Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 149

Remote Sensing Related Abstracts

149 Automatic Extraction of Water Bodies Using Whole-R Method

Authors: Nikhat Nawaz, S. Srinivasulu, P. Kesava Rao


Feature extraction plays an important role in many remote sensing applications. Automatic extraction of water bodies is of great significance in many remote sensing applications like change detection, image retrieval etc. This paper presents a procedure for automatic extraction of water information from remote sensing images. The algorithm uses the relative location of R-colour component of the chromaticity diagram. This method is then integrated with the effectiveness of the spatial scale transformation of whole method. The whole method is based on water index fitted from spectral library. Experimental results demonstrate the improved accuracy and effectiveness of the integrated method for automatic extraction of water bodies.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Image Retrieval, Feature Extraction, chromaticity, water index, spectral library, integrated method

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148 Global-Scale Evaluation of Two Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets (SMOS and AMSR-E) with Respect to Modelled Estimates

Authors: A. Alyaaria, J. P. Wignerona, A. Ducharneb, Y. Kerrc, P. de Rosnayd, R. de Jeue, A. Govinda, A. Al Bitarc, C. Albergeld, J. Sabaterd, C. Moisya, P. Richaumec, A. Mialonc


Global Level-3 surface soil moisture (SSM) maps from the passive microwave soil moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOSL3) have been released. To further improve the Level-3 retrieval algorithm, evaluation of the accuracy of the spatio-temporal variability of the SMOS Level 3 products (referred to here as SMOSL3) is necessary. In this study, a comparative analysis of SMOSL3 with a SSM product derived from the observations of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) computed by implementing the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) algorithm, referred to here as AMSRM, is presented. The comparison of both products (SMSL3 and AMSRM) were made against SSM products produced by a numerical weather prediction system (SM-DAS-2) at ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) for the 03/2010-09/2011 period at global scale. The latter product was considered here a 'reference' product for the inter-comparison of the SMOSL3 and AMSRM products. Three statistical criteria were used for the evaluation, the correlation coefficient (R), the root-mean-squared difference (RMSD), and the bias. Global maps of these criteria were computed, taking into account vegetation information in terms of biome types and Leaf Area Index (LAI). We found that both the SMOSL3 and AMSRM products captured well the spatio-temporal variability of the SM-DAS-2 SSM products in most of the biomes. In general, the AMSRM products overestimated (i.e., wet bias) while the SMOSL3 products underestimated (i.e., dry bias) SSM in comparison to the SM-DAS-2 SSM products. In term of correlation values, the SMOSL3 products were found to better capture the SSM temporal dynamics in highly vegetated biomes ('Tropical humid', 'Temperate Humid', etc.) while best results for AMSRM were obtained over arid and semi-arid biomes ('Desert temperate', 'Desert tropical', etc.). When removing the seasonal cycles in the SSM time variations to compute anomaly values, better correlation with the SM-DAS-2 SSM anomalies were obtained with SMOSL3 than with AMSRM, in most of the biomes with the exception of desert regions. Eventually, we showed that the accuracy of the remotely sensed SSM products is strongly related to LAI. Both the SMOSL3 and AMSRM (slightly better) SSM products correlate well with the SM-DAS2 products over regions with sparse vegetation for values of LAI < 1 (these regions represent almost 50% of the pixels considered in this global study). In regions where LAI>1, SMOSL3 outperformed AMSRM with respect to SM-DAS-2: SMOSL3 had almost consistent performances up to LAI = 6, whereas AMSRM performance deteriorated rapidly with increasing values of LAI.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Microwave, soil moisture, AMSR-E, SMOS

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147 Rangeland Monitoring by Computerized Technologies

Authors: H. Arzani, Z. Arzani


Every piece of rangeland has a different set of physical and biological characteristics. This requires the manager to synthesis various information for regular monitoring to define changes trend to get wright decision for sustainable management. So range managers need to use computerized technologies to monitor rangeland, and select. The best management practices. There are four examples of computerized technologies that can benefit sustainable management: (1) Photographic method for cover measurement: The method was tested in different vegetation communities in semi humid and arid regions. Interpretation of pictures of quadrats was done using Arc View software. Data analysis was done by SPSS software using paired t test. Based on the results, generally, photographic method can be used to measure ground cover in most vegetation communities. (2) GPS application for corresponding ground samples and satellite pixels: In two provinces of Tehran and Markazi, six reference points were selected and in each point, eight GPS models were tested. Significant relation among GPS model, time and location with accuracy of estimated coordinates was found. After selection of suitable method, in Markazi province coordinates of plots along four transects in each 6 sites of rangelands was recorded. The best time of GPS application was in the morning hours, Etrex Vista had less error than other models, and a significant relation among GPS model, time and location with accuracy of estimated coordinates was found. (3) Application of satellite data for rangeland monitoring: Focusing on the long term variation of vegetation parameters such as vegetation cover and production is essential. Our study in grass and shrub lands showed that there were significant correlations between quantitative vegetation characteristics and satellite data. So it is possible to monitor rangeland vegetation using digital data for sustainable utilization. (4) Rangeland suitability classification with GIS: Range suitability assessment can facilitate sustainable management planning. Three sub-models of sensitivity to erosion, water suitability and forage production out puts were entered to final range suitability classification model. GIS was facilitate classification of range suitability and produced suitability maps for sheep grazing. Generally digital computers assist range managers to interpret, modify, calibrate or integrating information for correct management.

