Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

RAPD Related Abstracts

13 Genomic and Proteomic Variability in Glycine Max Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan

Abstract:

To investigate the ability of sensitive and tolerant genotype of Glycine max to adapt to a saline environment in a field, we examined the growth performance, water relation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigment concentration, protein and proline in plants exposed to salt stress. Ten soybean genotypes (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712) were selected and grown hydroponically. After 3 days of proper germination, the seedlings were transferred to Hoagland’s solution (Hoagland and Arnon 1950). The growth chamber was maintained at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 430 μmol m−2 s−1, 14 h of light, 10 h of dark and a relative humidity of 60%. The nutrient solution was bubbled with sterile air and changed on alternate days. Ten-day-old seedlings were given seven levels of salt in the form of NaCl viz., T1 = 0 mM NaCl, T2=25 mM NaCl, T3=50 mM NaCl, T4=75 mM NaCl, T5=100 mM NaCl, T6=125 mM NaCl, T7=150 mM NaCl. The investigation showed that genotype Pusa-24, PK-416 and Pusa-20 appeared to be the most salt-sensitive. genotypes as inferred from their significantly reduced length, fresh weight and dry weight in response to the NaCl exposure. Pusa-37 appeared to be the most tolerant genotype since no significant effect of NaCl treatment on growth was found. We observed a greater decline in the photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, in salt-sensitive (Pusa-24) genotype than in salt-tolerant Pusa-37 under high salinity. Numerous primers were verified on ten soybean genotypes obtained from Operon technologies among which 30 RAPD primers shown high polymorphism and genetic variation. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient values for each pairwise comparison between cultivars were calculated and similarity coefficient matrix was constructed. The closer varieties in the cluster behaved similar in their response to salinity tolerance. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings.Salt tolerant genotype Pusa-37, was further analysed by 2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis to analyse the differential expression of proteins at high salt stress. In the Present study, 173 protein spots were identified. Of these, 40 proteins responsive to salinity were either up- or down-regulated in Pusa-37. Proteomic analysis in salt-tolerant genotype (Pusa-37) led to the detection of proteins involved in a variety of biological processes, such as protein synthesis (12 %), redox regulation (19 %), primary and secondary metabolism (25 %), or disease- and defence-related processes (32 %). In conclusion, the soybean plants in our study responded to salt stress by changing their protein expression pattern. The photosynthetic, biochemical and molecular study showed that there is variability in salt tolerance behaviour in soybean genotypes. Pusa-24 is the salt-sensitive and Pusa-37 is the salt-tolerant genotype. Moreover this study gives new insights into the salt-stress response in soybean and demonstrates the power of genomic and proteomic approach in plant biology studies which finally could help us in identifying the possible regulatory switches (gene/s) controlling the salt tolerant genotype of the crop plants and their possible role in defence mechanism.

Keywords: Salt Stress, glycine max, RAPD, genomic and proteomic variability

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12 Genomic and Proteomic Variation in Glycine Max Genotypes towards Salinity

Authors: Faheema Khan

Abstract:

In order to investigate the influence of genetic background on salt tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max) ten soybean genotypes released/notified in India were selected. (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712). The 10-day-old seedlings were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM NaCl for 15 days. Plant growth, leaf osmotic adjustment, and RAPD analysis were studied. In comparison to control plants, the plant growth in all genotypes was decreased by salt stress, respectively. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all genotypes however the maximum reduction was observed in genotype Pusa-24 followed by PK-416 and Pusa-20. The difference in osmotic adjustment between all the genotypes was correlated with the concentrations of ion examined such as Na+ and the leaf proline concentration. These results suggest that the genotypic variation for salt tolerance can be partially accounted for by plant physiological measures. The genetic polymorphisms between soybean genotypes differing in response to salt stress were characterized using 25 RAPD primers. These primers generated a total of 1640 amplification products, among which 1615 were found to be polymorphic. A very high degree of polymorphism (98.30%) was observed. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the genotypes into two major clusters. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings. Our results show that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in soybean genotypes.

