Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Saudi Arabia Related Abstracts

105 The Impact of School Education, Islamic Studies in Specific on the Student Identity Development

Authors: Lina Khashogji

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This study highlights on analysing the educational experience of female Saudi Arabian students in private schools in Islamic studies subjects. Exploring how school environment, teachers’ authority and textbooks could influence the level of individuality. Considering the complex interaction between religious is social and political power in Saudi Arabia. The study draws on phenomenology as a guiding theoretical framework using multi methods. It includes a vertical/horizontal individualism measurement tool “survey” used on 120 students of two age groups (9-12) and (13-15). Semi-structured interviews with eight school teachers, observational notes in the classroom, and textbook analysis. The study links the interactions between the student mind, the teacher, the classroom and the curriculum.

Keywords: Education, Islamic Studies, Identity Development, Saudi Arabia, Individualism

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104 Challenges Facing Farmers in the Governorate of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Alghamdi, Ghanem Al-Ghamdi

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The Governorate of Al-Baha is known for a history of farming that focused on plant products such as Date Palm, olives, figs, pomegranate and cereals as well as raising cattle, sheep, goats and to some extent camels for many decades. However, farmers have been facing with very significant natural and artificial challenges lately. The goal of this study was to determine the most significant challenges facing farmers in the Governorate of Al-Baha. Sixty farms were surveyed during the year of 2013. Farm survey focused on the farm management, farm financial status and governmental support. Our results showed that most farms were dedicated to farming with limited number of farms used parts of its premises for recreation. About 90% of farms were engaged in exclusively farming business. The financial status was good in most of the farms (80%), stable in 16% and hardly standing in less than 5%. Nearly 60% of the farms marketed 1-3 products and 23% marketed up to 6 products, 14% of the farms marketed up to 9 products and 4% marketed more than 9 products. Less than 14% had a chance to market their products over seven times per year while about 11% market their products and 32% of farms market 3-4 per year and 43% of farms market 1-2 per year. Our data showed that most farmers are in good financial status producing healthy food.

Keywords: Healthy Food, Saudi Arabia, farming system, Al-Baha

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103 Percentage of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with Dyspeptic Patients in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Alshunaibir

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Infection with Helicobacter pylori is common worldwide but few studies focus on the prevalence and spread of the infection in Saudi Arabia. This study was undertaken to observe the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients suffering from gastrointestinal sign and symptoms in one of the largest hospitals in the capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was undertaken for this study with nearly 6000 samples collected and examined for patients suffering from (dyspeptic) symptoms ranging in their age from 5 to 75 years. Results: The prevalence of helicobacter infection was 67% increasing with age. Female shows higher percentage of H. pylori infection than male. Conclusions: The percentage rate was higher in female than male. This study shows a high percentage of helicobacter infection in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Helicobacter pylori, percentage, dyspeptic

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102 Energy Conservation Strategies of Buildings in Hot, Arid Region: Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. H. Shwehdi, S. Raja Mohammad

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Recently energy savings have become more pronounced as a result of the world financial crises as well the unstable oil prices. Certainly all entities needs to adapt Energy Conservation and Management Strategies due to high monthly consumption of their spread locations and advancements of its telecom systems. These system improvements necessitate the establishment of more exchange centers as well provide energy savings. This paper investigates the impact of HVAC System Characteristics, Operational Strategies, the impact of Envelope Thermal Characteristics, and energy conservation measures. These are classified under three types of measures i.e. Zero-Investment; Low-Investment and High-Investment Energy Conservation Measures. The study shows that the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) pertaining to the HVAC system characteristics and operation represent the highest potential for energy reduction, attention should be given to window thermal and solar radiation characteristics when large window areas are used. The type of glazing system needs to be carefully considered in the early design phase of future buildings. Paper will present the thermal optimization of different size centers in the two hot-dry and hot-humid Saudi Arabian city of Al Khobar, East province.