Keywords: Management, Remote Sensing, Computer, monitoring, GIS, GPS, photographic method, rangeland ecosystem, suitability, sheep grazing

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146 Application of Space Technology at Cadestral Level and Land Resources Management with Special Reference to Bhoomi Sena Project of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: A. K. Srivastava, Sandeep K. Singh, A. K. Kulshetra


Agriculture is the backbone of developing countries of Asian sub-continent like India. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous and fifth largest State of India. Total population of the state is 19.95 crore, which is 16.49% of the country that is more than that of many other countries of the world. Uttar Pradesh occupies only 7.36% of the total area of India. It is a well-established fact that agriculture has virtually been the lifeline of the State’s economy in the past for long and its predominance is likely to continue for a fairly long time in future. The total geographical area of the state is 242.01 lakh hectares, out of which 120.44 lakh hectares is facing various land degradation problems. This needs to be put under various conservation and reclamation measures at much faster pace in order to enhance agriculture productivity in the State. Keeping in view the above scenario Department of Agriculture, Government of Uttar Pradesh has formulated a multi-purpose project namely Bhoomi Sena for the entire state. The main objective of the project is to improve the land degradation using low cost technology available at village level. The total outlay of the project is Rs. 39643.75 Lakhs for an area of about 226000 ha included in the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-13 to 2016-17). It is expected that the total man days would be 310.60 lakh. An attempt has been made to use the space technology like remote sensing, geographical information system, at cadastral level for the overall management of agriculture engineering work which is required for the treatment of degradation of the land. After integration of thematic maps a proposed action plan map has been prepared for the future work.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS, topographic survey, cadestral mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
145 Use of Satellite Imaging to Understand Earth’s Surface Features: A Roadmap

Authors: Sabri Serkan Güllüoğlu


It is possible with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that the information about all natural and artificial resources on the earth is obtained taking advantage of satellite images are obtained by remote sensing techniques. However, determination of unknown sources, mapping of the distribution and efficient evaluation of resources are defined may not be possible with the original image. For this reasons, some process steps are needed like transformation, pre-processing, image enhancement and classification to provide the most accurate assessment numerically and visually. Many studies which present the phases of obtaining and processing of the satellite images have examined in the literature study. The research showed that the determination of the process steps may be followed at this subject with the existence of a common whole may provide to progress the process rapidly for the necessary and possible studies which will be.

Keywords: Computer Science, Information, Remote Sensing, GIS, satellite imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
144 Satellite Derived Evapotranspiration and Turbulent Heat Fluxes Using Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)

Authors: Mirza Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Tayyab Afzal, Muhammad Arslan


One of the key components of the water cycle is evapotranspiration (ET), which represents water consumption by vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces. Conventional techniques for measurements of ET are point based and representative of the local scale only. Satellite remote sensing data with large area coverage and high temporal frequency provide representative measurements of several relevant biophysical parameters required for estimation of ET at regional scales. The objective is of this research is to exploit satellite data in order to estimate evapotranspiration. This study uses Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model to calculate daily actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in Larkana District, Sindh Pakistan using Landsat TM data for clouds-free days. As there is no flux tower in the study area for direct measurement of latent heat flux or evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux, therefore, the model estimated values of ET were compared with reference evapotranspiration (ETo) computed by FAO-56 Penman Monteith Method using meteorological data. For a country like Pakistan, agriculture by irrigation in the river basins is the largest user of fresh water. For the better assessment and management of irrigation water requirement, the estimation of consumptive use of water for agriculture is very important because it is the main consumer of water. ET is yet an essential issue of water imbalance due to major loss of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. As large amount of irrigated water is lost through ET, therefore its accurate estimation can be helpful for efficient management of irrigation water. Results of this study can be used to analyse surface conditions, i.e. temperature, energy budgets and relevant characteristics. Through this information we can monitor vegetation health and suitable agricultural conditions and can take controlling steps to increase agriculture production.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Evapotranspiration, SEBS, ETa

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143 Satellite Derived Snow Cover Status and Trends in the Indus Basin Reservoir

Authors: Mirza Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Tayyab Afzal, Muhammad Arslan


Snow constitutes an important component of the cryosphere, characterized by high temporal and spatial variability. Because of the contribution of snow melt to water availability, snow is an important focus for research on climate change and adaptation. MODIS satellite data have been used to identify spatial-temporal trends in snow cover in the upper Indus basin. For this research MODIS satellite 8 day composite data of medium resolution (250m) have been analysed from 2001-2005.Pixel based supervised classification have been performed and extent of snow have been calculated of all the images. Results show large variation in snow cover between years while an increasing trend from west to east is observed. Temperature data for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analysed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 2001-2005 and calibrated with the results acquired by the research. From the analysis it is concluded that there are indications that regional warming is one of the factor that is affecting the hydrology of the upper Indus basin due to accelerated glacial melting during the simulation period, stream flow in the upper Indus basin can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. This conclusion is also supported by the research of ICIMOD in which there is an observation that the average annual precipitation over a five year period is less than the observed stream flow and supported by positive temperature trends in all seasons.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, indus basin, MODIS, snow cover

