Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Prevention Related Abstracts

46 Feasibility of Risk Assessment for Type 2 Diabetes in Community Pharmacies Using Two Different Approaches: A Pilot Study in Thailand

Authors: Thitaporn Thoopputra, Tipaporn Pongmesa, Shuchuen Li

Abstract:

Aims: To evaluate the application of non-invasive diabetes risk assessment tool in community pharmacy setting. Methods: Thai diabetes risk score was applied to assess individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Interactive computer-based risk screening (IT) and paper-based risk screening (PT) tools were applied. Participants aged over 25 years with no known diabetes were recruited in six participating pharmacies. Results: A total of 187 clients, mean aged (+SD) was 48.6 (+10.9) years. 35% were at high risk. The mean value of willingness-to-pay for the service fee in IT group was significantly higher than PT group (p=0.013). No significant difference observed for the satisfaction between groups. Conclusions: Non-invasive risk assessment tool, whether paper-based or computerized-based can be applied in community pharmacy to support the enhancing role of pharmacists in chronic disease management. Long term follow up is needed to determine the impact of its application in clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.

Keywords: Prevention, Risk Assessment, Intervention, Community Pharmacy, Type 2 diabetes

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45 The Effects of Health Education Programme on Knowledge and Prevention of Cerebrovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan

Authors: T. A. Ajiboye

Abstract:

This study examines the effects of health education programme on knowledge and prevention of cerebrovascular disease among hypertensive patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. 100 hypertensive patients were conveniently selected from general outpatient department in UCH. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of the study revealed that health education programme significantly influenced both the knowledge of hypertensive patients (F=22.70; DF=1/99; p < .05) and their attitude (F=10.377; DF=1/99; p < .05) on cerebrovascular disease. Findings also discovered that health education programme significantly reduce the complication of hypertension to cerebrovascular disease (F= 16.41; DF=7/286; p < 0.05) among the hypertensive patients at UCH. Based on the findings, it is recommended that hypertensive patients should relieve themselves from stress, engage themselves on regular exercises, compliance with drug and diet regimes coupled with keeping up of regular appointment. Government should design health information that will center on hypertension and cerebrovascular disease so as to keep health and community development problems to the barest minimum. Finally, there should be provision of social amenities and recreational centers, as this will prevents hypertension problems.

Keywords: Health Education, Prevention, Knowledge, Hypertension, Effectiveness, cerebrovascular disease

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44 Sports: A Vital Tool for Promotion of Good Health and Prevention of Diseases

Authors: Agburuga Obi, Madumere Akuego Jane

Abstract:

This paper explores the important role sports can play in the promotion of good health and prevention of diseases. Technological advancements in today’s world has come along with some difficulties to man. This is because work formally done by man has been taken over by machines, thus, man has become sedentary. This has created a lot of health problems to man such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. To nip this ugly situation in the bud, the following recommendations are made: specific measures should be taken to raise the awareness within the government, key sectors and the population of the diverse benefits or physical activity and sports and the risk and costs of inactivity, provision of equipment, facilities for sports and recreational activities in every community, participation in physical activities in sports if not on daily basis at least thrice a week.

Keywords: Sport, Diseases, Prevention, Physical Activities, good health

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43 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

Abstract:

The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: Prevention, treatment, Liver Cirrhosis, carbon tetrachloride, GSE

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42 Preventing Corruption in Dubai: Governance, Contemporary Strategies and Systemic Flaws

Authors: Graham Brooks, Belaisha Bin Belaisha, Hakkyong Kim

Abstract:

The problem of preventing and/or reducing corruption is a major international problem. This paper, however, specifically focuses on how organisations in Dubai are tackling the problem of money laundering. This research establishes that Dubai has a clear international anti-money laundering framework but suffers from some national weaknesses such as diverse anti-money laundering working practice, lack of communication, sharing information and disparate organisational vested self-interest.

Keywords: Governance, Prevention, Corruption, Strategies, Money Laundering

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
41 The Risk of Ground Movements After Digging Two Parallel Vertical Tunnel in Urban

Authors: Djelloul Chafia, Demagh Rafik, Kareche Toufik

Abstract:

Human activities, made without precautions, accelerate the degradation of the soil structure and reduces its resistance. Operations, such as tunnel construction may exercise an influence more or less permanent on the grounds which surrounded them, these structures alter soil it is necessary to predict their impacts by suitable measures. This research is a numerical analysis that deals the risks and effects due to the weakening of the soil after digging two parallel vertical circular tunnels in urban areas, and suggests forecasting techniques based essentially on the organization of underground space. The simulations are performed using the finite-difference code FLAC in a two-dimensional case and with an elasto-plastic behavior of the soil.