Keywords: Optimization, Energy Conservation, Saudi Arabia, thermal design, intermittent operation, exchange centers, hot-humid climate

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101 Physical Characteristics of Locally Composts Produced in Saudi Arabia and the Need for Regulations

Authors: Ahmad Al-Turki

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Composting is the suitable way of recycling organic waste for agricultural application and environment protection. In Saudi Arabia, several composting facilities are available and producing high quantity of composts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical characteristics of composts manufactured in Saudi Arabia and acquire a comprehensive image of its quality through the comparative with international standards of compost quality such as CCQC and PAS-100. In the present study different locally produced compost were identified and most of the producing factories were visited during the manufacturing of composts. Representative samples of different compost production stage were collected and Physical characteristics were determined, which included moisture content, bulk density, percentage of sand and the size of distribution of the compost particles. Results showed wide variations in all parameters investigated. Results of the study indicated generally that there is a wide variation in the physical characteristics of the types of compost under study. The initial moister contents in composts were generally low, it was less than 60% in most samples and not sufficient for microbial activities for biodegradation in 96% of the 96% of the types of compost and this will impede the decomposition of organic materials. The initial bulk density values ranged from 117 gL-1 to 1110.0 gL-1, while the final apparent bulk density ranged from 340.0 gL-1 to 1000gL-1 and about 45.4 % did not meet the ideal bulk density value. Sand percents in composts were between 3.3 % and 12.5%. This study has confirmed the need for a standard specification for compost manufactured in Saudi Arabia for agricultural use based on international standards for compost and soil characteristics and climatic conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Organic material, Maturity, compost

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100 Steps towards the Development of National Health Data Standards in Developing Countries

Authors: Abdullah I. Alkraiji, Thomas W. Jackson, Ian Murray

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The proliferation of health data standards today is somewhat overlapping and conflicting, resulting in market confusion and leading to increasing proprietary interests. The government role and support in standardization for health data are thought to be crucial in order to establish credible standards for the next decade, to maximize interoperability across the health sector, and to decrease the risks associated with the implementation of non-standard systems. The normative literature missed out the exploration of the different steps required to be undertaken by the government towards the development of national health data standards. Based on the lessons learned from a qualitative study investigating the different issues to the adoption of health data standards in the major tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia and the opinions and feedback from different experts in the areas of data exchange and standards and medical informatics in Saudi Arabia and UK, a list of steps required towards the development of national health data standards was constructed. Main steps are the existence of: a national formal reference for health data standards, an agreed national strategic direction for medical data exchange, a national medical information management plan and a national accreditation body, and more important is the change management at the national and organizational level. The outcome of this study can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the planning of health data standards, and in particular those in developing countries.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Case study, interoperabilty, medical data exchange, health data standards

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99 Clinicopathological Findings of Partuberclosis in Camels: Possible Steps for Control Strategy

Authors: A. M. Almujalli, G. M. Al-Ghamdi

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Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis, a chronic debilitating granulomatous enteritis, in camels as well as domestic and wild ruminants. The clinical manifestation of the disease in camel is not well characterized, therefore this study was aimed to investigate the clinical and pathological pictures of camels that are suffering from partuberculosis. Twelve young camels that were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University were investigated. Clinical and pathological examination were performed. The results revealed highly significant increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, magnesium, AST and ALT in diseased camels, while glucose, total protein and albumin were highly significantly decreased in diseased camels when compared to healthy ones. Post-mortem testing indicated thickening, corrugation of the intestinal wall, folded mucosa, enlarged and oedemated ileocaecal and mesenteric lymph nodes. The microscopic findings detected short, blunt and distorted intestinal villi with hyperactive goblet cells of the villi and the crypts of lieberkuhn contained mucin droplets. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells mostly macrophages. This clinical picture of paratuberculosis may be used to initiate control strategy to limit the spread of the disease in camel herds.

Keywords: Control, Saudi Arabia, camel, partuberclosis

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98 Sustainable Desert Traditional Architecture of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hisham Mortada

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For thousands of years mud houses have represented the practical wisdom and spirituality of people, particularly those of desert regions, who learned how to use local materials to build homes that fitted the environmental and cultural conditions which they lived in. As a case study, the central region of Saudi Arabia exhibits a tradition of earth architecture that is unique in style, culture and sustainability. Aiming to contribute towards the local debate of the suitability of the traditional mud architecture for today’s lifestyle of Saudis, this paper explores the sustainable nature of the traditional adobe architecture of this hot arid region from environmental, social and technical points of view.