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
142 Photogrammetry and Topographic Information for Urban Growth and Change in Amman

Authors: Mahmoud M. S. Albattah


Urbanization results in the expansion of administrative boundaries, mainly at the periphery, ultimately leading to changes in landcover. Agricultural land, naturally vegetated land, and other land types are converted into residential areas with a high density of constructs, such as transportation systems and housing. In urban regions of rapid growth and change, urban planners need regular information on up to date ground change. Amman (the capital of Jordan) is growing at unprecedented rates, creating extensive urban landscapes. Planners interact with these changes without having a global view of their impact. The use of aerial photographs and satellite images data combined with topographic information and field survey could provide effective information to develop urban change and growth inventory which could be explored towards producing a very important signature for the built-up area changes.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, classification, GIS, Highway Design, Image Segmentation, satellite technologies

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141 Using Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Based on Satellite Imagery for the Collection of Agricultural Statistics

Authors: Benyelles Zakaria, Yousfi Djaafar, Karoui Moussa Sofiane


Agriculture is fundamental and remains an important objective in the Algerian economy, based on traditional techniques and structures, it generally has a purpose of consumption. Collection of agricultural statistics in Algeria is done using traditional methods, which consists of investigating the use of land through survey and field survey. These statistics suffer from problems such as poor data quality, the long delay between collection of their last final availability and high cost compared to their limited use. The objective of this work is to develop a processing chain for a reliable inventory of agricultural land by trying to develop and implement a new method of extracting information. Indeed, this methodology allowed us to combine data from remote sensing and field data to collect statistics on areas of different land. The contribution of remote sensing in the improvement of agricultural statistics, in terms of area, has been studied in the wilaya of Sidi Bel Abbes. It is in this context that we applied a method for extracting information from satellite images. This method is called the non-negative matrix factorization, which does not consider the pixel as a single entity, but will look for components the pixel itself. The results obtained by the application of the MNF were compared with field data and the results obtained by the method of maximum likelihood. We have seen a rapprochement between the most important results of the FMN and those of field data. We believe that this method of extracting information from satellite data leads to interesting results of different types of land uses.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, blind source separation, hyper-spectral image, non-negative matrix factorization

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140 Efficacy of Remote Sensing Application in Monitoring the Effectiveness of Afforestation Project in Northern Nigeria

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. A. Modibbo, K. G. Ilellah, M. J. Sani


After the United Nation Convention on Desertification (UNCD) in 1977 which was preceded by extensive, regional, and local studies, and consultations with numerous scientists, decision-makers, and relevant institutions. Global Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (PACD) was formulated, endorsed by member Countries. The role of implementing PACD was vested with Governments of countries affected by desertification. The Federal Government of Nigeria as a signatory and World Bank funded and implement afforestation project aimed at combating desertification between 1988 and 1999. This research, therefore, applied remote sensing techniques to assess the effectiveness of the project. To achieve that a small portion of about 143,609 hectares was curved out from the project area. Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Land Use Land Cover were derived from Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM 1999 and Nigeria Sat 1, 2007 of the project area. The findings show that there was an increase in cultivated area due to the project from 1986 through 1999 and 2007. This is further buttressed by the three NDVI imageries due to their high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007 These signifies the gradual physical development of Afforestation project in the area. In addition, it was also verified by histograms of changes in vegetation which indicated an increased vegetative cover from 60,192 in 1986, to 102,476 in 1999 and then to 88,343 in 2007. The study concluded that Remote Sensing approach has actually confirmed that the project was indeed successful and effective.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Desertification, Afforestation, vegetative index, landsat

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
139 Assessment of Spectral Indices for Soil Salinity Estimation in Irrigated Land

Authors: R. Lhissou, A. El Harti, K. Chokmani, E. Bachaoui, A. El Ghmari


Soil salinity is a serious environmental hazard in many countries around the world especially the arid and semi-arid countries like Morocco. Salinization causes negative effects on the ground; it affects agricultural production, infrastructure, water resources and biodiversity. Remote sensing can provide soil salinity information for large areas, and in a relatively short time. In addition, remote sensing is not limited by extremes in terrain or hazardous condition. Contrariwise, experimental methods for monitoring soil salinity by direct measurements in situ are very demanding of time and resources, and also very limited in spatial coverage. In the irrigated perimeter of Tadla plain in central Morocco, the increased use of saline groundwater and surface water, coupled with agricultural intensification leads to the deterioration of soil quality especially by salinization. In this study, we assessed several spectral indices of soil salinity cited in the literature using Landsat TM satellite images and field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC). Three Landsat TM satellite images were taken during 3 months in the dry season (September, October and November 2011). Based on field measurement data of EC collected in three field campaigns over the three dates simultaneously with acquisition dates of Landsat TM satellite images, a two assessment techniques are used to validate a soil salinity spectral indices. Firstly, the spectral indices are validated locally by pixel. The second validation technique is made using a window of size 3x3 pixels. The results of the study indicated that the second technique provides getting a more accurate validation and the assessment has shown its limits when it comes to assess across the pixel. In addition, the EC values measured from field have a good correlation with some spectral indices derived from Landsat TM data and the best results show an r² of 0.88, 0.79 and 0.65 for Salinity Index (SI) in the three dates respectively. The results have shown the usefulness of spectral indices as an auxiliary variable in the spatial estimation and mapping salinity in irrigated land.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, soil salinity, spectral indices, irrigated land