Keywords: Prevention, Tunnel, degradation, sol, weakening

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40 The Shadow of Terrorism in the World Tourism Industry: Impacts, Prevention and Recovery Strategies

Authors: Maria Brás

Abstract:

The main purpose of the presentation is to identify the impacts and appropriate measures to prevent potential attacks, or minimize the risk of an attack in tourist destination. Terrorism has been growing in the shadow of unpredictability, however, is possible to minimize the danger of a terrorist attack by doing the: (1) recognition; (2); evaluation; (3) avoidance; (4) threat reduction. The vulnerability of tourism industry to terrorism is an undeniable fact, and terrorists know it. They use this advantage attacking tourists for very specific reasons, such as the: (1) international coverage by the media, “if it bleeds it leads” ; (2) chances of getting different nationalities at the same place and time; (3) possibility of destroyed the economy of a destination, or destinations (“terrorism contamination effect”), through the reduction of tourist demand; (4) psychological, and social disruption based on fear of negative consequences. Security incidents, such as terrorism, include different preventive measures that can be conducted in partnership with: tourism industry (hotels, airports, tourist attractions, among others); central government; public and/or private sector; local community; and media. The recovery strategies must be based on the dissemination of positive information to the media; in creating new marketing strategies that emphasize the social and cultural values of the destination; encourage domestic tourism; get government, or state, financial support.

Keywords: Security, Safety, Prevention, Tourism, Terrorism, Impacts, Recovery

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39 Quick Reference: Cyber Attacks Awareness and Prevention Method for Home Users

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei

Abstract:

It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such technologies would help. Knowledge of how cyber-attacks operate and protective steps that can be taken to reduce chances of its occurrence are key to increasing these security measures. The purpose of this paper is to inform home users on the importance of identifying and taking preventive steps to avoid cyberattacks. Throughout this paper, many aspects of cyber-attacks will be discuss: what a cyber-attack is, the affects of cyber-attack for home users, different types of cyber-attacks, methodology to prevent such attacks; home users can take to fortify security of their computer.

Keywords: Security, Prevention, Technology, Cyber-Attacks, home user

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38 Cancer of the Cervix Caused by HPV (Human papillomavirus) in Algerian Population

Authors: Sara Mouffouk, Fatma Belaid, Asma Hechani, Chaima Mouffouk

Abstract:

Cancer of the cervix caused by HPV (human papillomavirus ) is for many years a real public health problem, it is ranked 2nd deadly female cancer kills more than 270 000 women each year worldwide. In Algeria, the mortality of cervical cancer decreases with the impact, but the prognosis of these cancers remains bleak: The 5-year relative survival is 60 %. The mode of transmission is usually sexuel. Our study was undertaken to show the link between HPV and cervical cancer and the importance of Pap smear screening in this type of pathology. On the total sample, 76.11 % showed abnormal cervical smears of which 13% have mild cases and hormonal reaction Change, and 44% represent inflammatory smears and normal cases 35%, while long seven years from 2005 to 2012. Thus, 43% of abnormal smear results between ASCUS, AGUS, low and high grade carcinoma and adenocarcinoma and 57 % of other cases of unknown origin. The average age of women at risk of developing adenocarcinoma is 45-50 with a 67% to 33% of the same risk in women of age group 41-45 years although the percentage of cases of HPV infected patients was 2% in the past seven years. We found that with increasing age, the risk is argued. Due to several factors such as multiparty can reduced the resistance of the uterine epithelium and even as the multi that promotes contamination HPV causes repeated infections with HPV.

Keywords: Prevention, Vaccines, Cervical Cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) screening

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37 Measures for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Algeria

Authors: Farah Lazzali, Yamina Ait Meziane

Abstract:

Recent earthquakes in Algeria have demonstrated the need for seismic risk reduction. In fact, the latest major earthquake that affected the Algiers-Boumerdes region in 2003 caused excessive levels of loss of life and property. Economic, social and environmental damage were also experienced. During the three days following the event, a relatively weak coordination of public authority was noted. Many localities did not receive any relief due to lack of information from concerned authorities and delay in connecting damaged roads. Following this event, Algerian government and civil society has recognized the urgent need for an appropriate and immediate seismic risk mitigation strategy. This paper describes procedures for emergency response following past earthquakes in Algeria and provides a brief review of risk mitigation activities since 1980. The paper also aims to provide measures to reduce earthquake risk through general strategy and practical implementation of the mitigation actions.

Keywords: Prevention, Earthquake, Strategy, risk reduction, Hazard

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36 ACL Tear Prevention Program

Authors: Ervin Meqikukiqi

Abstract:

It is difficult to assess how athletes can best modify their movements to prevent non contact ACL injuries. Speaking with an athletic trainer, physical therapist, or sports medicine specialist is a good place to start. Recent research has allowed therapists and clinicians to easily identify and target weak muscle areas (e.g., weak hips, which leads to knock-kneed landing positions) and identify ways to improve strength and thus help prevent injury. In addition, other risk factors such as reduced hamstring strength and increased joint range of motion can be further assessed by a physical therapist or athletic trainer to improve performance-or rehabilitation efforts after an injury has occurred. Current studies also demonstrate that specific types of training, such as jump routines and learning to pivot properly, help athletes prevent ACL injuries. These types of exercises and training programs are more beneficial if athletes start when they are young. It may be optimal to integrate prevention programs during early adolescence, prior to when young athletes develop certain habits that increase the risk of an ACL injury. This is a 20 minute program designed to reduce the risk of tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. It should be started at least four and preferably six weeks prior to start of competition.Ideally it is done five times per week preseason and three times per week in season.The coach or trainer must constantly observe athletes during these exercises to correct and maintain proper technique. Once the athletes understand the principles, they can monitor and coach each other. Four phases: Warm-up, Strengthening, Plyometrics, Agility and Balance.