Keywords: Green Architecture, Saudi Arabia, Alternative Materials, desert architecture, arid climate

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97 Engineering in Saudi Arabia: Importance of Communications and Power Engineering

Authors: Hamed D. Alsharari

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This paper first analyses the current status regarding electrical engineering higher education in Saudi Arabian public universities. The paper focuses on the two EE sub-specialties most commonly present in Saudi Arabia, power and communications and discusses recruitment in this field, showing various market and employment demand for EE.

Keywords: communications, Higher Education, Electrical Engineering, Power, Saudi Arabia

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96 What are the Factors Underlying the Differences between Young Saudi Women in Traditional Families that Choose to Conform to the Society Norms, and Young Saudi Women who do not Conform?

Authors: Mai Al-Subaie

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This research suggests that women in traditional families of Saudi Arabia are divided into two groups, the one who conform to the society and the new type of women that has been emerged due to the changing and development of the culture, who do not want to conform to the rules. The factors underlying the differences were explored by using a test and an interview. That concluded some of the main factors that were a real effect of why some women still want to follow the society and traditional rules, and other want to break free.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Conformity, non conformity, females

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95 238U, 40K, 226Ra, 222Rn and Trace Metals in Chemical Fertilizers in Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Fatimh Alshahri, Muna Alqahtani

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The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 40K and 222Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabia markets. The specific activities of 238U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kgˉ¹, 226Ra ranged from 5.6 ± 2.8 to 392 ± 18 Bq kgˉ¹ and 40K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16476 ± 820 Bq kgˉ¹. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.2 ± 1.2 to 1531.6 ± 160 Bq mˉ³ and from 1.6 to 773.7 mBq mˉ² hˉ¹, respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for Six local samples (NPK and SSP) and one imported sample (SOP) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kgˉ¹. The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy hˉ¹. The highest annual effective dose was in TSP fertilizers (2.1 mSvyˉ¹). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, chemical fertilizers, Trace Metals

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94 Urban Runoff Modeling of Ungauged Volcanic Catchment in Madinah, Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fahad Alahmadi, Norhan Abd Rahman, Mohammad Abdulrazzak, Zulikifli Yusop

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Runoff prediction of ungauged catchment is still a challenging task especially in arid regions with a unique land cover such as volcanic basalt rocks where geological weathering and fractures are highly significant. In this study, Bathan catchment in Madinah western Saudi Arabia was selected for analysis. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different rainfall loss methods; soil conservation Services curve number (SCS-CN), green-ampt and initial-constant rate. Different direct runoff methods were evaluated: soil conservation services dimensionless unit hydrograph (SCS-UH), Snyder unit hydrograph and Clark unit hydrograph. The study showed the superiority of SCS-CN loss method and Clark unit hydrograph method for ungauged catchment where there is no observed runoff data.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, urban runoff modelling, arid regions, ungauged catchments, volcanic rocks, Madinah

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93 Investigating Best Practice Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs, and Their Replication Potential for Residential Sector of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Habib Alshuwaikhat, Nahid Hossain

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Residential sector consumes more than half of the produced electricity in Saudi Arabia, and fossil fuel is the main source of energy to meet growing household electricity demand in the Kingdom. Several studies forecasted and expressed concern that unless the domestic energy demand growth is controlled, it will reduce Saudi Arabia’s crude oil export capacity within a decade and the Kingdom is likely to be incapable of exporting crude oil within next three decades. Though the Saudi government has initiated to address the domestic energy demand growth issue, the demand side energy management policies and programs are focused on industrial and commercial sectors. It is apparent that there is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive energy efficiency strategy for addressing efficient energy use in residential sector in the Kingdom. Then again as Saudi Arabia is at its primary stage in addressing energy efficiency issues in its residential sector, there is a scope for the Kingdom to learn from global energy efficiency practices and design its own energy efficiency policies and programs. However, in order to do that sustainable, it is essential to address local contexts of energy efficiency. It is also necessary to find out the policies and programs that will fit to the local contexts. Thus the objective of this study was set to identify globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs in residential sector that have replication potential in Saudi Arabia. In this regard two sets of multi-criteria decision analysis matrices were developed to evaluate the energy efficiency policies and programs. The first matrix was used to evaluate the global energy efficiency policies and programs, and the second matrix was used to evaluate the replication potential of global best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia. Wuppertal Institute’s guidelines for energy efficiency policy evaluation were used to develop the matrices, and the different attributes of the matrices were set through available literature review. The study reveals that the best practice energy efficiency policies and programs with good replication potential for Saudi Arabia are those which have multiple components to address energy efficiency and are diversified in their characteristics. The study also indicates the more diversified components are included in a policy and program, the more replication potential it has for the Kingdom. This finding is consistent with other studies, where it is observed that in order to be successful in energy efficiency practices, it is required to introduce multiple policy components in a cluster rather than concentrate on a single policy measure. The developed multi-criteria decision analysis matrices for energy efficiency policy and program evaluation could be utilized to assess the replication potential of other globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for the residential sector of the Kingdom. In addition it has potential to guide Saudi policy makers to adopt and formulate its own energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Saudi Arabia, residential sector, policy evaluation