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138 Remote Sensing and GIS Integration for Paddy Production Estimation in Bali Province, Indonesia

Authors: Sarono, Hamim Zaky Hadibasyir, dan Ridho Kurniawan


Estimation of paddy production is one of the areas that can be examined using the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the field of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to know the amount of the paddy production estimation and how remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are able to perform analysis of paddy production estimation in Tegalallang and Payangan Sub district, Bali Province, Indonesia. The method used is the method of land suitability. This method associates a physical parameters which are to be embodied in the smallest unit of a mapping that represents a mapping unit in a particular field and connecting with its field productivity. Analysis of estimated production using standard land suitability from FAO using matching technique. The parameters used to create the land unit is slope (FAO), climate classification (Oldeman), landform (Prapto Suharsono), and soil type. Land use map consist of paddy and non paddy field information obtained from Geo-eye 1 imagery using visual interpretation technique. Landsat image of the Data used for the interpretation of the landform, the classification of the slopes obtained from high point identification with method of interpolation spline, whereas climate data, soil, use secondary data originating from institutions-related institutions. The results of this research indicate Tegallalang and Payangan Districts in known wetland suitability consists of S1 (very suitable) covering an area of 2884,7 ha with the productivity of 5 tons/ha and S2 (suitable) covering an area of 482,9 ha with the productivity of 3 tons/ha. The sum of paddy production estimation as a results in both districts are 31.744, 3 tons in one year.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, production estimation, paddy, geography information system, land suitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
137 Integration of GIS with Remote Sensing and GPS for Disaster Mitigation

Authors: Sikander Nawaz Khan


Natural disasters like flood, earthquake, cyclone, volcanic eruption and others are causing immense losses to the property and lives every year. Current status and actual loss information of natural hazards can be determined and also prediction for next probable disasters can be made using different remote sensing and mapping technologies. Global Positioning System (GPS) calculates the exact position of damage. It can also communicate with wireless sensor nodes embedded in potentially dangerous places. GPS provide precise and accurate locations and other related information like speed, track, direction and distance of target object to emergency responders. Remote Sensing facilitates to map damages without having physical contact with target area. Now with the addition of more remote sensing satellites and other advancements, early warning system is used very efficiently. Remote sensing is being used both at local and global scale. High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI), airborne remote sensing and space-borne remote sensing is playing vital role in disaster management. Early on Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to collect, arrange, and map the spatial information but now it has capability to analyze spatial data. This analytical ability of GIS is the main cause of its adaption by different emergency services providers like police and ambulance service. Full potential of these so called 3S technologies cannot be used in alone. Integration of GPS and other remote sensing techniques with GIS has pointed new horizons in modeling of earth science activities. Many remote sensing cases including Asian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, Mount Mangart landslides and Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005 are described in this paper.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS, disaster mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
136 Assessing Land Cover Change Trajectories in Olomouc, Czech Republic

Authors: Mukesh Singh Boori, Vít Voženílek


Olomouc is a unique and complex landmark with widespread forestation and land use. This research work was conducted to assess important and complex land use change trajectories in Olomouc region. Multi-temporal satellite data from 1991, 2001 and 2013 were used to extract land use/cover types by object oriented classification method. To achieve the objectives, three different aspects were used: (1) Calculate the quantity of each transition; (2) Allocate location based landscape pattern (3) Compare land use/cover evaluation procedure. Land cover change trajectories shows that 16.69% agriculture, 54.33% forest and 21.98% other areas (settlement, pasture and water-body) were stable in all three decade. Approximately 30% of the study area maintained as a same land cove type from 1991 to 2013. Here broad scale of political and socio-economic factors was also affect the rate and direction of landscape changes. Distance from the settlements was the most important predictor of land cover change trajectories. This showed that most of landscape trajectories were caused by socio-economic activities and mainly led to virtuous change on the ecological environment.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, image classification, land use/cover, change trajectories

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135 Mapping of Arenga Pinnata Tree Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Zulkiflee Abd Latif, Sitinor Atikah Nordin, Alawi Sulaiman


Different tree species possess different and various benefits. Arenga Pinnata tree species own several potential uses that is valuable for the economy and the country. Mapping vegetation using remote sensing technique involves various process, techniques and consideration. Using satellite imagery, this method enables the access of inaccessible area and with the availability of near infra-red band; it is useful in vegetation analysis, especially in identifying tree species. Pixel-based and object-based classification technique is used as a method in this study. Pixel-based classification technique used in this study divided into unsupervised and supervised classification. Object based classification technique becomes more popular another alternative method in classification process. Using spectral, texture, color and other information, to classify the target make object-based classification is a promising technique for classification. Classification of Arenga Pinnata trees is overlaid with elevation, slope and aspect, soil and river data and several other data to give information regarding the tree character and living environment. This paper will present the utilization of remote sensing technique in order to map Arenga Pinnata tree species