Keywords: Prevention, athletes, injuries, proprioception, ACL, plyoemtric, agillity

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35 Intrusion Detection Techniques in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Junaid Sarwar

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) use has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the (MANETS) prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in (MANETs). The authentication and encryption is considered the first solution of the MANETs problem where as now these are not sufficient as MANET use is increasing. In this paper we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in MANET and aim to comparing in some important fields.

Keywords: Prevention, Detection, manet, IDS, signature, intrusions

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34 Health Education and Information: A Panacea to Tuberculosis Prevention and Eradication in Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi Joseph Fasoranti

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Nigeria, being one of the ten leading causes of hospital admissions and a leading cause of death in adults, especially among the economically productive age group. This paper critically examined the importance of health education towards the eradication and prevention of tuberculosis in Nigeria. It was reviewed and discussed under the following subheadings; Global burden of tuberculosis in Nigeria, concept, definition and etiology of tuberculosis, Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis, causative agent, modes of infection and incubation period, risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis Dots and stop TB programmes in Nigeria Treatment and prevention of tuberculosis TB treatment strategies, Dealing with treatment problems in Nigeria Stigmatization against Tuberculosis Patients Health education as a tool for achieving free tuberculosis country. Emphasis for Tb control has been placed on the development of improved vaccines, diagnostic and treatment courses but less on health education and awareness. Although the need for these tools is indisputable, the obstacle facing the spread of TB go beyond technological. The findings of this study may stimulate health system policy makers, Government and non- governmental organizations, donor agencies and other stakeholders in planning and designing health education intervention programs on the control and eradication of tuberculosis. It therefore recommended that Government should implement health education as part of the DOTs, this will thus empower the tuberculosis patients on ways to live healthy, lifestyle, in doing this, they will recover fast and prevent them from spreading the disease.

Keywords: Health Education, Prevention, Tuberculosis, Nigeria, panacea

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33 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Crisis Management Support Bases in Tehran

Authors: Sima Hajiazizi

Abstract:

Tehran is a capital of Iran, with the capitals of the world to natural disasters such as earthquake and flood vulnerable has known. City has stated on three faults, Ray, Mosha, and north according to report of JICA in 2000, the most casualties and destruction was the result of active fault Ray. In 2003, the prevention and management of crisis in Tehran to conduct prevention and rehabilitation of the city, under the Ministry has active. Given the breadth and lack of appropriate access in the city, was considered decentralized management for crisis management support, in each region, in order to position the crisis management headquarters at the time of crises and implementation of programs for prevention and education of the citizens and also to position the bases given in some areas of the neighboring provinces at the time of the accident for help and a number of databases to store food and equipment needed at the time of the disaster. In this study, the bases for one, six, nine and eleven regions of Tehran in the field of management and training are evaluated. Selected areas had local accident and experience of practice for disaster management and local training has been experiencing challenges. The research approach was used qualitative research methods underlying Ground theory. At first, the information obtained through the study of documents and Semi-structured interviews by administrators, officials of training and participant observation in the classroom, line by line, and then it was coded in two stages, by comparing and questioning concepts, categories and extract according to the indicators is obtained from literature studies, subjects were been central. Main articles according to the frequency and importance of the phenomenon were called and they were drawn diagram paradigm and at the end with the intersections phenomena and their causes with indicators extracted from the texts, approach each phenomenon and the effectiveness of the bases was measured. There are two phenomenons in management; 1. The inability to manage the vast and complex crisis events and to resolve minor incidents due to the mismatch between managers. 2. Weaknesses in the implementation of preventive measures and preparedness to manage crisis is causal of situations, fields and intervening. There are five phenomenons in the field of education; 1. In the six-region participation and interest is high. 2. In eleven-region training partnerships for crisis management were to low that next by maneuver in schools and local initiatives such as advertising and use of aid groups have increased. 3. In nine-region, contributions to education in the area of crisis management at the beginning were low that initiatives like maneuver in schools and communities to stimulate and increase participation have increased sensitivity. 4. Managers have been disagreement with the same training in all areas. Finally for the issues that are causing the main issues, with the help of concepts extracted from the literature, recommendations are provided.