Keywords: Proteomics, NaCl, glycine max, RAPD

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11 Morphological and Molecular Analysis of Selected Fast-Growing Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus) in South of Sulawesi

Authors: Yushinta Fujaya, Andi Ivo Asphama, Andi Parenrengi, Andi Tenriulo

Abstract:

Blue Swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is an important commercial species throughout the subtropical waters and as such constitutes part of the fisheries resources. Data are lacking on the morphological variations of selected fast-growing crabs reared in a pond. This study aimed to analyze the morphological and molecular character of a selected fast-growing crab reared in ponds in South of Sulawesi. The crab seeds were obtained from local fish-trap and hatchery. A study on the growth was carried out in the population of crabs. The dimensions analyzed were carapace width (CW) measured after 3 months of grow out. Morphological character states were examined based on the pattern of spots on the carapace. Molecular analysis was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Genetic distance was analysed using TFPGA (Tools for Population Genetic Analyses) version 1.3. The results showed that there were variations in the growth of crabs. These crabs clustered morphologically into three quite distinct groups. The crab with white spots irregularly spread over its carapace was the largest size while the crab with large white spots scattered over the carapace was the smaller size (3%). The crab with small white spots scattered over the carapace was the smallest size found in this study. Molecular analysis showed that there are morphologically and genetically different between groups of crabs. Genetic distances among crabs ranged from 0.1527 to 0.5856. Thus, this study provides information the use of white spots pattern over carapace as indicators to identify the type of blue swimming crabs.

Keywords: Morphology, RAPD, crab, portunus pelagicus, Carapace

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10 Investigation of Genetic Diversity in Bread Wheat by RAPD and SSR Markers

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Khavarinejad

Abstract:

In this study, genetic diversity of 10 bread wheat genotypes by SSR and RAPD markers was evaluated. 11 primers were used included 6 RAPD primers and 5 SSR primers. RAPDs and SSRs could find 33 and 17 polymorphism respectively. In RAPDs, primers UBC 350 and UBC 109 and in SSRs, Primers Xgwm 469-6D and Xgwm120-2B showed genetic diversity among genotypes more than others.

Keywords: Molecular markers, Wheat, SSR, RAPD

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9 Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Tilia tomentosa Moench. (Silver Lime) in Duzce-Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Seda Birbilener, Semsettin Kulac, Zeki Severoglu

Abstract:

In this study, we have performed genetic diversity analysis of Tilia tomentosa genotypes by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 28 genotypes, including 25 members from the urban ecosystem and 3 genotypes from forest ecosystem as outgroup were used. 8 RAPD primers produced a total of 53 bands, of which 48 (90.6 %) were polymorphic. Percentage of polymorphic loci (P), observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's (1973) gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were found as 94.29 %, 1.94, 1.60, 0.34, and 0.50, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed that two major groups were observed. The genotypes of urban and forest ecosystems showed a high genetic similarity between 28% and 92% and these genotypes did not separate from each other in UPGMA tree. Also, urban and forest genotypes clustered together in principal component analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Urban Ecosystem, Genetic Diversity, RAPD, Tilia tomentosa, UPGMA

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8 DNA Fingerprinting of Some Major Genera of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera) (Anacanthotermes, Psammotermes and Microtermes) from Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: AbdelRahman A. Faragalla, Mohamed H. Alqhtani, Mohamed M. M.Ahmed

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia has currently been beset by a barrage of bizarre assemblages of subterranean termite fauna, inflicting heavy catastrophic havocs on human valued properties in various homes, storage facilities, warehouses, agricultural and horticultural crops including okra, sweet pepper, tomatoes, sorghum, date palm trees, citruses and many forest domains and green lush desert oases. The most pressing urgent priority is to use modern technologies to alleviate the painstaking obstacle of taxonomic identification of these injurious noxious pests that might lead to effective pest control in both infested agricultural commodities and field crops. Our study has indicated the use of DNA fingerprinting technologies, in order to generate basic information of the genetic similarity between 3 predominant families containing the most destructive termite species. The methodologies included extraction and DNA isolation from members of the major families and the use of randomly selected primers and PCR amplifications with the nucleotide sequences. GC content and annealing temperatures for all primers, PCR amplifications and agarose gel electrophoresis were also conducted in addition to the scoring and analysis of Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPDs). A phylogenetic analysis for different species using statistical computer program on the basis of RAPD-DNA results, represented as a dendrogram based on the average of band sharing ratio between different species. Our study aims to shed more light on this intriguing subject, which may lead to an expedited display of the kinship and relatedness of species in an ambitious undertaking to arrive at correct taxonomic classification of termite species, discover sibling species, so that a logistic rational pest management strategy could be delineated.