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Object-Based Classification, Arenga Pinnata, pixel-based classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
134 An Integrated Multisensor/Modeling Approach Addressing Climate Related Extreme Events

Authors: H. M. El-Askary, S. A. Abd El-Mawla, M. Allali, M. M. El-Hattab, M. El-Raey, A. M. Farahat, M. Kafatos, S. Nickovic, S. K. Park, A. K. Prasad, C. Rakovski, W. Sprigg, D. Struppa, A. Vukovic


A clear distinction between weather and climate is a necessity because while they are closely related, there are still important differences. Climate change is identified when we compute the statistics of the observed changes in weather over space and time. In this work we will show how the changing climate contribute to the frequency, magnitude and extent of different extreme events using a multi sensor approach with some synergistic modeling activities. We are exploring satellite observations of dust over North Africa, Gulf Region and the Indo Gangetic basin as well as dust versus anthropogenic pollution events over the Delta region in Egypt and Seoul through remote sensing and utilize the behavior of the dust and haze on the aerosol optical properties. Dust impact on the retreat of the glaciers in the Himalayas is also presented. In this study we also focus on the identification and monitoring of a massive dust plume that blew off the western coast of Africa towards the Atlantic on October 8th, 2012 right before the development of Hurricane Sandy. There is evidence that dust aerosols played a non-trivial role in the cyclogenesis process of Sandy. Moreover, a special dust event "An American Haboob" in Arizona is discussed as it was predicted hours in advance because of the great improvement we have in numerical, land–atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events. Therefore we performed a full numerical simulation to that event using the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME–DREAM after generating a mask of the potentially dust productive regions using land cover and vegetation data obtained from satellites. Climate change also contributes to the deterioration of different marine habitats. In that regard we are also presenting some work dealing with change detection analysis of Marine Habitats over the city of Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt. The motivation for this work came from the fact that coral reefs at Hurghada have undergone significant decline. They are damaged, displaced, polluted, stepped on, and blasted off, in addition to the effects of climate change on the reefs. One of the most pressing issues affecting reef health is mass coral bleaching that result from an interaction between human activities and climatic changes. Over another location, namely California, we have observed that it exhibits highly-variable amounts of precipitation across many timescales, from the hourly to the climate timescale. Frequently, heavy precipitation occurs, causing damage to property and life (floods, landslides, etc.). These extreme events, variability, and the lack of good, medium to long-range predictability of precipitation are already a challenge to those who manage wetlands, coastal infrastructure, agriculture and fresh water supply. Adding on to the current challenges for long-range planning is climate change issue. It is known that La Niña and El Niño affect precipitation patterns, which in turn are entwined with global climate patterns. We have studied ENSO impact on precipitation variability over different climate divisions in California. On the other hand the Nile Delta has experienced lately an increase in the underground water table as well as water logging, bogging and soil salinization. Those impacts would pose a major threat to the Delta region inheritance and existing communities. There has been an undergoing effort to address those vulnerabilities by looking into many adaptation strategies.

Keywords: Modeling, North Africa, Remote Sensing, Climate extremes, India, Sea Level Rise, Coral Reefs, long range transport, dust storms, Gulf Region, California

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133 Geospatial Techniques for Impact Assessment of Canal Rehabilitation Program in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi, Muhammad Arslan Hafeez


Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) is the largest contiguous irrigation system of the world comprising Indus River and its tributaries, canals, distributaries, and watercourses. A big challenge faced by IBIS is transmission losses through seepage and leaks that account to 41 percent of the total water derived from the river and about 40 percent of that is through watercourses. Irrigation system rehabilitation programs in Pakistan are focused on improvement of canal system at the watercourse level (tertiary channels). Under these irrigation system management programs more than 22,800 watercourses have been improved or lined out of 43,000 (12,900 Kilometers) watercourses. The evaluation of the improvement work is required at this stage to testify the success of the programs. In this paper, emerging technologies of GIS and satellite remote sensing are used for impact assessment of watercourse rehabilitation work in Sindh. To evaluate the efficiency of the improved watercourses, few parameters are selected like soil moisture along watercourses, availability of water at tail end and changes in cultivable command areas. Improved watercourses details and maps are acquired from National Program for Improvement of Watercourses (NPIW) and Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission (SUPARCO). High resolution satellite images of Google Earth for the year of 2004 to 2013 are used for digitizing command areas. Temporal maps of cultivable command areas show a noticeable increase in the cultivable land served by improved watercourses. Field visits are conducted to validate the results. Interviews with farmers and landowners also reveal their overall satisfaction in terms of availability of water at the tail end and increased crop production.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geospatial, GIS, Impact Assessment, watercourses, seepage, canal lining

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132 Mapping of Siltations of AlKhod Dam, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Using Low-Cost Multispectral Satellite Data

