Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Rheology Related Abstracts

44 Food Foam Characterization: Rheology, Texture and Microstructure Studies

Authors: Rutuja Upadhyay, Anurag Mehra

Abstract:

Solid food foams/cellular foods are colloidal systems which impart structure, texture and mouthfeel to many food products such as bread, cakes, ice-cream, meringues, etc. Their heterogeneous morphology makes the quantification of structure/mechanical relationships complex. The porous structure of solid food foams is highly influenced by the processing conditions, ingredient composition, and their interactions. Sensory perceptions of food foams are dependent on bubble size, shape, orientation, quantity and distribution and determines the texture of foamed foods. The state and structure of the solid matrix control the deformation behavior of the food, such as elasticity/plasticity or fracture, which in turn has an effect on the force-deformation curves. The obvious step in obtaining the relationship between the mechanical properties and the porous structure is to quantify them simultaneously. Here, we attempt to research food foams such as bread dough, baked bread and steamed rice cakes to determine the link between ingredients and the corresponding effect of each of them on the rheology, microstructure, bubble size and texture of the final product. Dynamic rheometry (SAOS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, flatbed scanning, image analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA) has been used to characterize the foods studied. In all the above systems, there was a common observation that when the mean bubble diameter is smaller, the product becomes harder as evidenced by the increase in storage and loss modulus (G′, G″), whereas when the mean bubble diameter is large the product is softer with decrease in moduli values (G′, G″). Also, the bubble size distribution affects texture of foods. It was found that bread doughs with hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, alginate) aid a more uniform bubble size distribution. Bread baking experiments were done to study the rheological changes and mechanisms involved in the structural transition of dough to crumb. Steamed rice cakes with xanthan gum (XG) addition at 0.1% concentration resulted in lower hardness with a narrower pore size distribution and larger mean pore diameter. Thus, control of bubble size could be an important parameter defining final food texture.

Keywords: Rheology, Microstructure, Texture, food foams

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43 Rheological Behavior of Fresh Activated Sludge

Authors: Salam K. Al-Dawery

Abstract:

Despite of few research works on municipal sludge, still there is a lack of actual data. Thus, this work was focused on the conditioning and rheology of fresh activated sludge. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte has been investigated at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. Yield stress is presented in all results indicating the minimum stress that necessary to reach flow conditions. Connections between particle-particle is the reason for this yield stress, also, the addition of polyelectrolyte causes strong bonds between particles and water resulting in the aggregation of particles which required higher shear stress in order to flow. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have significant effluence on the sludge characteristic and water quality such as turbidity, SVI, zone settling rate and shear stress.

Keywords: Rheology, polyelectrolyte, settling volume index, turbidity

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42 Application of Water Soluble Polymers in Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: M. Shahzad Kamal, Abdullah S. Sultan, Usamah A. Al-Mubaiyedh, Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein

Abstract:

Oil recovery from reservoirs using conventional oil recovery techniques like water flooding is less than 20%. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are applied to recover additional oil. Surfactant-polymer flooding is a promising EOR technique used to recover residual oil from reservoirs. Water soluble polymers are used to increase the viscosity of displacing fluids. Surfactants increase the capillary number by reducing the interfacial tension between oil and displacing fluid. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is widely used in polymer flooding applications due to its low cost and other desirable properties. HPAM works well in low-temperature and low salinity-environment. In the presence of salts HPAM viscosity decrease due to charge screening effect and it can precipitate at high temperatures in the presence of salts. Various strategies have been adopted to extend the application of water soluble polymers to high-temperature high-salinity (HTHS) reservoir. These include addition of monomers to acrylamide chain that can protect it against thermal hydrolysis. In this work, rheological properties of various water soluble polymers were investigated to find out suitable polymer and surfactant-polymer systems for HTHS reservoirs. Polymer concentration ranged from 0.1 to 1 % (w/v). Effect of temperature, salinity and polymer concentration was investigated using both steady shear and dynamic measurements. Acrylamido tertiary butyl sulfonate based copolymer showed better performance under HTHS conditions compared to HPAM. Moreover, thermoviscosifying polymer showed excellent rheological properties and increase in the viscosity was observed with increase temperature. This property is highly desirable for EOR application.

Keywords: Rheology, Salinity, Enhanced Oil Recovery, polyacrylamide, polymer flooding

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41 Rheological Properties of Red Beet Root Juice Squeezed from Ultrasounicated Red Beet Root Slices

Authors: M. Çevik, S. Sabancı, D. Tezcan, C. Çelebi, F. İçier

Abstract:

Ultrasound technology is the one of the non-thermal food processing method in recent years which has been used widely in the food industry. Ultrasound application in the food industry is divided into two groups: low and high intensity ultrasound application. While low intensity ultrasound is used to obtain information about physicochemical properties of foods, high intensity ultrasound is used to extract bioactive components and to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, the ultrasound pre-treatment at a constant power (1500 W) and fixed frequency (20 kHz) was applied to the red beetroot slices having the dimension of 25×25×50 mm at the constant temperature (25°C) for different application times (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). The red beet root slices pretreated with ultrasonication was squeezed immediately. The changes on rheological properties of red beet root juice depending on ultrasonication duration applied to slices were investigated. Rheological measurements were conducted by using Brookfield viscometer (LVDV-II Pro, USA). Shear stress-shear rate data was obtained from experimental measurements for 0-200 rpm range by using spindle 18. Rheological properties of juice were determined by fitting this data to some rheological models (Newtonian, Bingham, Power Law, Herschel Bulkley). It was investigated that the best model was Power Law model for both untreated red beet root juice (R2=0.991, χ2=0.0007, RMSE=0.0247) and red beetroot juice produced from ultrasonicated slices (R2=0.993, χ2=0.0006, RMSE=0.0216 for 20 min pre-treatment). k (consistency coefficient) and n (flow behavior index) values of red beetroot juices were not affected from the duration of ultrasonication applied to the slices. Ultrasound treatment does not result in any changes on the rheological properties of red beetroot juice. This can be explained by lack of ability to homogenize of the intensity of applied ultrasound.

Keywords: Rheology, juice, ultrasonication, red beet root slice

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40 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes

Authors: Akram Salah Eddine Belaidi, Said Kenai, El-Hadj Kadri, Benchaâ Benabed, Hamza Soualhi

Abstract:

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was developed in the middle of the 1980’s in Japan. SCC flows alone under its dead weight and consolidates itself without any entry of additional compaction energy and without segregation. As an integral part of a SCC, self-compacting mortars (SCM) may serve as a basis for the mix design of concrete since the measurement of the rheological properties of SCCs. This paper discusses the effect of using natural pozzolana (PZ) and marble powder (MP) in two alternative systems ratios PZ/MP = 1 and 1/3 of the performance of the SCC. A total of 11 SCC’s were prepared having a constant water-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 and total cementitious materials content of 475 kg/m3. Then, the fresh properties of the mortars were tested for mini-slump flow diameter and mini-V-funnel flow time for SCMs and Slumps flow test, L-Box height ratio, V-Funnel flow time and sieve stability for SCC. Moreover, the development in the compressive strength was determined at 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Test results have shown that using of ternary blends improved the fresh properties of the mixtures. The compressive strength of SCC at 90 days with 30% of PZ and MP was similar to those of ordinary concrete use in situ.

Keywords: Rheology, Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, self-compacting mortar, natural pozzolana, marble powder

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39 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour

Abstract:

The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: Rheology, pyrolysis, Mechanism, Valorization, Spectroscopic Methods, Solidification, bio-chemicals, softening, cross linking

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38 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: Simulation, Rheology, Viscoelastic, Interpolation, surface tension, reactive rotational molding, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flows

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37 Effect of Bentonite on the Rheological Behavior of Cement Grout in Presence of Superplasticizer

Authors: K. Benyounes, A. Benmounah

Abstract:

Cement-based grouts has been used successfully to repair cracks in many concrete structures such as bridges, tunnels, buildings and to consolidate soils or rock foundations. In the present study, the rheological characterization of cement grout with water/binder ratio (W/B) is fixed at 0.5. The effect of the replacement of cement by bentonite (2 to 10 % wt) in presence of superplasticizer (0.5 % wt) was investigated. Several rheological tests were carried out by using controlled-stress rheometer equipped with vane geometry in temperature of 20°C. To highlight the influence of bentonite and superplasticizer on the rheological behavior of grout cement, various flow tests in a range of shear rate from 0 to 200 s-1 were observed. Cement grout showed a non-Newtonian viscosity behavior at all concentrations of bentonite. Three parameter model Herschel-Bulkley was chosen for fitting of experimental data. Based on the values of correlation coefficients of the estimated parameters, The Herschel-Bulkley law model well described the rheological behavior of the grouts. Test results showed that the dosage of bentonite increases the viscosity and yield stress of the system and introduces more thixotropy. While the addition of both bentonite and superplasticizer with cement grout improve significantly the fluidity and reduced the yield stress due to the action of dispersion of SP.

Keywords: Rheology, viscosity, bentonite, cement grout, superplasticizer, yield stress

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36 Rheological Properties of Polymer Systems in Magnetic Field

Authors: T. S. Soliman, A. G. Galyas, E. V. Rusinova, S. A. Vshivkov

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The liquid crystals combining properties of a liquid and an anisotropic crystal substance play an important role in a science and engineering. Molecules of cellulose and its derivatives have rigid helical conformation, stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Therefore the macromolecules of these polymers are capable to be ordered at dissolution and form liquid crystals of cholesteric type. Phase diagrams of solutions of some cellulose derivatives are known. However, little is known about the effect of a magnetic field on the viscosity of polymer solutions. The systems hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) – ethanol, HPC – ethylene glycol, HPC–DМАA, HPC–DMF, ethyl cellulose (EC)–ethanol, EC–DMF, were studied in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The solution viscosity was determined on a Rheotest RN 4.1 rheometer. The effect of a magnetic field on the solution properties was studied with the use of two magnets, which induces a magnetic-field-lines directed perpendicularly and parallel to the rotational axis of a rotor. Application of the magnetic field is shown to be accompanied by an increase in the additional assembly of macromolecules, as is evident from a gain in the radii of light scattering particles. In the presence of a magnetic field, the long chains of macromolecules are oriented in parallel with field lines. Such an orientation is associated with the molecular diamagnetic anisotropy of macromolecules. As a result, supramolecular particles are formed, especially in the vicinity of the region of liquid crystalline phase transition. The magnetic field leads to the increase in viscosity of solutions. The results were used to plot the concentration dependence of η/η0, where η and η0 are the viscosities of solutions in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, respectively. In this case, the values of viscosity corresponding to low shear rates were chosen because the concentration dependence of viscosity at low shear rates is typical for anisotropic systems. In the investigated composition range, the values of η/η0 are described by a curve with a maximum.