Keywords: Prevention, Vulnerability, crises management, crisis management support bases, crisis management headquarters

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32 Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of the Program “Sharing Mouth to Mouth: My Body, Nobody Can Touch It”

Authors: Teresita Castillo, Faride Peña, Concepción Campo

Abstract:

Sexual violence, and particularly child sexual abuse, is a serious problem all over the world, México included. Given its importance, there are several preventive and care programs done by the government and the civil society all over the country but most of them are developed in urban areas even though these problems are especially serious in rural areas. Yucatán, a state in southern México, occupies one of the first places in child sexual abuse. Considering the above, the University Unit of Clinical Research and Victimological Attention (UNIVICT) of the Autonomous University of Yucatan, designed, implemented and is currently evaluating the program named “Sharing Mouth to Mouth: My Body, Nobody Can Touch It”, a program to prevent child sexual abuse in rural communities of Yucatán, México. Its aim was to develop skills for the detection of risk situations, providing protection strategies and mechanisms for prevention through culturally relevant psycho-educative strategies to increase personal resources in children, in collaboration with parents, teachers, police and municipal authorities. The diagnosis identified that a particularly vulnerable population were children between 4 and 10 years. The program run during 2015 in primary schools in the municipality whose inhabitants are mostly Mayan. The aim of this paper is to present its evaluation in terms of its effectiveness and efficiency. This evaluation included documental analysis of the work done in the field, psycho-educational and recreational activities with children, evaluation of knowledge by participating children and interviews with parents and teachers. The results show high efficiency in fulfilling the tasks and achieving primary objectives. The efficiency shows satisfactory results but also opportunity areas that can be resolved with minor adjustments to the program. The results also show the importance of including culturally relevant strategies and activities otherwise it minimizes possible achievements. Another highlight is the importance of participatory action research in preventive approaches to child sexual abuse since by becoming aware of the importance of the subject people participate more actively; in addition to design culturally appropriate strategies and measures so that the proposal may not be distant to the people. Discussion emphasizes the methodological implications of prevention programs (convenience of using participatory action research (PAR), importance of monitoring and mediation during implementation, developing detection skills tools in creative ways using psycho-educational interactive techniques and working assessment issued by the participants themselves). As well, it is important to consider the holistic character this type of program should have, in terms of incorporating social and culturally relevant characteristics, according to the community individuality and uniqueness, consider type of communication to be used and children’ language skills considering that there should be variations strongly linked to a specific cultural context.

Keywords: Prevention, Evaluation, child sexual abuse, par

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31 Creating Systems Change: Implementing Cross-Sector Initiatives within the Justice System to Support Ontarians with Mental Health and Addictions Needs

Authors: Tania Breton, Dorina Simeonov, Shauna MacEachern

Abstract:

Ontario’s 10 Year Mental Health and Addictions Strategy has included the establishment of 18 Service Collaborative across the province; cross-sector tables in a specific region coming together to explore mental health and addiction system needs and adopting an intervention to address that need. The process is community led and supported by implementation teams from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), using the framework of implementation science (IS) to enable evidence-based and sustained change. These justice initiatives are focused on the intersection of the justice system and the mental health and addiction systems. In this presentation, we will share the learnings, achievements and challenges of implementing innovative practices to the mental health and addictions needs of Ontarians within the justice system. Specifically, we will focus on the key points across the justice system - from early intervention and trauma-informed, culturally appropriate services to post-sentence support and community reintegration. Our approach to this work involves external implementation support from the CAMH team including coaching, knowledge exchange, evaluation, Aboriginal engagement and health equity expertise. Agencies supported the implementation of tools and processes which changed practice at the local level. These practices are being scaled up across Ontario and community agencies have come together in an unprecedented collaboration and there is a shared vision of the issues overlapping between the mental health, addictions and justice systems. Working with ministry partners has allowed space for innovation and created an environment where better approaches can be nurtured and spread.

Keywords: Innovation, Systems, Prevention, Implementation, early identification, mental health and addictions

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30 A 20 Year Comparison of Australian Childhood Bicycle Injuries – Have We Made a Difference?

Authors: Bronwyn Griffin, Caroline Acton, Tona Gillen, Roy Kimble

Abstract:

Background: Bicycle riding is a common recreational activity enjoyed by many children throughout Australia that has been associated with the usual caveat of benefits related to exercise and recreation. Given Australia was the first country in the world to introduce cyclist helmet laws in 1991, very few publications have reviewed paediatric cycling injuries (fatal or non-fatal) since. Objectives: To identify trends in children (0-16 years) who required admission for greater than 24 hours following a bicycle-related injury (fatal and non-fatal) in Queensland. Further, to discuss changes that have occurred in paediatric cycling injury trends in Queensland since a prominent local study/publication in 1995. This paper aims to establish evidence to inform interventions promoting safer riding to parents, children and communities. Methods: Data on paediatric (0-16 years) cycling injuries in Queensland resulting in hospital admission more than 24 hours across three tertiary paediatric hospitals in Brisbane between November 2008-June 2015 was compiled by the Paediatric Trauma Data Registry for non-fatal injuries. The Child Death Review Team at the Queensland Families and Childhood Commission provided data on fatalities in children <17years from (June 2004 –June 2015). Comparing trends to a local study published in 1995 Results: Between 2008-2015 there were 197 patients admitted for greater than 24 hours following a cycling injury. The median age was 11 years, with males more frequently involved (n=139, 87%) compared to females. Mean length of stay was three days, with 47 (28%) children admitted to PICU, location of injury was most often the street (n=63, 37%). Between 2004 –2015 there were 15 fatalities (Incidence rate 0.25/100,000); all were male, 14/15 occurred on the street, with eight stated to have not been wearing a helmet, 11/15 children came from the least advantaged socio-economic group (SEIFA) compared to a local publication in 1995, finding of 94 fatalities between (1981-1992). Conclusions: There has been a notable decrease in incidence of fatalities between the two time periods with incidence rates dropping from 1.75-0.25/100,000. More statistics need to be run to ascertain if this is a true reduction or perhaps a decrease in children riding bicycles. Injuries that occur on the street that come in contact with a car remain of serious concern. The purpose of this paper is not to discourage bicycle riding among child and adolescent populations, rather, inform parents and the wider community about the risks associated with cycling in order to reduce injuries associated with this sport, whilst promoting safe cycling.

