diseases. However, it is plagued by a constant shortage of donor organs and the subsequent need of a lifelong immunosuppressive therapy for the patient. Currently some researchers look towards using of pig organs to replace human organs for transplantation since the matrix derived from porcine organs is a convenient substitute for the human matrix. As an initial step to create a new ex vivo tissue engineered model, optimized protocols have been created to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as tissue engineered scaffolds for culture of normal cells and tumor cell lines. These protocols include decellularization by perfusion in a bioreactor system and immersion-agitation on an orbital shaker with use of various detergents (SDS, Triton X-100) and freezing. Complete decellularization – in terms of residual DNA amount – is an important predictor of probability of immune rejection of materials of natural origin. However, the signs of cellular material may still remain within the matrix even after harsh decellularization protocols. In this regard, the matrices obtained from tissues of low-immunogenic pigs with α3Galactosyl-tranferase gene knock out (GalT-KO) may be a promising alternative to native animal sources. The research included a study of induced effect of frozen and fresh fragments of GalT-KO skin on healing of full-thickness plane wounds in 80 rats. Commercially available wound dressings (Ksenoderm, Hyamatrix and Alloderm) as well as allogenic skin were used as a positive control and untreated wounds were analyzed as a negative control. The results were evaluated on the 4th day after grafting, which corresponds to the time of start of normal wound epithelization. It has been shown that a non-specific immune response in models treated with GalT-Ko pig skin was milder than in all the control groups. Research has been performed to measure technical skin characteristics: stiffness and elasticity properties, corneometry, tevametry, and cutometry. These metrics enabled the evaluation of hydratation level, corneous layer husking level, as well as skin elasticity and micro- and macro-landscape. These preliminary data may contribute to development of personalized transplantable organs from GalT-Ko pigs with significantly limited potential of immune rejection. By applying growth factors to a decellularized skin sample it is possible to achieve various regenerative effects based on the particular situation. In this particular research BMP2 and Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor have been used. Ideally, a bioengineered organ must be biocompatible, non-immunogenic and support cell growth. Porcine organs are attractive for xenotransplantation if severe immunologic concerns can be bypassed. The results indicate that genetically modified pig tissues with knock-outed α3Galactosyl-tranferase gene may be used for production of low-immunogenic matrix suitable for transplantation.

Keywords: Scaffolds, matrix, decellularization, low-immunogenic, transplants

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4 Prospects of Acellular Organ Scaffolds for Drug Discovery

Authors: Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Elena Petersen, Natalia Danilova


Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, the most expensive and dangerous phase of drug development. Both human cell culture and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by improvements in drug testing protocols. Tissue engineering is an emerging alternative approach to creating models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine, and drug discovery studies. This new generation of bioengineered tumors provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system including cell populations, supportive scaffolds, and signaling molecules. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Recent advances in tissue engineering demonstrated that decellularized tissue is an excellent scaffold for tissue engineering. Decellularization of donor organs such as heart, liver, and lung can provide an acellular, naturally occurring three-dimensional biologic scaffold material that can then be seeded with selected cell populations. Preliminary studies in animal models have provided encouraging results for the proof of concept. Decellularized Organs preserve organ microenvironment, which is critical for cancer metastasis. Utilizing 3D tumor models results greater proximity of cell culture morphological characteristics in a model to its in vivo counterpart, allows more accurate simulation of the processes within a functioning tumor and its pathogenesis. 3D models allow study of migration processes and cell proliferation with higher reliability as well. Moreover, cancer cells in a 3D model bear closer resemblance to living conditions in terms of gene expression, cell surface receptor expression, and signaling. 2D cell monolayers do not provide the geometrical and mechanical cues of tissues in vivo and are, therefore, not suitable to accurately predict the responses of living organisms. 3D models can provide several levels of complexity from simple monocultures of cancer cell lines in liquid environment comprised of oxygen and nutrient gradients and cell-cell interaction to more advanced models, which include co-culturing with other cell types, such as endothelial and immune cells. Following this reasoning, spheroids cultivated from one or multiple patient-derived cell lines can be utilized to seed the matrix rather than monolayer cells. This approach furthers the progress towards personalized medicine. As an initial step to create a new ex vivo tissue engineered model of a cancer tumor, optimized protocols have been designed to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluate their potential as tissue engineered scaffolds for cultures of normal and tumor cells. Decellularized biomatrix was prepared from animals’ kidneys, urethra, lungs, heart, and liver by two decellularization methods: perfusion in a bioreactor system and immersion-agitation on an orbital shaker with the use of various detergents (SDS, Triton X-100) in different concentrations and freezing. Acellular scaffolds and tissue engineered constructs have been characterized and compared using morphological methods. Models using decellularized matrix have certain advantages, such as maintaining native extracellular matrix properties and biomimetic microenvironment for cancer cells; compatibility with multiple cell types for cell culture and drug screening; utilization to culture patient-derived cells in vitro to evaluate different anticancer therapeutics for developing personalized medicines.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Drug discovery, Scaffolds, Drug toxicity, decellularization, spheroids