Keywords: Rheology, Liquid crystals, Magnetic Field, cellulose ethers

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35 Power Consumption for Viscoplastic Fluid in a Rotating Vessel with an Anchor Impeller

Authors: Draoui Belkacem, Rahmani Lakhdar, Benachour Elhadj, Seghier Oussama

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Rheology is known to have a strong impact on the flow behavior and the power consumption of mechanically agitated vessels. The laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with an anchor impeller in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work the objective of this paper is: to evaluate the power consumption for yield stress fluids in standard mixing system. The power consumption is calculated for the different types of anchor impeller configurations and an optimum configuration is proposed.The hydrodynamic fields of incompressible yield stress fluid with model of Bingham in a cylindrical vessel not chicaned equipped with anchor stirrer was undertaken by means of numerical simulation. The flow structures, and especially the effect of inertia, the plasticity and the yield stress, are discussed.

Keywords: Rheology, Numerical, anchor, rotating vissel, non-Newtonien fluid

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34 Synthesis, Characterization and Rheological Properties of Boronoxide, Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Mehmet Doğan, Mahir Alkan, Yasemin Turhan, Zürriye Gündüz, Pinar Beyli, Serap Doğan

Abstract:

Advances and new discoveries in the field of the material science on the basis of technological developments have played an important role. Today, material science is branched the lower branches such as metals, nonmetals, chemicals, polymers. The polymeric nano composites have found a wide application field as one of the most important among these groups. Many polymers used in the different fields of the industry have been desired to improve the thermal stability. One of the ways to improve this property of the polymers is to form the nano composite products of them using different fillers. There are many using area of boron compounds and is increasing day by day. In order to the further increasing of the variety of using area of boron compounds and industrial importance, it is necessary to synthesis of nano-products and to find yourself new application areas of these products. In this study, PMMA/boronoxide nano composites were synthesized using solution intercalation, polymerization and melting methods; and PAA/boronoxide nano composites using solution intercalation method. Furthermore, rheological properties of nano composites synthesed according to melting method were also studied. Nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR-ATR, DTA/TG, BET, SEM, and TEM instruments. The effects of filler material amount, solvent types and mediating reagent on the thermal stability of polymers were investigated. In addition, the rheological properties of PMMA/boronoxide nano composites synthesized by melting method were investigated using High Pressure Capillary Rheometer. XRD analysis showed that boronoxide was dispersed in polymer matrix; FTIR-ATR that there were interactions with boronoxide between PAA and PMMA; and TEM that boronoxide particles had spherical structure, and dispersed in nano sized dimension in polymer matrix; the thermal stability of polymers was increased with the adding of boronoxide in polymer matrix; the decomposition mechanism of PAA was changed. From rheological measurements, it was found that PMMA and PMMA/boronoxide nano composites exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudo-plastic, shear thinning behavior under all experimental conditions.

Keywords: Characterization, Rheology, Polymer, nanocomposite, boronoxide

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33 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou

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Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: Rheology, cement, Calorimetry, Strength, metakaolin fineness

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32 Rheological Properties of Polysulfone-Sepiolite Nanocomposites

Authors: Nilgün Kızılcan, Nilay Tanrıver, Birgül Benli

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Polysulfone (PSU) is a specialty engineering polymer having various industrial applications. PSU is especially used in waste water treatment membranes due to its good mechanical properties, structural and chemical stability. But it is a hydrophobic material and therefore its surface aim to pollute easily. In order to resolve this problem and extend the properties of membrane, PSU surface is rendered hydrophilic by addition of the sepiolite nanofibers. Sepiolite is one of the natural clays, which is a hydrate magnesium silicate fiber, also one of the well known layered clays of the montmorillonites where has several unique channels and pores within. It has also moisture durability, strength and low price. Sepiolite channels give great capacity of absorption and good surface properties. In this study, nanocomposites of commercial PSU and Sepiolite were prepared by solvent mixing method. Different organic solvents and their mixtures were used. Rheological characteristics of PSU-Sepiolite solvent mixtures were analyzed, the solubility of nanocomposite content in those mixtures were studied.