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92 Endangered Languages in Arabia: Documentation Challenges

Authors: Munira Al-Azraqi

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Modern South Arabian Languages (MSAL) belong to the Semitic language family and are believed to be either a southern member of the west Semitic branch (Rubin 2010; Moscati et al 1969) or an eastern member of the south Semitic branch (Faber 1997), (Watson 2012). They are six languages which are still spoken in southern Arabia. They are used in Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and in some of the Gulf states. Mehri is one of them however it has the highest number of speakers comparing to the other members of MSAL. It is used in Yemen, Oman, in parts of southern and eastern Saudi Arabia and in some of the Gulf states. The number of Mehri speakers is estimated at between 100,000 and 180,000. The problem that this language might face is that its speakers live in different places which are belonging to different countries. This might cause the language to change rapidly due to education and communication. There are some studies on Omani and Yemeni Mehri but not in Saudi Mehri. In the nineteenth century, travelers, western scholars and explorers played their parts in the discovery of these peoples and their languages. The historical turning point for the knowledge of the MSAL is 1898, when the Südarabische Expedition of the Imperial Academy of Vienna started. The three scholars, Müller, Jahn and Hein began their systematic collection of texts, which were later studied grammatically and lexically by Bittner (1908-1917), Jahn (1915), Leslau (1938) and Wagner (1953). Saudi Mehri has not been studied. This might be caused by the lack of information or the difficulty in collecting the data which this paper aims to shed light on.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Endangered Languages, Modern South Arabian, Mehri

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91 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza a(H3N2) Virus Circulating during the 2010-2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ghazanfar Ali, Fahad N Almajhdi

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This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 80 clinically infected patients in the peak of the 2010-2011 winter seasons were processed for viral diagnosis by RT-PCR. Sequencing of entire HA and NA genes of representative isolates and molecular epidemiological analysis were performed. A total of 06 patients were positive for influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses by RT-PCR assays; out of these only one sample was positive for influenza A(H3N2) by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA gene sequences showed identities higher than 99-98.8 % in both genes. They were also similar to reference isolates in HA sequences (99 % identity) and in NA sequences (99 % identity). Amino acid sequences predicted for the HA gene were highly identical to reference strains. The NA amino acid substitutions identified did not include the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y substitution. Conclusion: Viral isolation and RT-PCR together were useful for diagnosis of the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Variations in HA and NA sequences are similar to those identified in worldwide reference isolates and no drug resistance was found.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, RT-PCR, influenza A (H3N2), genetic characterization, viral isolation

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90 Impact of Short-Term Drought on Vegetation Health Condition in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using Space Data