Authors: Sankaran Rajendran


Remote sensing plays a vital role in mapping of resources and monitoring of environments of the earth. In the present research study, mapping and monitoring of clay siltations occurred in the Alkhod Dam of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman are carried out using low-cost multispectral Landsat and ASTER data. The dam is constructed across the Wadi Samail catchment for ground water recharge. The occurrence and spatial distribution of siltations in the dam are studied with five years of interval from the year 1987 of construction to 2014. The deposits are mainly due to the clay, sand, and silt occurrences derived from the weathering rocks of ophiolite sequences occurred in the Wadi Samail catchment. The occurrences of clays are confirmed by minerals identification using ASTER VNIR-SWIR spectral bands and Spectral Angle Mapper supervised image processing method. The presence of clays and their spatial distribution are verified in the field. The study recommends the technique and the low-cost satellite data to similar region of the world.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, landsat, oman, Alkhod Dam, ASTER siltation

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131 Calibration and Validation of ArcSWAT Model for Estimation of Surface Runoff and Sediment Yield from Dhangaon Watershed

Authors: M. P. Tripathi, Priti Tiwari


Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a distributed parameter continuous time model and was tested on daily and fortnightly basis for a small agricultural watershed (Dhangaon) of Chhattisgarh state in India. The SWAT model recently interfaced with ArcGIS and called as ArcSWAT. The watershed and sub-watershed boundaries, drainage networks, slope and texture maps were generated in the environment of ArcGIS of ArcSWAT. Supervised classification method was used for land use/cover classification from satellite imageries of the years 2009 and 2012. Manning's roughness coefficient 'n' for overland flow and channel flow and Fraction of Field Capacity (FFC) were calibrated for monsoon season of the years 2009 and 2010. The model was validated on a daily basis for the years 2011 and 2012 by using the observed daily rainfall and temperature data. Calibration and validation results revealed that the model was predicting the daily surface runoff and sediment yield satisfactorily. Sensitivity analysis showed that the annual sediment yield was inversely proportional to the overland and channel 'n' values whereas; annual runoff and sediment yields were directly proportional to the FFC. The model was also tested (calibrated and validated) for the fortnightly runoff and sediment yield for the year 2009-10 and 2011-12, respectively. Simulated values of fortnightly runoff and sediment yield for the calibration and validation years compared well with their observed counterparts. The calibration and validation results revealed that the ArcSWAT model could be used for identification of critical sub-watershed and for developing management scenarios for the Dhangaon watershed. Further, the model should be tested for simulating the surface runoff and sediment yield using generated rainfall and temperature before applying it for developing the management scenario for the critical or priority sub-watersheds.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, watershed, GIS, hydrologic and water quality, ArcSWAT model, runoff and sediment yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
130 Impact of Landuse Change on Surface Temperature in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatola


It has become increasingly evident that large developments influence the climate within the immediate region and there are concerns that rising temperatures over developed areas could have negative impact and increase living discomfort within city boundaries. Temperature trends in Ibadan city have received minor attention, yet the area has experienced heavy urban expansion between 1972 and 2014. This research aims at examining the impact of landuse change on temperature knowing that the built environment absorbs and stores solar energy, the temperature in cities can be several degrees higher than in adjacent rural areas. This is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The Landsat imagery were used to examine the landuse change for a time period of 42years (1972-2014) and Land surface temperature (LST) was obtained by converting the thermal band to a surface temperature map and zonal statistic analyses was further used to examine the relationship between landuse and temperature emission. The results showed that the settlement area increased by 200km2 while the area covered by vegetation also reduced to about 42.6% during the study period. The spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover and the settlement area has the highest emission of land surface temperature. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Ibadan city.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, LST, landuse, UHI

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129 Land Use Change Detection Using Satellite Images for Najran City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Authors: Ismail Elkhrachy


Determination of land use changing is an important component of regional planning for applications ranging from urban fringe change detection to monitoring change detection of land use. This data are very useful for natural resources management.On the other hand, the technologies and methods of change detection also have evolved dramatically during past 20 years. So it has been well recognized that the change detection had become the best methods for researching dynamic change of land use by multi-temporal remotely-sensed data. The objective of this paper is to assess, evaluate and monitor land use change surrounding the area of Najran city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using Landsat images (June 23, 2009) and ETM+ image(June. 21, 2014). The post-classification change detection technique was applied. At last,two-time subset images of Najran city are compared on a pixel-by-pixel basis using the post-classification comparison method and the from-to change matrix is produced, the land use change information obtained.Three classes were obtained, urban, bare land and agricultural land from unsupervised classification method by using Erdas Imagine and ArcGIS software. Accuracy assessment of classification has been performed before calculating change detection for study area. The obtained accuracy is between 61% to 87% percent for all the classes. Change detection analysis shows that rapid growth in urban area has been increased by 73.2%, the agricultural area has been decreased by 10.5 % and barren area reduced by 7% between 2009 and 2014. The quantitative study indicated that the area of urban class has unchanged by 58.2 km〗^2, gained 70.3 〖km〗^2 and lost 16 〖km〗^2. For bare land class 586.4〖km〗^2 has unchanged, 53.2〖km〗^2 has gained and 101.5〖km〗^2 has lost. While agriculture area class, 20.2〖km〗^2 has unchanged, 31.2〖km〗^2 has gained and 37.2〖km〗^2 has lost.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Land Use, image classification, change detection, satellite images

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128 Landscape Classification in North of Jordan by Integrated Approach of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Taleb Odeh, Nizar Abu-Jaber, Nour Khries