Keywords: Rheology, nanocomposite, sepiolite, polysulfone, solution mixing

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31 Microstracture of Iranian Processed Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The effects of the concentration of trisodium citrate (TSC) emulsifying salt (0.25 to 2.75%) and holding time (0 to 20 min) on the textural, rheological, and microstructural properties of Iranian Processed Cheese Cheddar cheese were studied using a central composite rotatable design. The loss tangent parameter (from small amplitude oscillatory rheology), extent of flow, and melt area (from the Schreiber test) all indicated that the meltability of process cheese decreased with increased concentration of TSC and that holding time led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness increased as the concentration of TSC increased. Fluorescence micrographs indicated that the size of fat droplets decreased with an increase in the concentration of TSC and with longer holding times. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is due to residual colloidal calcium phosphate, decreased as the concentration of TSC increased. The soluble phosphate content increased as concentration of TSC increased. However, the insoluble Ca decreased with increasing concentration of TSC. The results of this study suggest that TSC chelated Ca from colloidal calcium phosphate and dispersed casein; the citrate-Ca complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix. Increasing the concentration of TSC helped to improve fat emulsification and casein dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Rheology, Iranian processed cheese, cheddar cheese, emulsifying salt

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30 Rheological Properties of Dough and Sensory Quality of Crackers with Dietary Fibers

Authors: Zita Seres, Nikola Maravić, Ljubica Dokić, Ivana Nikolić, Dragana Šoronja–Simović, Biljana Pajin, Nils Juul

Abstract:

The possibility of application the dietary fibers in production of crackers was observed in this work, as well as their influence on rheological and textural properties on the dough for crackers and influence on sensory properties of obtained crackers. Three different dietary fibers, oat, potato and pea fibers, replaced 10% of wheat flour. Long fermentation process and baking test method were used for crackers production. The changes of dough for crackers were observed by rheological methods of determination the viscoelastic dough properties and by textural measurements. Sensory quality of obtained crackers was described using quantity descriptive method (QDA) by trained members of descriptive panel. Additional analysis of crackers surface was performed by videometer. Based on rheological determination, viscoelastic properties of dough for crackers were reduced by application of dietary fibers. Manipulation of dough with 10% of potato fiber was disabled, thus the recipe modification included increase in water content at 35%. Dough compliance to constant stress for samples with dietary fibers decreased, due to more rigid and stiffer dough consistency compared to control sample. Also, hardness of dough for these samples increased and dough extensibility decreased. Sensory properties of final products, crackers, were reduced compared to control sample. Application of dietary fibers affected mostly hardness, structure and crispness of the crackers. Observed crackers were low marked for flavor and taste, due to influence of fibers specific aroma. The sample with 10% of potato fibers and increased water content was the most adaptable to applied stresses and to production process. Also this sample was close to control sample without dietary fibers by evaluation of sensory properties and by results of videometer method.

Keywords: Rheology, crackers, sensory properties, dietary fibers

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29 Iranian Processed Cheese under Effect of Emulsifier Salts and Cooking Time in Process

Authors: M. Dezyani, H. Mirzaei, R. Ezzati bbelvirdi, M. Shakerian

Abstract:

Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is commonly used as an Emulsifying Salt (ES) in process cheese, although rarely as the sole ES. It appears that no published studies exist on the effect of SHMP concentration on the properties of process cheese when pH is kept constant; pH is well known to affect process cheese functionality. The detailed interactions between the added phosphate, Casein (CN), and indigenous Ca phosphate are poorly understood. We studied the effect of the concentration of SHMP (0.25-2.75%) and holding time (0-20 min) on the textural and Rheological properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese using a central composite rotatable design. All cheeses were adjusted to pH 5.6. The meltability of process cheese (as indicated by the decrease in loss tangent parameter from small amplitude oscillatory rheology, degree of flow, and melt area from the Schreiber test) decreased with an increase in the concentration of SHMP. Holding time also led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness of process cheese increased as the concentration of SHMP increased. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is attributable to residual colloidal Ca phosphate, was shifted to lower pH values with increasing concentration of SHMP. The insoluble Ca and total and insoluble P contents increased as concentration of SHMP increased. The proportion of insoluble P as a percentage of total (indigenous and added) P decreased with an increase in ES concentration because of some of the (added) SHMP formed soluble salts. The results of this study suggest that SHMP chelated the residual colloidal Ca phosphate content and dispersed CN; the newly formed Ca-phosphate complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix, probably by cross-linking CN. Increasing the concentration of SHMP helped to improve fat emulsification and CN dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Rheology, Texture, Iranian processed cheese, emulsifying salt

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28 Viscoelastic Properties of Sn-15%Pb Measured in an Oscillation Test

Authors: Gerardo Sanjuan Sanjuan, Ángel Enrique Chavéz Castellanos

Abstract:

The knowledge of the rheological behavior of partially solidified metal alloy is an important issue when modeling and simulation of die filling in semisolid processes. Many experiments for like steady state, the step change in shear rate tests, shear stress ramps have been carried out leading that semi-solid alloys exhibit shear thinning, thixotropic behavior and yield stress. More advanced investigation gives evidence some viscoelastic features can be observed. The viscoelastic properties of materials are determinate by transient or dynamic methods; unfortunately, sparse information exists about oscillation experiments. The aim of this present work is to use small amplitude oscillatory tests for knowledge properties such as G´ and G´´. These properties allow providing information about materials structure. For this purpose, we investigated tin-lead alloy (Sn-15%Pb) which exhibits a similar microstructure to aluminum alloys and is the classic alloy for semisolid thixotropic studies. The experiments were performed with parallel plates rheometer AR-G2. Initially, the liquid alloy is cooled down to the semisolid range, a specific temperature to guarantee a constant fraction solid. Oscillation was performed within the linear viscoelastic regime with a strain sweep. So, the loss modulus G´´, the storage modulus G´ and the loss angle (δ) was monitored. In addition a frequency sweep at a strain below the critical strain for characterized its structure. This provides more information about the interactions among solid particles on a liquid matrix. After testing, the sample was removed then cooled, sectioned and examined metallographically. These experiments demonstrate that the viscoelasticity is sensitive to the solid fraction, and is strongly influenced by the shape and size of particles solid.