Authors: E. Ghoneim, C. Narron, I. Iqbal, I. Hassan, E. Hammam

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The scarcity of water is becoming a more prominent threat, especially in areas that are already arid in nature. Although the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is an arid country, its southwestern region offers a high variety of botanical landscapes, many of which are wooded forests, while the eastern and northern regions offer large areas of groundwater irrigated farmlands. At present, some parts of KSA, including forests and farmlands, have witnessed protracted and severe drought due to change in rainfall pattern as a result of global climate change. Such prolonged drought that last for several consecutive years is expected to cause deterioration of forested and pastured lands as well as cause crop failure in the KSA (e.g., wheat yield). An analysis to determine vegetation drought vulnerability and severity during the growing season (September-April) over a fourteen year period (2000-2014) in KSA was conducted using MODIS Terra imagery. The Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Temperature Condition Index (TCI), derived from the Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was extracted from MODIS Terra Images. The VCI and TCI were then combined to compute the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The VHI revealed the overall vegetation health for the area under investigation. A preliminary outcome of the modeled VHI over KSA, using averaged monthly vegetation data over a 14-year period, revealed that the vegetation health condition is deteriorating over time in both naturally vegetated areas and irrigated farmlands. The derived drought map for KSA indicates that both extreme and severe drought occurrences have considerably increased over the same study period. Moreover, based on the cumulative average of drought frequency in each governorate of KSA it was determined that Makkah and Jizan governorates to the east and southwest, witness the most frequency of extreme drought, whereas Tabuk to the northwest, exhibits the less extreme drought frequency. Areas where drought is extreme or severe would most likely have negative influences on agriculture, ecosystems, tourism, and even human welfare. With the drought risk map the kingdom could make informed land management decisions including were to continue with agricultural endeavors and protect forested areas and even where to develop new settlements.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Drought, vegetation health condition, TCI

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89 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

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Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: Social Media, Culture, Saudi Arabia, user interface design, Facebook

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88 Higher Order Thinking Skills Workshop: Faculty Professional Development and Its Effect on Their Teaching Strategies

Authors: Amani Hamdan

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A post-workshop of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), for faculty from diverse academic disciplines, was conducted and the researcher surveyed the participants’ intentions and plans to include HOTS as a goal, as learning and teaching task in their practices. Follow-up interviews with a random sample of participants were used to determine if they fulfilled their intentions three 3 months after the workshop. The degree of planned and enacted HOTS then was analyzed against the post-workshop HOT ability and knowledge. This is one topic that has not been adequately explored in faculty professional development literature where measuring the effect of learning on their ability to use what they learned. This qualitative method study explored a group of male and female faculty members (n=85) enrolled in HOTS 2 day workshop. The results showed that 89% of faculty members although were mostly enthused to apply what they learned after a 3 months period they were caught up with routine presentations and lecturing.

Keywords: Higher Education, Saudi Arabia, Faculty development, higher order thinking skills

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87 The Impact of Child Maltreatment on School Performance in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Al Muneef Maha, Al Tamimi Dana

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Introduction: Child maltreatment was proven to negatively impact children’s and adolescent’s academic performances; showing less academic achievements, problems completing homework assignments, and was marginally associated with being frequently absent from school (1). Objectives: To identify the impact of child maltreatment on school performance among adolescents in National Guard Schools. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at National Guard schools in Riyadh. Students aged 12-19 years were invited to participate. Participants (N=674) completed the survey instrument which included demographics, exposure to different types of abuse, and overall level of academic performance. Results: Participants’ mean age was 15.6±1.6 years and males (53%). Ninety-five percent lived with both parents, 2% with single parent, and 3% with step parents. Four percent lived with alcoholic parents or guardians, and 7% have lived with a family member who has been arrested or imprisoned. Poor performance (failure in exam) were more likely among the students who lived with alcoholics vs. non-alcoholics (33% vs. 11%, p<0.01), imprisoned family member vs. non-imprisoned (26% vs. 11%, p<0.01), psychologically abused vs. not abused (21% vs. 10%, p<0.01), physically abused vs. not abused (19% vs. 9%, p<0.01). Predisposing factors to poor performance in school included living with alcoholic parents or guardians (OR=2.8, CI=1.1-6.7), psychologically abused (OR=1.7, CI=1.0-3.0), and physically abused (OR=1.7, CI=1.0-2.8). Conclusions: The results suggest that child maltreatment may adversely impact school performance. These findings highlight the importance of increasing the awareness about the impact of child maltreatment on school performance among families, schools, and the community. Recommend to the Ministry of Education to consider counseling of students with poor performance due to adverse child experiences or maltreatment.

Keywords: Child Abuse, Saudi Arabia, School Performance, Child Maltreatment

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86 Correlation between Indoor and Outdoor Air

Authors: Jamal A. Radaideh, Ziad N. Shatnawi

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Both indoor and outdoor air quality is investigated throughout residential areas of Al Hofuf city/ Eastern province of Saudi Arabia through a multi‐week multiple sites measurement and sampling survey. Concentration levels of five criteria air pollutants, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured and analyzed during the study period from January to May 2014. For this survey paper, three different sites, roadside RS, urban UR, and rural RU were selected. Within each site type, six locations were assigned to carryout air quality measurements and to study varying indoor/outdoor air quality for each pollutant. Results indicate that a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor air exists. The I/O ratios for the considered criteria pollutants show that the strongest relationship between indoor and outdoor air is found by analyzing of carbon dioxide, CO2 (0.88), while the lowest is found by both NO2 and SO2 (0.7).