The southern part of Wadi Al Yarmouk catchment area covers north of Jordan. It locates within latitudes 32° 20’ to 32° 45’N and longitudes 35° 42’ to 36° 23’ E and has an area of about 1426 km2. However, it has high relief topography where the elevation varies between 50 to 1100 meter above sea level. The variations in the topography causes different units of landforms, climatic zones, land covers and plant species. As a results of these different landscapes units exists in that region. Spatial planning is a major challenge in such a vital area for Jordan which could not be achieved without determining landscape units. However, an integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information Systems (GIS) is an optimized tool to investigate and map landscape units of such a complicated area. Remote sensing has the capability to collect different land surface data, of large landscape areas, accurately and in different time periods. GIS has the ability of storage these land surface data, analyzing them spatially and present them in form of professional maps. We generated a geo-land surface data that include land cover, rock units, soil units, plant species and digital elevation model using ASTER image and Google Earth while analyzing geo-data spatially were done by ArcGIS 10.2 software. We found that there are twenty two different landscape units in the study area which they have to be considered for any spatial planning in order to avoid and environmental problems.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Landscape, Spatial planning, GIS, Spatial analysis

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127 The Use of Remote Sensing in the Study of Vegetation Jebel Boutaleb, Setif, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Missaoui, Amina Beldjazia, Rachid Gharzouli, Yamna Djellouli


Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Different materials reflect and absorb differently at different wavelengths. Thus, the targets can be differentiated by their spectral reflectance signatures in the remotely sensed images. In this work, we are interested to study the distribution of vegetation in the massif forest of Boutaleb (North East of Algeria) which suffered between 1998 and 1999 very large fires. In this case, we use remote sensing with Landsat images from two dates (1984 and 2000) to see the results of these fires. Vegetation has a unique spectral signature which enables it to be distinguished readily from other types of land cover in an optical/near-infrared image. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated with ENVI 4.7 from Band 3 and 4. The results showed a very important floristic diversity in this forest. The comparison of NDVI from the two dates confirms that there is a decrease of the density of vegetation in this area due to repeated fires.

Keywords: Diversity, Remote Sensing, Forest, boutaleb

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126 System Response of a Variable-Rate Aerial Application System

Authors: Daniel E. Martin, Chenghai Yang


Variable-rate aerial application systems are becoming more readily available; however, aerial applicators typically only use the systems for constant-rate application of materials, allowing the systems to compensate for upwind and downwind ground speed variations. Much of the resistance to variable-rate aerial application system adoption in the U.S. pertains to applicator’s trust in the systems to turn on and off automatically as desired. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system under field conditions to demonstrate both the response and accuracy of the system to desired application rate inputs. This study involved planting oats in a 35-acre fallow field during the winter months to establish a uniform green backdrop in early spring. A binary (on/off) prescription application map was generated and a variable-rate aerial application of glyphosate was made to the field. Airborne multispectral imagery taken before and two weeks after the application documented actual field deposition and efficacy of the glyphosate. When compared to the prescription application map, these data provided application system response and accuracy information. The results of this study will be useful for quantifying and documenting the response and accuracy of a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system so that aerial applicators can be more confident in their capabilities and the use of these systems can increase, taking advantage of all that aerial variable-rate technologies have to offer.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, variable-rate, aerial application, precision application

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125 Heuristic Spatial-Spectral Hyperspectral Image Segmentation Using Bands Quartile Box Plot Profiles

Authors: Mohamed A. Almoghalis, Osman M. Hegazy, Ibrahim F. Imam, Ali H. Elbastawessy


This paper presents a new hyperspectral image segmentation scheme with respect to both spatial and spectral contexts. The scheme uses the 8-pixels spatial pattern to build a weight structure that holds the number of outlier bands for each pixel among its neighborhood windows in different directions. The number of outlier bands for a pixel is obtained using bands quartile box plots profile among spatial 8-pixels pattern windows. The quartile box plot weight structure represents the spatial-spectral context in the image. Instead of starting segmentation process by single pixels, the proposed methodology starts by pixels groups that proved to share the same spectral features with respect to their spatial context. As a result, the segmentation scheme starts with Jigsaw pieces that build a mosaic image. The following step builds a model for each Jigsaw piece in the mosaic image. Each Jigsaw piece will be merged with another Jigsaw piece using KNN applied to their bands' quartile box plots profiles. The scheme iterates till required number of segments reached. Experiments use two data sets obtained from Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) sensor for Egypt and France. Initial results qualitative analysis showed encouraging results compared with ground truth. Quantitative analysis for the results will be included in the final paper.