Keywords: DNA Fingerprinting, RAPD, Western Saudi Arabia, DNA primers

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7 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Iranian Native Silkworm Bombyx mori Using RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) Molecular Marker

Authors: Rouhollah Radjabi, Mojtaba Zarei, Elham Sanatgar, Hossein Shouhani

Abstract:

RAPD molecular markers in order to discrimination of the Iranian native Bombyx mori silkworm breeds were used. DNA extraction using phenol - chloroform was and the qualitative and quantitative measurements of extracted DNA and its dilution, the obtained bands on agarose gel 1.5 percent were marked and analyzed. Results showed that the bands are observed between 250-2500 bp and most bands have been observed as Gilani-orange, the lowest bands observed are Khorasani-lemon. Primer 3 with 100% polymorphism with the highest polymorphism and primer 2 with 61.5 polymorphism had the lowest percentage of polymorphism. Cluster analysis of races and placed them in three main groups, races Gilani - orange, Baghdad and Khorasani -pink if the first group, camel's thorn, Herati - yellow race was alone in the second group and Khorasani – lemon was alone in the third group. The greatest similarity between the races, between Khorasani- pink and Baghdad (0.64). RAPD markers have been determined different silkworm races based on various morphological or economic characteristics except geographic origin.

Keywords: Silkworm, Iran, RAPD, molecular marker

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6 Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh

Authors: H. Ali, M. F. Miah, M. N. Naser, K. M. A. Zinnah, M. J. Raihan

Abstract:

As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.

Keywords: Population, Genetic Diversity, Bangladesh, RAPD, Monopterus cuchia

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5 Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Wild Bulgarian Berries as Determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

Authors: Ilian Badjakov, Ivayla Dincheva, Violeta Kondakova, Rossitza Batchvarova

Abstract:

In this study, we present our initial results on the assessment of genetic diversity among wild Bulgarian berry accessions (Rubus idaeus L. Fragaria Vesca L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L.) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers. Leaves and fruits were collected from two natural habitats - the Balkan Mountain and the Mountain of Orpheus - Rhodope Mountain. All accessions were screened for their polymorphism using five RAPD primers. The phylogenetic distances calculated from RAPD data ranged from 0.29 to 0.82 thus indicating that a high level of gene diversity is present in the selected genotypes. In order to characterize further the structure and grouping of berry accessions, a dendrogram deriving from UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity (GS) coefficient matrix was designed. RAPD analysis provided to be efficient for discrimination of accessions within the same species with similar morphological characters

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, RAPD, UPGMA, Bulgarian wild berries

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4 Use of RAPD and ISSR Markers in Detection of Genetic Variation among Colletotrichum falcatum Went Isolates from South Gujarat India

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Rushabh Shah, Krishnamurthy Ramar, Vakulbhushan Bhaskar

Abstract:

The present research work aims at finding genetic differences in the genomes of sugarcane red rot isolates Colletotrichum falcatum Went using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and interspersed simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Ten isolates of C. falcatum isolated from different red rot infected sugarcane cultivars stalk were used in present study. The amplified bands were scored across the lanes obtained in 15 RAPD primes and 21 ISSR primes successfully. The data were analysed using NTSYSpc 2.2 software. The results showed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. Based on the RAPD analysis, ten genotypes were grouped into two major clusters at a cut-off value of 0.75. Geographically distant C. falcatum isolate cfGAN from south Gujarat had a level of similarity with Coimbatore isolate cf8436 presented on separate clade of bootstrapped dendrograms. First and second cluster consisted of five and three isolates respectively, indicating the close relation among them. The 21 ISSR primers produced 119 distinct and scorable loci in that 38 were monomorphic. The number of scorable loci for each primer varied from 2 (ISSR822) to 8 (ISSR807, ISSR823 and ISSR15) with an average of 5.66 loci per primer. Primer ISSR835 amplified the highest number of bands (57), while only 16 bands were obtained by primers ISSR822. Four primers namely ISSR830, ISSR845, ISSR4 and ISSR15 showed the highest value of percentage of polymorphism (100%). The results indicated that both of the marker systems RAPD and ISSR, individually can be effectively used in determination of genetic relationship among C falcatum accessions collected from different parts of south Gujarat.