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, criteria air pollutants, indoor/outdoor air pollution, indoor/outdoor ratio

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85 Cost Overrun Causes in Public Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni

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This study is conducted to identify causes of cost deviations in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia from contractors’ perspective. 41 factors that might affect cost estimating accuracy were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The factors were tabulated in a questionnaire form and a field survey included 51 contractors from the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia was performed. The results show that the top five important causes are: wrong estimation method, long period between design and time of implementation, cost of labor, cost of machinary and absence of construction-cost data.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Public Construction, Cost Estimating, cost deviation, contractors

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84 Prevalence of Barodontalgia among Aircrews Working in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Knowledge of Dental Interns about This Phenomena

Authors: Ali Saleh Al-Rafedah, Ahmed Mohammed Al-Quthami, Tariq Jalal Al-Ashawi, Talal Nasser Motar Al-Enez

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Introduction: Barodontalgia is essentially dental pain provoked by changes in atmospheric pressure which usually disappear when the affected person reaches normal pressure zone. Barodontalgia has been recognized as a potential cause of aircrew-member vertigo and sudden incapacitation, which could jeopardize the safety of flight. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the incidence of this phenomena among aircrews in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It also aimed to assess the knowledge of dental interns toward this phenomena. Material and Method: A 120 questionnaire consists of 17 questions were distributed to different of Aircrews working in commercial and governmental centers in different areas of KSA. Another questionnaire also distributed to 240 interns in different institutes in KSA. Results: Out of 120 questionnaire distributed to aircrews, 48 has been returned back (40%) and the participants were mainly pilots. The results showed that about 33% of the participants had this pain at least once during flying and the incidence of this pain was not associated with any age group. Most of the pain experience were during descending and at altitude between 10.000-20.000 feet (63%). The pain completely relieved after landing in most of the cases. Regarding pain scores, the majority of the participants reported moderate scores of severity (%65) and about 85% of them had visited the physician or dentist to investigate the existing oral problem. Among dental interns in KSA, our finding indicated lack of knowledge regarding this phenomena since only 23 % of the participants have an idea about this phenomena. Conclusion and recommendation: The incidence of Barodontalgia among aircrews in Saudi Arabia is considerably high and further studies should be carried out for better understanding of this phenomena. Significant lack of knowledge among dental interns about the Barodontalgia has been highlighted and inclusion of it in the teaching of clinical and preclinical curriculum is recommended.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Incapacitation, Atmospheric Pressure, Barodontalgia/dental

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83 Challenges in Promoting Software Usability and Applying Principles of Usage-Centred Design in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

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A study was conducted in which 212 software developers in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia were surveyed to gather an indication of their understanding of the concept of usability, their acceptance of its importance, and to see how well its principles are applied. Interviews were then held with 20 of these developers, and a demonstration of Usage-Centred Design was attempted, a highly usability focused software development methodology, at one select institution for its redesign of an e-learning exam system interface during the requirements gathering phase. The study confirms the need to raise awareness of usability and its importance, and for Usage-Centred Design to be applied in its entirety, also need to encourage greater consultation with potential end-users of software and collaborative practices. The demonstration of Usage-Centred Design confirmed its ability to capture usability requirements more completely and precisely than would otherwise be the case, and hence its usefulness for developers concerned with improving software usability. The concluding discussion delves on the challenges for promoting usability and Usage-Centred Design in light of the research results and findings and recommendations are made for the same.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Usability, usage-centred, applying principles of usage-centred

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82 Assessment of Antioxidant Activities in Roots of Miswak (Salvadora persica) Plants Grown at Two Different Locations in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed M. Ibrahima, Abdul Aziz A.AL Sahli, Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Ali A. Al-Homaidan, E.M. Mostafa, G.A. EL-Gaaly