Keywords: Trauma, Prevention, Emergency, Cycling, paediatric

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29 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: Prevention, Programs, Suicide, School

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28 PRENACEL: Development and Evaluation of an M-Health Strategy to Improve Prenatal Care in Brazil

Authors: E. M. Vieira, C. S. Vieira, L. P. Bonifácio, L. M. de Oliveira Ciabati, A. C. A. Franzon, F. S. Zaratini, J. A. C. Sanchez, M. S. Andrade, J. P. Dias de Souza

Abstract:

The quality of prenatal care is key to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Communication between the health service and users can stimulate prevention and care. M-health has been an important and low cost strategy to health education. The PRENACEL programme (prenatal in the cell phone) was developed. It consists of a programme of information via SMS from the 20th week of pregnancy up to 12th week after delivery. Messages were about prenatal care, birth, contraception and breastfeeding. Communication of the pregnant woman asking questions about their health was possible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of PRENACEL as a useful complement to the standard prenatal care. Twenty health clinics were selected and randomized by cluster, 10 as the intervention group and 10 as the control group. In the intervention group, women and their partner were invited to participate. The control group received the standard prenatal care. All women were interviewed in the immediate post-partum and in the 12th and 24th week post-partum. Most women were married, had more than 8 years of schooling and visit the clinic more than 6 times during prenatal care. The intervention group presented lowest percentage of higher economic participants (5.6%), less single mothers and no drug user. It also presented more prenatal care visits than the control group and it was less likely to present Severe Acute Maternal Mortality when compared to control group as well as higher percentage of partners (75.4%) was present at the birth compared to control group. Although the study is still being carried out, preliminary data are showing positive results of the compliance of women to prenatal care.

Keywords: Prevention, Health Technology, Prenatal Care, cellphone

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27 Role of Internal and External Factors in Preventing Risky Sexual Behavior, Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Authors: Veronika Sharok

Abstract:

Research relevance on psychological determinants of risky behaviors is caused by high prevalence of such behaviors, particularly among youth. Risky sexual behavior, including unprotected and casual sex, frequent change of sexual partners, drug and alcohol use lead to negative social consequences and contribute to the spread of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Data were obtained from 302 respondents aged 15-35 which were divided into 3 empirical groups: persons prone to risky sexual behavior, drug users and alcohol users; and 3 control groups: the individuals who are not prone to risky sexual behavior, persons who do not use drugs and the respondents who do not use alcohol. For processing, we used the following methods: Qualitative method for nominative data (Chi-squared test) and quantitative methods for metric data (student's t-test, Fisher's F-test, Pearson's r correlation test). Statistical processing was performed using Statistica 6.0 software. The study identifies two groups of factors that prevent risky behaviors. Internal factors, which include the moral and value attitudes; significance of existential values: love, life, self-actualization and search for the meaning of life; understanding independence as a responsibility for the freedom and ability to get attached to someone or something up to a point when this relationship starts restricting the freedom and becomes vital; awareness of risky behaviors as dangerous for the person and for others; self-acknowledgement. External factors (prevent risky behaviors in case of absence of the internal ones): absence of risky behaviors among friends and relatives; socio-demographic characteristics (middle class, marital status); awareness about the negative consequences of risky behaviors; inaccessibility to psychoactive substances. These factors are common for proneness to each type of risky behavior, because it usually caused by the same reasons. It should be noted that if prevention of risky behavior is based only on elimination of external factors, it is not as effective as it may be if we pay more attention to internal factors. The results obtained in the study can be used to develop training programs and activities for prevention of risky behaviors, for using values preventing such behaviors and promoting healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: Prevention, Risky behavior, existential values, psychological features

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26 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Taki Eddine Seghier, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi

Abstract:

Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: Prevention, construction industry, Safety measures, accident

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25 Elder Abuse Interventions: What We Know and What We Need to Know

Authors: Sepali Guruge

Abstract:

Background: There is an increase in interest among health care professionals and social workers in understanding how best to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse. Purpose & method: Based on a recently completed scoping review of related literature, this paper will focus on the current state of knowledge on elder abuse interventions. Results: The results will be presented in light of the fact that limited literature exists on primary prevention of elder abuse. The existing literature on interventions to reduce or stop abuse will be critically examined in terms of their effectiveness. Particular attention will be paid to interventions such as relocation of older adults experiencing abuse, in-home assessments, empowerment and psycho-educational support for older adults. Conclusions: Overall, multi-stakeholder collaborative, community-based interventions should be designed to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse.