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3 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Matthew Dargusch, Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent


Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Titanium, MG-63 cell culture, space holder

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2 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian


Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Titanium, Mechanical Properties, metal injection moulding

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1 Treatment of Neuronal Defects by Bone Marrow Stem Cells Differentiation to Neuronal Cells Cultured on Gelatin-PLGA Scaffolds Coated with Nano-Particles

Authors: Alireza Shams, Ali Zamanian, Atefehe Shamosi, Farnaz Ghorbani


Introduction: Although the application of a new strategy remains a remarkable challenge for treatment of disabilities due to neuronal defects, progress in Nanomedicine and tissue engineering, suggesting the new medical methods. One of the promising strategies for reconstruction and regeneration of nervous tissue is replacing of lost or damaged cells by specific scaffolds after Compressive, ischemic and traumatic injuries of central nervous system. Furthermore, ultrastructure, composition, and arrangement of tissue scaffolds are effective on cell grafts. We followed implantation and differentiation of mesenchyme stem cells to neural cells on Gelatin Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds coated with iron nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of stem cells to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells under topographical cues and morphogenic factors. Methods and Materials: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) was obtained by primary cell culturing of adult rat bone marrow got from femur bone by flushing method. BMMSCs were incubated with DMEM/F12 (Gibco), 15% FBS and 100 U/ml pen/strep as media. Then, BMMSCs seeded on Gel/PLGA scaffolds and tissue culture (TCP) polystyrene embedded and incorporated by Fe Nano particles (FeNPs) (Fe3o4 oxide (M w= 270.30 gr/mol.). For neuronal differentiation, 2×10 5 BMMSCs were seeded on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffolds was cultured for 7 days and 0.5 µ mol. Retinoic acid, 100 µ mol. Ascorbic acid,10 ng/ml. Basic fibroblast growth factor (Sigma, USA), 250 μM Iso butyl methyl xanthine, 100 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, and 0.2 % B27 (Invitrogen, USA) added to media. Proliferation of BMMSCs was assessed by using MTT assay for cell survival. The morphology of BMMSCs and scaffolds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Expression of neuron-specific markers was studied by immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and statistical significance was determined by Turkey’s test. Results: Our results revealed that differentiation and survival of BMMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds were better than those cultured in Gel/PLGA in absence of FeNPs and TCP scaffolds. FeNPs had raised physical power but decreased capacity absorption of scaffolds. Well defined oriented pores in scaffolds due to FeNPs may activate differentiation and synchronized cells as a mechanoreceptor. Induction effects of magnetic FeNPs by One way flow of channels in scaffolds help to lead the cells and can facilitate direction of their growth processes. Discussion: Progression of biological properties of BMMSCs and the effects of FeNPs spreading under magnetic field was evaluated in this investigation. In vitro study showed that the Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffold provided a suitable structure for motor neuron-like cells differentiation. This could be a promising candidate for enhancing repair and regeneration in neural defects. Dynamic and static magnetic field for inducing and construction of cells can provide better results for further experimental studies.

Keywords: Scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells, Differentiation, nano particles, neuronal defects

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