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Traditionally, in Middle Eastern countries, many cultures use chewing sticks of arak for medicinal purposes especially, for oral cleanliness care. It was used by Muslims for the treatment of teeth and highly recommended to be used by muslims during the whole day. Therefore, the present work aimed to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoids in two Miswak extracts obtained from arak roots collected from two different localities in Saudi Arabia. They were extracted with aqueous ethanol (80%) and used to estimate in vitro their antioxidative abilities. The new findings showed that the two tested extracts contained significantly different amounts of both total phenolic content and total flavonoids. According to the increase of total phenolic contents and total flavonoids obtained from the two extracts, Miswak collected from the southern region was found to contain more contents than those collected from the middle region. The results of antioxidant activities of Miswak root extract obtained by using different in vitro methods were varied depending on the technique used. According to the malondialdehyde (MDA) method, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging ability and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, the two Miswak extracts exhibited to have high to very high antioxidant activities. Mostly, the values of antioxidant activities of Southern region have been shown to be always the highest.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Saudi Arabia, antioxidant, Arak

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81 Status of Reintroduced Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Zafar-ul Islam

Abstract:

The breeding programme of Houbara bustard was started in Saudi Arabia in 1986 to undertake the restoration of native species such as Houbara through a programme of re-introduction, involving the release of captive-bred birds in the wild. Two sites were selected for houbara re-introduction, i.e., Mahazat as-Sayd and Saja Umm Ar-Rimth protected areas in 1988 and 1998 respectively. Both the areas are fenced fairly level, sandy plain with a few rock outcrops. Captive bred houbara have been released in Mahazat since 1992 by NWRC and those birds have been successfully breeding since then. The nesting season of the houbara at Mahazat recorded from February to May and on an average 20-25 nests are located each year but no nesting recorded in Saja. Houbara are monitored using radio transmitters through aerial tracking technique and also a vehicle for terrestrial tracking. Total population of houbara in Mahazat is roughly estimated around 300-400 birds, using the following: N = n1+n2+n3+n4+n5 (n1 = released or wild-born, radio, regularly monitored/checked; n2 = radio tagged missing; n3 = wild born chicks not recorded; n4 = wild born chicks, recorded but not tagged; n5 = immigrants). However, in Saja only 4-7 individuals of houbara have been survived since 2001 because most of the birds are predated immediately after the release. The mean annual home was also calculated using Kernel and Convex polygons methods with Range VII software. The minimum density of houbara was also calculated. In order to know the houbara movement or their migration to other regions, two captive-reared male houbara that were released into the wild and one wild born female were fitted with Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTT). The home range shows that wild-born female has larger movement than two males. More areas need to be selected for reintroduction programme to establish the network of sites to provide easy access to move these birds and mingle with the wild houbara. Some potential sites have been proposed which require more surveys to check the habitat suitability.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, re-introduction, survival rate, home range

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80 Re-Introduction of the Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus) in Fenced Protected Area of Central Semi-Arid Area in Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. Zafar-ul Islam

Abstract:

The Arabian Ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus is a distinct subspecies that became extinct in the wild during the mid-20th century, due to over-hunting and commercial exploitation. The extant of S. c. camelus, a red-necked form that occurs in Northeastern Africa and is considered the most closely related, and possibly the same subspecies as the extinct Arabian form has been chosen for the reintroduction in 1988-89 by obtaining red-necked ostrich from Sudan from a private collection. Few birds were translocated to Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in 25 ha fenced enclosure in 1994. Until now a total of 96 red-necked ostrich have been released in fenced Mahazat as-Sayd, and the estimated population is between 125 to 150 individuals. Since captive flock of ostriches were translocated to Mahazat, their survival rate increased (>41%) by the end of 2000. On an average 22-30 chicks are hatched annually. A total of 137 ostriches recorded dead over the period of 13 years during the drought period. One of the key questions is what proportion of birds makes use of the supplementary food and water provisions, and what happens to those birds that do not use it? Captive-bred and wild-born adult and young ostriches died of starvation and thirst, despite being provisioned with alfalfa and water in several years. The present population of ostrich in Mahazat is more than 300.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Drought, red-necked ostrich, Struthio camelus camelus, reintroduction

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79 Iran and the Security of the Gulf Cooperation Council States

Authors: Ibrahim Alshalan

Abstract:

The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the greatest and most powerful countries, not only in the Arabian Gulf but in the entire Middle East region. However, the Iranian regime, which came to power as a result of the 1979 revolution that resulted in overthrowing the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, has been the biggest source of threat to the stability of the Middle East since the revolution until this day. It has ambitions to dominate the neighboring Arab countries, especially Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Bahrain. Iran has bad relationships with countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain. The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the deteriorating political relations between the Iranian regime on one hand and the GCC on the other, especially Saudi Arabia which is witnessing more challenges as a result of Iran's determination to develop its nuclear program. Another important objective of this paper is to identify the Iranian role in the creation of the hotbeds of conflict in addition to its responsibility for some of the region's problems. It also aims to answer the question; why does Iran insist on developing its controversial nuclear program?

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Iran, GCC, Gulf

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78 Saudi Arabian Aviation Construction Projects: Risks and Their Assessments

Authors: Ahmad Baghdadi, Mohammed Kishk

Abstract:

Construction projects are unique and involve different level of complexity. Airports projects, among other construction projects, are considered to be very complex as they face a number of challenges which make them inevitably exposed to risks. However, in Saudi Arabia, the sector of aviation is considered an important sector owing to the fact that it is the first destination for Muslims on an annual basis. As a result the Saudi government has allocated a huge amount of their general budget to this sector through the General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA). However, it has been found that the projects are still delivered with a significant number of time and cost overruns. These consequences are typically generated from the risks involved in the projects. Thus, there is a need to identify the number of risks thought to cause such overruns in project times and costs, as well as to assess their significances in terms of their likelihoods of occurrence and their impacts. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify risks associated with aviation construction projects in Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess their likelihoods of occurrence and impacts on such projects. In total, forty four risks have been identified through a critical literature review of common risks in similar projects, as well as thirteen semi-structured interviews with expert project managers involved in GACA’s projects. However, the assessment of the identified risks in term of their likelihoods of occurrence and impacts was obtained through the analysis of forty five questionnaires. Respondents of questionnaires include clients, contractors and consultants. The results show the risks of design changes by the client, labour issue, and setting a tight schedule by the client have the highest likelihoods of occurrence in GACA projects, while the risks of earthquakes, design constructability, and corruption have the greatest impacts.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Saudi Arabia, risks, aviation construction projects, GACA

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77 Assessing Basic Computer Applications’ Skills of College-Level Students in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed A. Gharawi, Majed M. Khoja

Abstract:

This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted at the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in Saudi Arabia. The paper applied both qualitative and quantitative research methods to assess the levels of basic computer applications’ skills among students enrolled in the preparatory programs of the institution. qualitative data have been collected from semi-structured interviews with the instructors who have previously been assigned to teach Introduction to information technology courses. Quantitative data were collected by executing a self-report questionnaire and a written statistical test. 380 enrolled students responded to the questionnaire and 142 accomplished the statistical test. The results indicate the lack of necessary skills to deal with computer applications among most of the students who are enrolled in the IPA’s preparatory programs.

Keywords: Computer Applications, Assessment, Saudi Arabia, computer literacy, Institute of Public Administration

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76 Allocating Channels and Flow Estimation at Flood Prone Area in Desert, Example from AlKharj City, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Farhan Aljuaidi

Abstract:

The rapid expansion of Alkarj city, Saudi Arabia, towards the outlet of Wadi AlAin is critical for the planners and decision makers. Nowadays, two major projects such as Salman bin Abdulaziz University compound and new industrial area are developed in this flood prone area where no channels are clear and identified. The main contribution of this study is to divert the flow away from these vital projects by reconstructing new channels. To do so, Lidar data were used to generate contour lines for the actual elevation of the highways and local roads. These data were analyzed and compared to the contour lines derived from the topographical maps 1:50.000. The magnitude of the expected flow was estimated using Snyder's Model based on the morphometric data acquired by DEM of the catchment area. The results indicate that maximum discharge peak reaches 2694,3 m3/sec, the mean is 303,7 m3/sec and the minimum is 74,3 m3/sec. The runoff was estimated at 252,2. 610 m3/s, the mean is 41,5. 610 m3/s and the minimum is 12,4. 610 m3/s.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Desert flood, Snyder's Model, flow estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 188