Keywords: Prevention, elder abuse, Interventions, scoping review

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24 Predictors of Recent Work-Related Injury in a Rapidly Developing Country: Results from a Worker Survey in Qatar

Authors: Ruben Peralta, Sam Thomas, Nazia Hirani, Ayman El-Menyar, Hassan Al-Thani, Mohammed Al-Thani, Mohammed Al-Hajjaj, Rafael Consunji

Abstract:

Moderate to severe work-related injuries [WRI's] are a leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar but information on risk factors for their incidence are lacking. This study aims to document and analyze the predictive characteristics for WRI to inform the creation of targeted interventions to improve worker safety in Qatar. This study was conducted as part of the NPRP grant # 7 - 1120 - 3 - 288, titled "A Unified Registry for Occupational Injury Prevention in Qatar”. 266 workers were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, during ‘World Day for Safety and Health at Work’, a Ministry of Public Health event, none refused interview. Nurses and doctors from the Hamad Trauma Center conducted the interviews. Questions were translated into the worker’s native language when it was deemed necessary. Standard information on epidemiologic characteristics and incidence of work-related injury were collected and compared between nationalities and those injured versus those not injured. 262 males and 4 females were interviewed. 17 [6.4%] reported a WRI in the last 24 months. More than half of the injured worked in construction [59%] followed by water supply [11.8%]. Factors significantly associated with recent injury were: Working for a company with > 500 employees and speaking Hindi. Protective characteristics included: Being from the Philippines or Sri Lanka, speaking Arabic, working in healthcare, an office or trading and company size between 100-500 employees. Years of schooling and working in Qatar were not predictive factor for WRI. The findings from this survey should guide future research that will better define worker populations at an increased risk for WRI and inform recruiters and sending countries. A focus on worker language skills, interventions in the construction industry and occupational safety in large companies is needed.

Keywords: Trauma, Safety, Prevention, occupational injury, work related injury

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23 A Difficult Advertising: A Preventive Intervention for Siblings of Children with down Syndrome

Authors: Valentina Manna, Oscar Pisanti

Abstract:

The term sibling has been adopted by Italian brothers and sisters of people with disabilities, to define themselves as a group with shared features. This choice is due to the importance of underlying the centrality of what being a brother/sister means to these people because of and beyond the disability. Being a sibling offers great opportunities to develop empathy and relational skills but it may also amplify the typical dynamics of fraternal relationships dealing with envy, rivalry and concern. This outlines a condition of potential developmental risk for the non-disabled sibling, being at the same time a great resource for the child with special needs, as actor of an intimate relationship usually lasting after that one with parents. However, young siblings are often unheeded in their needs for comprehension of disability and not considered as persons requiring attention themselves. Moreover, scholars have scarcely undertaken an exploration of siblings’ perspective as competent contributors for producing knowledge useful to the benefit of families with special needs children. This contribution describes a preventive intervention for young siblings (6 – 16 years) of children with Down syndrome, by means of a psychodynamic-oriented group where participants could communicate, explore and share their emotional experiences as siblings. Based on a participatory approach, the program represents an action-research project, involving siblings as key experts for our understanding of siblings’ lives. The initiative used social media and video technologies to rise children’s voice: as a final product, participants were involved in the realization of a video campaign –which they defined ‘a difficult advertising’– built on the insights generated by the program and addressed to other siblings to help them facing and recognizing resources and difficulties related to their status. The final video campaign realized by the participants summarizes the main themes emerged during the intervention; as revealed by a thematic analysis, they are related to the difficulty in feeling to have a personal identity, to face disability as a form of ‘untought known’ and to integrate ambivalent emotions. In conclusion, the group device revealed its efficacy as a preventive tool: it allowed participants to deeply reflect on their own experiences and to communicate them for the first time in a verbal and mentalized form.

Keywords: Prevention, down syndrome, Group, Siblings

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22 History and Survey on Volunteer Fire Departments in Serbia

Authors: Mirjana Đ. Laban, Dragan N. Đurica, Nemanja M. Erceg

Abstract:

Volunteer fire departments (VFD) in Serbia were established as civic associations in XIX Century. The founders and members of the first VFDs were prominent members of local communities. Today, those are volunteer organizations for preventing and extinguishing fires and rescuing people and property in various accidents. The paper presents the results of research about the number and resources of active VFDs done in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia and about activities they perform today. The survey was done based on data provided by all registered VFDs in Vojvodina. Firefighters Association of Vojvodina includes 35 municipal firefighting associations, 230 volunteer fire departments with 5,300 active members in qualified fire units and more than 15,000 supporting members. Volunteer involvement is primarily an expression of high moral values and as such it has to be respected and stimulated. Better position of the volunteers would have a major impact on the formation of safety culture concept and general public awareness of fire safety and risk reduction, and therefore the security of the society as a whole. Volunteer fire departments make a significant contribution to educate young people and prevent catastrophic consequences of fires and natural disasters.