Keywords: Rheology, Viscoelasticity, semisolid alloys, thixotropic

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27 Rheological Evaluation of a Mucoadhesive Precursor of Based-Poloxamer 407 or Polyethylenimine Liquid Crystal System for Buccal Administration

Authors: Jéssica Bernegossi, Lívia Nordi Dovigo, Marlus Chorilli

Abstract:

Mucoadhesive liquid crystalline systems are emerging how delivery systems for oral cavity. These systems are interesting since they facilitate the targeting of medicines and change the release enabling a reduction in the number of applications made by the patient. The buccal mucosa is permeable besides present a great blood supply and absence of first pass metabolism, it is a good route of administration. It was developed two systems liquid crystals utilizing as surfactant the ethyl alcohol ethoxylated and propoxylated (30%) as oil phase the oleic acid (60%), and the aqueous phase (10%) dispersion of polymer polyethylenimine (0.5%) or dispersion of polymer poloxamer 407 (16%), with the intention of applying the buccal mucosa. Initially, was performed for characterization of systems the conference by polarized light microscopy and rheological analysis. For the preparation of the systems the components described was added above in glass vials and shaken. Then, 30 and 100% artificial saliva were added to each prepared formulation so as to simulate the environment of the oral cavity. For the verification of the system structure, aliquots of the formulations were observed in glass slide and covered with a coverslip, examined in polarized light microscope (PLM) Axioskop - Zeizz® in 40x magnifier. The formulations were also evaluated for their rheological profile Rheometer TA Instruments®, which were obtained rheograms the selected systems employing fluency mode (flow) in temperature of 37ºC (98.6ºF). In PLM, it was observed that in formulations containing polyethylenimine and poloxamer 407 without the addition of artificial saliva was observed dark-field being indicative of microemulsion, this was also observed with the formulation that was increased with 30% of the artificial saliva. In the formulation that was increased with 100% simulated saliva was shown to be a system structure since it presented anisotropy with the presence of striae being indicative of hexagonal liquid crystalline mesophase system. Upon observation of rheograms, both systems without the addition of artificial saliva showed a Newtonian profile, after addition of 30% artificial saliva have been given a non-Newtonian behavior of the pseudoplastic-thixotropic type and after adding 100% of the saliva artificial proved plastic-thixotropic. Furthermore, it is clearly seen that the formulations containing poloxamer 407 have significantly larger (15-800 Pa) shear stress compared to those containing polyethyleneimine (5-50 Pa), indicating a greater plasticity of these. Thus, it is possible to observe that the addition of saliva was of interest to the system structure, starting from a microemulsion for a liquid crystal system, thereby also changing thereby its rheological behavior. The systems have promising characteristics as controlled release systems to the oral cavity, as it features good fluidity during its possible application and greater structuring of the system when it comes into contact with environmental saliva.

Keywords: Rheology, polyethylenimine, liquid crystal system, poloxamer 407

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26 Effect of Modified Layered Silicate Nanoclay on the Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the structure–property relationship in ternary nanocomposites consisting of polypropylene as the matrix, polyamide 66 as the minor phase and treated nanoclay DELLITE 67G as the reinforcement. All PP/PA66/Nanoclay systems with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride PP-g-MAH as a compatibilizer were prepared via melt compounding and characterized in terms of nanoclay content. Morphological structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The rheological behavior of the nanocomposites was determined by various methods, viz melt flow index (MFI) and parallel plate rheological measurements. The PP/PP-g-MAH/PA66 nanocomposites showed a homogeneous morphology supporting the compatibility improvement between PP, PA66 and nanoclay. SEM results revealed the formation of nanocomposites as the nanoclay was intercalated and exfoliated. In the ternary nanocomposites, the rheological behavior showed that, the complex viscosity is increased with increasing the nanoclay content; however, at low frequencies this increase is governed by the content of nanofiller while at high frequencies it is mainly determined by talc content. A similar trend was also observed for the variations of storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) with frequency. The results showed that the use of nanoclay considerably affects the melt elasticity.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Rheology, Polypropylene, polyamide66, modified nanoclay

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25 Coating Solutions: Study of Rheology Behavior

Authors: K. Daoud, D. Abid, A. Guettar, A. Toubane, A. Bouda

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The aim of this work is to study coating formulations rheology. Fourteen solutions were prepared with Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) percentage which varies from 2 to 20 %, Ethyl cellulose (EC) percentage varying from 1 to 3 % and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) percentage which vary from 1 to 3%, Opadry solution (25%) was used as a reference for this study. Two behaviors appeared obviously ‘pseudo plastic’ and ‘dilatant’ related to the percentage of HPMC, this allowed us to define that HPMC is the polymer which influence the behavior of coating solutions.