Keywords: RAPD, ISSR, Colletotrichum falcatum, Red Rot

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3 Investigation of Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Registered Turkish Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties by Using Molecular Techniques

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Fatih Tabanli, Sezin Adinir

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In this study, Ascochyta blight resistance was investigated in 34 registered chickpea varieties, which are widely planting in different regions of Turkey. For this aim, molecular marker techniques, such as STMS, RAPD and ISSR were used. Ta2, Ta146 and Ts54 primers were used for STMS, while UBC733 and UBC681 primers for RAPD, and UBC836 and UBC858 primers for ISSR. Ta2, Ts54 and Ta146 (STMS), and UBC733 (RAPD) primers demonstrated the distinctive feature for Ascochyta blight resistance. Ta2, Ts54 and Ta146 primers yielded the quite effective results in detection of resistant and sensitive varieties. Besides, UBC 733 primer distinguished all kinds of standard did not give any reliable results for other varieties since it demonstrated all as resistant. In addition, monomorphic bands were obtained from UBC681 (RAPD), and UBC836 and UBC858 (ISSR) primers, not demonstrating reliable results in detection of resistance against Ascochyta blight disease. Obtained results informed us about both disease resistance and genetic diversity in registered Turkish chickpea varieties. This project was funded through the Scientific Research Projects of Marmara University under Grant Number FEN-C-YLP-070617-0365 and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant Number 113O070.

Keywords: plant genetics, RAPD, ISSR, STMS

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2 Reintroduction and in vitro Propagation of Declapeis arayalpathra: A Critically Endangered Plant of Western Ghats, India

Authors: Zishan Ahmad, Anwar Shahzad

Abstract:

The present studies describe a protocol for high frequency in vitro propagation through nodal segments and shoot tips in D. arayalpathra, a critically endangered medicinal liana of the Western Ghats, India. Nodal segments were more responsive than shoot tips in terms of shoot multiplication. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) basal medium supplemented with 2.5 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) was optimum for shoot induction through both the explants. Among different combinations of plant growth regulator (PGRs) and growth additive screened, MS medium supplemented with BA (2.5 µM) + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.25 µM) + adenine sulphate (ADS) (10.0 µM) induced a maximum of 9.0 shoots per nodal segment and 3.9 shoots per shoot tip with mean shoot length of 8.5 and 3.9 cm respectively. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (2.5 µM) was the best for in vitro root induction. After successful acclimatization in SoilriteTM, 92 % plantlets were survived in field conditions. Acclimatized plantlets were studied for chlorophyll and carotenoid content, net photosynthetic rate (PN) and related attributes such as stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate during subsequent days of acclimatization. The rise and fall of different biochemical enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) were also studies during successful days of acclimatization. Moreover, the effect of acclimatization on the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (2H4MB) was also studied in relation to the biomass production. Maximum fresh weight (2.8 gm/plant), dry weight (0.35 gm/plant) of roots and 2H4MB content (8.5 µg/ ml of root extract) were recorded after 8 weeks of acclimatization. The screening of in vitro raised plantlet root was also carried out by using GC-MS analysis which witnessed more than 25 compounds. The regenerated plantlets were also screened for homogeneity by using RAPD and ISSR. The proposed protocol surely can be used for the conservation and commercial production of the plant.

Keywords: RAPD, PGRs

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1 Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

Authors: Abeer M. Algeblawi

Abstract:

Fifteen isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were obtained from crown gall samples collected from six locations (Tripoli, Alzahra, Ain-Zara, Alzawia, Alazezia in Libya) from Grape (Vitis vinifera L.), Pear (Pyrus communis L.), Peach (Prunus persica L.) and Alexandria in Egypt from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.) and Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Total DNA was extracted from the eight isolates as well as the identification of six isolates used into Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique were used. High similarity (55.5%) was observed among the eight A. tumefaciens isolates (Agro1, Agro2, Agro3, Agro4, Agro5, Agro6, Agro7, and Agro8). The PCR amplification products were resulting from the use of two specific primers (virD2A-virD2C). Analysis induction six isolates of A. tumefaciens obtained from different hosts. A visible band was specific to A. tumefaciens of (220 bp, 224 bp) and 338 bp produced with total DNA extracted from bacterial cells.

Keywords: Identification, Molecular Characterization, PCR, RAPD, agrobacterium tumefaciens, crown gall

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