Keywords: Education, Prevention, rescue, volunteer fire departments

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21 Determination of the Needs for Development of Infertility Psycho-Educational Program and the Design of a Website about Infertility for University Students

Authors: Erol Esen, Bahar Baran, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Şirin Nur Kaptan, D.Yelda Kağnıcı, Diğdem M Siyez

Abstract:

It is known that some factors associated with infertility have preventable characteristics and that young people's knowledge levels in this regard are inadequate, but very few studies focus on effective prevention studies on infertility. Psycho-educational programs have an important place for infertility prevention efforts. Nowadays, considering the households' utilization rates from technology and the Internet, it seems that young people have applied to websites as a primary source of information related to a health problem they have encountered. However, one of the prerequisites for the effectiveness of websites or face-to-face psycho-education programs is to consider the needs of participants. In particular, it is expected that these programs will be appropriate to the cultural infrastructure and the diversity of beliefs and values in society. The aim of this research is to determine what university students want to learn about infertility and fertility and examine their views on the structure of the website. The sample of the research consisted of 9693 university students who study in 21 public higher education programs in Turkey. 51.6 % (n = 5002) were female and 48.4% (n = 4691) were male. The Needs Analysis Questionnaire developed by the researchers was used as data collection tool in the research. In the analysis of the data, descriptive analysis was conducted in SPSS software. According to the findings, among the topics that university students wanted to study about infertility and fertility, the first topics were 'misconceptions about infertility' (94.9 %), 'misconceptions about sexual behaviors' (94.6 %), 'factors affecting infertility' (92.8 %), 'sexual health and reproductive health' (92.5 %), 'sexually transmitted diseases' (92.7 %), 'sexuality and society' (90.9 %), 'healthy life (help centers)' (90.4 %). In addition, the questions about how the content of the website should be designed for university students were analyzed descriptively. According to the results, 91.5 % (n = 8871) of the university students proposed to use frequently asked questions and their answers, 89.2 % (n = 8648) stated that expert video should be included, 82.6 % (n = 8008) requested animations and simulations, 76.1 % (n = 7380) proposed different content according to sex and 66 % (n = 6460) proposed different designs according to sex. The results of the research indicated that the findings are similar to the contents of the program carried out in other countries in terms of the topics to be studied. It is suggested to take into account the opinions of the participants during the design of website.

Keywords: Prevention, infertility, Web based Education, psycho-education

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20 Qualitative Inquiry for Understanding Factors Associated to Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment

Authors: Marie-Claude Richard, Amelie Bolduc-Mokhtar, Mathieu Parent

Abstract:

People who have experienced maltreatment in childhood subsequently face many parenting issues of their own, in particular when it comes to distancing themselves from the abusive behaviors they were exposed and had access to positive role models. Few studies have explored the factors explaining the ability to break the generational cycle of child maltreatment. However, deeper knowledge of the factors associated with intergenerational discontinuity could facilitate the development of innovative interventions and increase the preventive potential of existing programs. This poster presentation will be about a better understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment (IGTM) from the perspective of both youth protection workers and parents receiving child protection services. The data used to meet this goal were collected from a group interview with eight youth protection workers whose caseloads involved IGTM situations and through semi-structured interviews with four parents with a history of child protection services and who were currently receiving such services for at least one of their children. In the view of the youth protection workers, the IGTM refers to everything that is transmitted and not transmitted from one generation to the next within a family. The study participants painted quite a bleak portrait of the families affected by IGTM. However, three main avenues of intervention were mentioned by the participants: working within the network, favoring long-term interventions and being empathic. The results also show that the mothers were in a trajectory of intergenerational discontinuity in child maltreatment. Support from their families and friends as well as from formal support services brought out some possible explanatory factors for intergenerational discontinuity in child maltreatment. From a prevention perspective, developing meaningful and trusting relationships seems a source of resilience for parents who were placed in the care of the child protection system as children. The small number of participants limits the generalizability of these results. The difficulty of recruiting parents is a substantial challenge regarding gaining knowledge on the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment. Future studies should examine this question and seek to develop effective strategies to help recruit study participants.

Keywords: Prevention, Child Maltreatment, Intergenerational Transmission, qualitative data

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19 Personality-Focused Intervention for Adolescents: Impact on Bullying and Distress

Authors: Erin V. Kelly, Nicola C. Newton, Lexine A. Stapinski, Maree Teesson

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a lack of targeted prevention programs for reducing bullying and distress among adolescents involved in bullying. The current study aimed to examine the impact of a personality-targeted intervention (Preventure) on bullying (victimization and perpetration) and distress among adolescent victims/bullies with high-risk personality types. Method: A cluster randomized trial (RCT) was conducted in 26 secondary schools (2190 students) in NSW and Victoria, Australia, as part of the Climate Schools and Preventure trial. The schools were randomly allocated to Preventure (13 schools received Preventure, 13 did not). Students were followed up at 4 time points (6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-baseline). Preventure involves two group sessions, based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and tailored to four personality types shown to increase risk of substance misuse and other emotional and behavioural problems, including impulsivity, sensation-seeking, anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness. Students were allocated to the personality-targeted groups based on their scores on the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Bullying was measured using an amended version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Scale. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results: Among high-risk students classified as victims at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less victimization and distress over time than those in control schools. Among high-risk students classified as bullies at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less distress over time than those in control schools (no difference for perpetration). Conclusion: Preventure is a promising intervention for reducing bullying victimization and psychological distress among adolescents involved in bullying.