Keywords: Rheology, HPMC, opadry, B1-B6 tablets

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24 Polymer Mixing in the Cavity Transfer Mixer

Authors: Giovanna Grosso, Martien A. Hulsen, Arash Sarhangi Fard, Andrew Overend, Patrick. D. Anderson

Abstract:

In many industrial applications and, in particular in polymer industry, the quality of mixing between different materials is fundamental to guarantee the desired properties of finished products. However, properly modelling and understanding polymer mixing often presents noticeable difficulties, because of the variety and complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This is the case of the Cavity Transfer Mixer (CTM), for which a clear understanding of mixing mechanisms is still missing, as well as clear guidelines for the system optimization. This device, invented and patented by Gale at Rapra Technology Limited, is an add-on to be mounted downstream of existing extruders, in order to improve distributive mixing. It consists of two concentric cylinders, the rotor and stator, both provided with staggered rows of hemispherical cavities. The inner cylinder (rotor) rotates, while the outer (stator) remains still. At the same time, the pressure load imposed upstream, pushes the fluid through the CTM. Mixing processes are driven by the flow field generated by the complex interaction between the moving geometry, the imposed pressure load and the rheology of the fluid. In such a context, the present work proposes a complete and accurate three dimensional modelling of the CTM and results of a broad range of simulations assessing the impact on mixing of several geometrical and functioning parameters. Among them, we find: the number of cavities per row, the number of rows, the size of the mixer, the rheology of the fluid and the ratio between the rotation speed and the fluid throughput. The model is composed of a flow part and a mixing part: a finite element solver computes the transient velocity field, which is used in the mapping method implementation in order to simulate the concentration field evolution. Results of simulations are summarized in guidelines for the device optimization.

Keywords: Polymers, Rheology, Mixing, non-Newtonian fluids

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23 Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide Extracted from Camelina Meal as a New Source of Thickening Agent

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)

Abstract:

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop currently used for the production of biofuels. However, the low price of diesel and gasoline has made camelina an unprofitable crop for farmers, leading to declining camelina production in the US. Hence, the ability to utilize camelina byproduct (defatted meal) after oil extraction would be a pivotal factor for promoting the economic value of the plant. Camelina defatted meal is rich in proteins and polysaccharides. The great diversity in the polysaccharide structural features provides a unique opportunity for use in food formulations as thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. There is currently a great degree of interest in the study of novel plant polysaccharides, as they can be derived from readily accessible sources and have potential application in a wide range of food formulations. However, there are no published studies on the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal, and its potential industrial applications remain largely underexploited. Rheological properties are a key functional feature of polysaccharides and are highly dependent on the material composition and molecular structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal at different conditions to obtain insight on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide. Flow and dynamic mechanical behaviors were determined under different temperatures (5-50°C) and concentrations (1-6% w/v). Additionally, the zeta potential of the polysaccharide dispersion was measured at different pHs (2-11) and a biopolymer concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Shear rate sweep data revealed that the camelina polysaccharide displayed shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior, which is typical of polymer systems. The polysaccharide dispersion (1% w/v) showed no significant changes in viscosity with temperature, which makes it a promising ingredient in products requiring texture stability over a range of temperatures. However, the viscosity increased significantly with increased concentration, indicating that camelina polysaccharide can be used in food products at different concentrations to produce a range of textures. Dynamic mechanical spectra showed similar trends. The temperature had little effect on viscoelastic moduli. However, moduli were strongly affected by concentration: samples exhibited concentrated solution behavior at low concentrations (1-2% w/v) and weak gel behavior at higher concentrations (4-6% w/v). These rheological properties can be used for designing and modeling of liquid and semisolid products. Zeta potential affects the intensity of molecular interactions and molecular conformation and can alter solubility, stability, and eventually, the functionality of the materials as their environment changes. In this study, the zeta potential value significantly decreased from 0.0 to -62.5 as pH increased from 2 to 11, indicating that pH may affect the functional properties of the polysaccharide. The results obtained in the current study showed that camelina polysaccharide has significant potential for application in various food systems and can be introduced as a novel anionic thickening agent with unique properties.

Keywords: Rheology, zeta potential, polysaccharide, Camelina meal

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22 Rheological and Microstructural Characterization of Concentrated Emulsions Prepared by Fish Gelatin

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)

Abstract:

Concentrated emulsions stabilized by proteins are systems of great importance in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Controlling emulsion rheology is critical for ensuring desired properties during formation, storage, and consumption of emulsion-based products. Studies on concentrated emulsions have focused on rheology of monodispersed systems. However, emulsions used for industrial applications are polydispersed in nature, and this polydispersity is regarded as an important parameter that also governs the rheology of the concentrated emulsions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize rheological (small and large deformation behaviors) and microstructural properties of concentrated emulsions which were not truly monodispersed as usually encountered in food products such as margarines, mayonnaise, creams, spreads, and etc. The concentrated emulsions were prepared at different concentrations of fish gelatin (0.2, 0.4, 0.8% w/v in the whole emulsion system), oil-water ratio 80-20 (w/w), homogenization speed 10000 rpm, and 25oC. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine the microstructure of the emulsions. To prepare samples for CLSM analysis, FG solutions were stained by Fluorescein isothiocyanate dye. Emulsion viscosity profiles were determined using shear rate sweeps (0.01 to 100 1/s). The linear viscoelastic regions (LVRs) of the emulsions were determined using strain sweeps (0.01 to 100% strain) for each sample. Frequency sweeps were performed in the LVR (0.1% strain) from 0.6 to 100 rad/s. Large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) testing was conducted by collecting raw waveform data at 0.05, 1, 10, and 100% strain at 4 different frequencies (0.5, 1, 10, and 100 rad/s). All measurements were performed in triplicate at 25oC. The CLSM results revealed that increased fish gelatin concentration resulted in more stable oil-in-water emulsions with homogeneous, finely dispersed oil droplets. Furthermore, the protein concentration had a significant effect on emulsion rheological properties. Apparent viscosity and dynamic moduli at small deformations increased with increasing fish gelatin concentration. These results were related to increased inter-droplet network connections caused by increased fish gelatin adsorption at the surface of oil droplets. Nevertheless, all samples showed shear-thinning and weak gel behaviors over shear rate and frequency sweeps, respectively. Lissajous plots, or plots of stress versus strain, and phase lag values were used to determine nonlinear behavior of the emulsions in LAOS testing. Greater distortion in the elliptical shape of the plots followed by higher phase lag values was observed at large strains and frequencies in all samples, indicating increased nonlinear behavior. Shifts from elastic-dominated to viscous dominated behavior were also observed. These shifts were attributed to damage to the sample microstructure (e.g. gel network disruption), which would lead to viscous-type behaviors such as permanent deformation and flow. Unlike the small deformation results, the LAOS behavior of the concentrated emulsions was not dependent on fish gelatin concentration. Systems with different microstructures showed similar nonlinear viscoelastic behaviors. The results of this study provided valuable information that can be used to incorporate concentrated emulsions in emulsion-based food formulations.

Keywords: Rheology, Microstructure, concentrated emulsion, fish gelatin

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21 Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: Erdogan Ozbay, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Muhammet M. Erdem, Ibrahim H. Durmuş, Mustafa Erdemir, Murat Bikçe

Abstract:

In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.

Keywords: Rheology, slag, alkali activation, yield stress, plastic viscosity

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20 Genome of Bio-Based Construction Adhesives and Complex Rheological Behavior

Authors: Ellie Fini, Mahour Parast, Daniel Oldham, Shahrzad Hosseinnezhad

Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship between molecular species of four different bio-based adhesives (made from Swine Manure, Miscanthus Pellet, Corn Stover, and Wood Pellet) and their rheological behavior before and after they undergo extensive oxidative aging. To study the effect of oxidative aging on the chemical structure of bio-adhesives, Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared) was utilised. In addition, a Drop Shape Analyser, Rotational Viscometer, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer were used to evaluate the surface properties and rheological behaviour of each bio-adhesive. Overall, bio-adhesives were found to be significantly different in terms of their ageing characteristics. Accordingly, their surface and rheological properties were found to be ranked differently before and after ageing. The results showed that the bio-adhesive from swine manure is less susceptible to aging compared to plant-based bio-oils. This can be further attributed to the chemical structure and the high lipid contents of the bio-adhesive from swine manure, making it less affected by oxidative ageing.

Keywords: Rheology, bio-adhesive, bio-mass, material genome

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19 Rheological Properties of Thermoresponsive Poly(N-Vinylcaprolactam)-g-Collagen Hydrogel

Authors: Serap Durkut, A. Eser Elcin, Y. Murat Elcin

Abstract:

Stimuli-sensitive polymeric hydrogels have received extensive attention in the biomedical field due to their sensitivity to physical and chemical stimuli (temperature, pH, ionic strength, light, etc.). This study describes the rheological properties of a novel thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-g-collagen hydrogel. In the study, we first synthesized a facile and novel synthetic carboxyl group-terminated thermo-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-COOH (PNVCL-COOH) via free radical polymerization. Further, this compound was effectively grafted with native collagen, by utilizing the covalent bond between the carboxylic acid groups at the end of the chains and amine groups of the collagen using cross-linking agent (EDC/NHS), forming PNVCL-g-Col. Newly-formed hybrid hydrogel displayed novel properties, such as increased mechanical strength and thermoresponsive characteristics. PNVCL-g-Col showed low critical solution temperature (LCST) at 38ºC, which is very close to the body temperature. Rheological studies determine structural–mechanical properties of the materials and serve as a valuable tool for characterizing. The rheological properties of hydrogels are described in terms of two dynamic mechanical properties: the elastic modulus G′ (also known as dynamic rigidity) representing the reversible stored energy of the system, and the viscous modulus G″, representing the irreversible energy loss. In order to characterize the PNVCL-g-Col, the rheological properties were measured in terms of the function of temperature and time during phase transition. Below the LCST, favorable interactions allowed the dissolution of the polymer in water via hydrogen bonding. At temperatures above the LCST, PNVCL molecules within PNVCL-g-Col aggregated due to dehydration, causing the hydrogel structure to become dense. When the temperature reached ~36ºC, both the G′ and G″ values crossed over. This indicates that PNVCL-g-Col underwent a sol-gel transition, forming an elastic network. Following temperature plateau at 38ºC, near human body temperature the sample displayed stable elastic network characteristics. The G′ and G″ values of the PNVCL-g-Col solutions sharply increased at 6-9 minute interval, due to rapid transformation into gel-like state and formation of elastic networks. Copolymerization with collagen leads to an increase in G′, as collagen structure contains a flexible polymer chain, which bestows its elastic properties. Elasticity of the proposed structure correlates with the number of intermolecular cross-links in the hydrogel network, increasing viscosity. However, at 8 minutes, G′ and G″ values sharply decreased for pure collagen solutions due to the decomposition of the elastic and viscose network. Complex viscosity is related to the mechanical performance and resistance opposing deformation of the hydrogel. Complex viscosity of PNVCL-g-Col hydrogel was drastically changed with temperature and the mechanical performance of PNVCL-g-Col hydrogel network increased, exhibiting lesser deformation. Rheological assessment of the novel thermo-responsive PNVCL-g-Col hydrogel, exhibited that the network has stronger mechanical properties due to both permanent stable covalent bonds and physical interactions, such as hydrogen- and hydrophobic bonds depending on temperature.

Keywords: Rheology, elastic modulus, poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-g-collagen, thermoresponsive polymer, stimuli-sensitive

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18 Borate Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids: Laboratory Determination of Rheology

Authors: Lalnuntluanga Hmar, Hardik Vyas

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing has become an essential procedure to break apart the rock and release the oil or gas which are trapped tightly in the rock by pumping fracturing fluids at high pressure down into the well. To open the fracture and to transport propping agent along the fracture, proper selection of fracturing fluids is the most crucial components in fracturing operations. Rheology properties of the fluids are usually considered the most important. Among various fracturing fluids, Borate crosslinked fluids have proved to be highly effective. Borate in the form of Boric Acid, borate ion is the most commonly use to crosslink the hydrated polymers and to produce very viscous gels that can stable at high temperature. Guar and HPG (Hydroxypropyl Guar) polymers are the most often used in these fluids. Borate gel rheology is known to be a function of polymer concentration, borate ion concentration, pH, and temperature. The crosslinking using Borate is a function of pH which means it can be formed or reversed simply by altering the pH of the fluid system. The fluid system was prepared by mixing base polymer with water at pH ranging between 8 to 11 and the optimum borate crosslinker efficiency was found to be pH of about 10. The rheology of laboratory prepared Borate crosslinked fracturing fluid was determined using Anton Paar Rheometer and Fann Viscometer. The viscosity was measured at high temperature ranging from 200ᵒF to 250ᵒF and pressures in order to partially stimulate the downhole condition. Rheological measurements reported that the crosslinking increases the viscosity, elasticity and thus fluid capability to transport propping agent.

Keywords: Rheology, borate, crosslinker, Guar, Hydroxypropyl Guar (HPG)

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17 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Rheology, natural, CFD, viscosity, surfactant, crude oil

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16 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Norazman Mohamad Nor, Muhamad Azani Yahya, Vikneswaran Munikanan, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: Rheology, Concrete, high tensile concrete, waterproofing agent

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15 Rheological Assessment of Oil Well Cement Paste Dosed with Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC)

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dousti, Yaman Boluk, Vivek Bindiganavile

Abstract:

During the past few decades, oil and natural gas consumption have increased significantly. The limited amount of hydrocarbon resources on earth has led to a stronger desire towards efficient drilling, well completion and extracting, with the least time, energy and money wasted. Well cementing is one of the most crucial and important steps in any well completion, to fill the annulus between the casing string and the well bore. However, since it takes place at the end of the drilling process, a satisfying and acceptable job is rarely done. Hence, a large and significant amount of time and energy is then spent in order to do the required corrections or retrofitting the well in some cases. Oil well cement paste needs to be pumped during the cementing process, therefore the rheological and flow behavior of the paste is of great importance. This study examines the use of innovative cellulose-based nanomaterials on the flow properties of the resulting cementitious system. The cementitious paste developed in this research is composed of water, class G oil well cement, bentonite and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Bentonite is used as a cross contamination component. Initially, the influence of CNC on the flow and rheological behavior of CNC and bentonite suspensions was assessed. Furthermore, the rheological behavior of oil well cement pastes dosed with CNC was studied using a steady shear parallel-plate rheometer and the results were compared to the rheological behavior of a neat oil well cement paste with no CNC. The parameters assessed were the yield shear stress and the viscosity. Significant changes in yield shear stress and viscosity were observed due to the addition of the CNC. Based on the findings in this study, the addition of a very small dosage of CNC to the oil well cement paste results in a more viscous cement slurry with a higher yield stress, demonstrating a shear thinning behavior.

Keywords: Rheology, cellulose nanocrystal, flow behavior, oil well cement

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