Keywords: Image Processing, Remote Sensing, hyperspectral image segmentation, box plot

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124 Role of Geohydrology in Groundwater Management-Case Study of Pachod Village, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Ashok Tejankar, Rohan K. Pathrikar


Maharashtra is covered by heterogeneous flows of Deccan basaltic terrains of upper cretaceous to lower Eocene age. It consist mainly different types of basalt flow, having heterogeneous Geohydrological characters. The study area Aurangabad dist. lies in the central part of Maharashtra. The study area is typically covered by Deccan traps formation mainly basalt type of igneous volcanic rock. The area is located in the survey of India toposheet No. 47M and laying between 19° to 20° north latitudes and 74° to 76° east longitudes. Groundwater is the primary source for fresh water in the study area. There has been a growing demand for fresh water in domestic & agriculture sectors. Due to over exploitation and rainfall failure has been created an irrecoverable stress on groundwater in study area. In an effort to maintain the water table condition in balance, artificial recharge is being implemented. The selection of site for artificial recharge is a very important task in recharge basalt. The present study aims at sitting artificial recharge structure at village Pachod in basaltic terrain of the Godavari-Purna river basin in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. where the average annual rainfall is 650mm. In this investigation, integrated remote sensing and GIS techniques were used and various parameters like lithology, structure, etc. aspect of drainage basins, landforms and other parameters were extracted from visual interpretation of IRS P6 Satellite data and Survey of India (SIO) topographical sheets, aided by field checks by carrying well inventory survey. The depth of weathered material, water table conditions, and rainfall data were been considered. All the thematic information layers were digitized and analyzed in Arc-GIS environment and the composite maps produced show suitable site, depth of bed rock flows for successful artificial recharge in village Pachod to increase groundwater potential of low laying area.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, hard rock, artificial recharge

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123 The Urban Expansion Characterization of the Bir El Djir Municipality using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Zakaria Smahi, Fatima Achouri


Bir El Djir is an important coastal township in Oran department, located at 450 Km far away from Algiers on northwest of Algeria. In this coastal area, the urban sprawl is one of the main problems that reduce the limited highly fertile land. So, using the remote sensing and GIS technologies have shown their great capabilities to solve many earth resources issues. The aim of this study is to produce land use and cover map for the studied area at varied periods to monitor possible changes that may occurred, particularly in the urban areas and subsequently predict likely changes. For this, two spatial images SPOT and Landsat satellites from 1987 and 2014 respectively were used to assess the changes of urban expansion and encroachment during this period with photo-interpretation and GIS approach. The results revealed that the town of Bir El Djir has shown a highest growth rate in the period 1987-2014 which is 521.1 hectares in terms of area. These expansions largely concern the new real estate constructions falling within the social and promotional housing programs launched by the government. Indeed, during the last census period (1998 -2008), the population of this town has almost doubled from 73 029 to 152 151 inhabitants with an average annual growth of 5.2%. This also significant population growth is causing an accelerated urban expansion of the periphery which causing its conurbation with the towns of Oran in the West side. The most urban expansion is characterized by the new construction in the form of spontaneous or peripheral precarious habitat, but also unstructured slums settled especially in the southeastern part of town.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Urban Expansion, Spatial Dynamics, photo-interpretation

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122 Estimation of Maize Yield by Using a Process-Based Model and Remote Sensing Data in the Northeast China Plain

Authors: Fengmei Yao, Jia Zhang, Yanjing Tan


The accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (P < 0.01) between the simulated yield and the statistical data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 712 kg/ha with a relative error (RE) of 9.3%. From 2002-2011, the yield of maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, process-based model, C4 crop, maize yield, Northeast China Plain

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121 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Ning Li, Yaner Yan, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An


Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, ecosystem services, high resolution, chlorophyll fluorescence

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120 Imaging of Underground Targets with an Improved Back-Projection Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Akbari, Gelareh Babaee Khou


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an important nondestructive remote sensing tool that has been used in both military and civilian fields. Recently, GPR imaging has attracted lots of attention in detection of subsurface shallow small targets such as landmines and unexploded ordnance and also imaging behind the wall for security applications. For the monostatic arrangement in the space-time GPR image, a single point target appears as a hyperbolic curve because of the different trip times of the EM wave when the radar moves along a synthetic aperture and collects reflectivity of the subsurface targets. With this hyperbolic curve, the resolution along the synthetic aperture direction shows undesired low resolution features owing to the tails of hyperbola. However, highly accurate information about the size, electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity, and depth of the buried objects is essential in most GPR applications. Therefore hyperbolic curve behavior in the space-time GPR image is often willing to be transformed to a focused pattern showing the object's true location and size together with its EM scattering. The common goal in a typical GPR image is to display the information of the spatial location and the reflectivity of an underground object. Therefore, the main challenge of GPR imaging technique is to devise an image reconstruction algorithm that provides high resolution and good suppression of strong artifacts and noise. In this paper, at first, the standard back-projection (BP) algorithm that was adapted to GPR imaging applications used for the image reconstruction. The standard BP algorithm was limited with against strong noise and a lot of artifacts, which have adverse effects on the following work like detection targets. Thus, an improved BP is based on cross-correlation between the receiving signals proposed for decreasing noises and suppression artifacts. To improve the quality of the results of proposed BP imaging algorithm, a weight factor was designed for each point in region imaging. Compared to a standard BP algorithm scheme, the improved algorithm produces images of higher quality and resolution. This proposed improved BP algorithm was applied on the simulation and the real GPR data and the results showed that the proposed improved BP imaging algorithm has a superior suppression artifacts and produces images with high quality and resolution. In order to quantitatively describe the imaging results on the effect of artifact suppression, focusing parameter was evaluated.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Algorithm, GPR, back-projection

Procedia PDF Downloads 325