Keywords: Prevention, Adolescents, Personality, Bullying

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18 Effectiveness of Cranberry Ingesting for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Yu-Chieh Huang, Pei-Shih Chen, Tao-Hsin Tung

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection to our best knowledge. Objective: This study is to investigate whether cranberry ingesting could improve the urinary tract infection. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 9 March 1994 and June 30, 2017, with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search terms included (cranberry OR Vaccinium macrocarpon OR Vaccinium oxy-coccus OR Vaccinium microcarpum OR Vaccinium erythrocarpum OR Vaccinium) AND (urinary tract infection OR bacteriuria OR pyuria) AND (effect OR effective-ness OR efficacy) AND (random OR randomized). Results: There were 26 studies met the selection criteria included among 4709 eligible participants. We analyzed all trials in meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for the group using cranberry versus using placebo was 0.75; 95%CI[0.63, 0.880]; p-value=0.0002) and heterogeneity was 56%. Furthermore, we divided the subjects into different subgroup to analysis. Ingesting cranberry seemed to be more effective in some subgroups, including the patients with recurrent UTI (RR, 0.71; 95%CI[0.54,0.93]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 65%) and female population (RR, 0.73, 95%CI[0.58,0.92]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 59%). The prevention effect was not different between cranberry and trimethoprim (RR, 1.25, 95%CI[0.67, 2.33]; p-value=0.49) (I²= 68%). No matter the forms of cranberry were capsules or juice, the efficacy was useful. Conclusions: It is showed that cranberry ingesting is usefully associated with prevention UTI. There are more effective in prevention of UTI in some groups.

Keywords: Prevention, Effectiveness, cranberry, urinary tract infect

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17 Development of Infertility Prevention Psycho-Education Program for University Students and Evaluation of Its Effectiveness

Authors: Erol Esen, Digdem M. Siyez, Bahar Baran, Ender Siyez, Bariscan Ozturk, Yelda Kagnici

Abstract:

Infertility is a reproductive disease identified with the absence of pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse that has been lasting for 12 months or more. Some of the factors that cause infertility, which has been considered as a social and societal issue since the first days of the humankind, are preventable. These are veneral diseases, age, the frequency of the intercourse and its timing, drug use, bodyweight, environmental and professional conditions. Having actual information about the reproductive health is essential to take protective and preventive measures, and it is accepted as the most effective way to reduce the rate of infertility. However, during the literature review, it has been observed that there are so few studies that focus on the prevention of the infertility. The aim of this study is to develop a psycho-education program to reduce infertility among university students and also to evaluate the program’s effectiveness. It is believed that this program will increase the information level about infertility among the university students, help them to adopt healthy attitudes, develop life skills, create awareness about the risk factors and also contribute to the literature. Throughout the study, first, the contents of sexual/reproductive health programs developed for university students were examined by the researches. Besides, “Views about Reproductive Health Psycho-education Program Survey” was developed and applied to 10221 university students from 21 universities. In accordance with the literature and the university students’ views about reproductive health psycho-education program consisting of 9 sessions each of which lasts for 90 minutes was developed. The pilot program was carried out with 16 volunteer undergraduate students attending to a state university. During the evaluation of the pilot study, at the end of each session “Session Evaluation Form” and at the end of the entire program “Program Evaluation Form” were administered to the participants. Besides, one week after the end of the program, a focus group with half of the group, and individual interviews with the rest were conducted. Based on the evaluations, it was determined that the session duration is enough, the teaching methods meet the expectation, the techniques applied are appropriate and clear, and the materials are adequate. Also, an extra session was added to psycho-education program based on the feedbacks of the participants. In order to evaluate program’s effectiveness, Solomon control group design will be used. According to this design, the research has 2 experiment groups and 2 control groups. The participants who voluntarily participated in the research after the announcement of the psycho-education program were divided into experiment and control groups. In the experiment 1 and control 1 groups, “Personal Information Test”, “Infertility Information Test” and “Infertility Attitude Scale”, “Self Identification Inventory” and “Melbourne Decision Scale” were administered as a preliminary test. Currently, at the present stage, psycho-education still continues. After this 10-week program, the same tests will be administered again as the post-tests. The decision upon which statistical method will be applied in the analysis will be made afterwards according to whether the data meets the presuppositions or not.

Keywords: Prevention, Reproductive Health, infertility, psycho-education

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