Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

PID Controller Related Abstracts

13 Lego Mindstorms as a Simulation of Robotic Systems

Authors: Miroslav Popelka, Jakub Nožička


In this paper we deal with using Lego Mindstorms in simulation of robotic systems with respect to cost reduction. Lego Mindstorms kit contains broad variety of hardware components which are required to simulate, program and test the robotics systems in practice. Algorithm programming went in development environment supplied together with Lego kit as in programming language C# as well. Algorithm following the line, which we dealt with in this paper, uses theoretical findings from area of controlling circuits. PID controller has been chosen as controlling circuit whose individual components were experimentally adjusted for optimal motion of robot tracking the line. Data which are determined to process by algorithm are collected by sensors which scan the interface between black and white surfaces followed by robot. Based on discovered facts Lego Mindstorms can be considered for low-cost and capable kit to simulate real robotics systems.

Keywords: Sensors, PID Controller, LEGO Mindstorms, low-cost robotics systems, EV3 Home Edition Software, line follower, programming language C#

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12 MIMO PID Controller of a Power Plant Boiler–Turbine Unit

Authors: N. Ben-Mahmoud, M. Elfandi, A. Shallof


This paper presents a methodology to design multivariable PID controllers for multi-input and multi-output systems. The proposed control strategy, which is centralized, combines of PID controllers. The proportional gains in the P controllers act as tuning parameters of (SISO) in order to modify the behavior of the loops almost independently. The design procedure consists of three steps: first, an ideal decoupler including integral action is determined. Second, the decoupler is approximated with PID controllers. Third, the proportional gains are tuned to achieve the specified performance. The proposed method is applied to representative processes.

Keywords: mimo, PID Controller, boiler turbine, control by decoupling, anti wind-up techniques

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11 Fuzzy Logic Driven PID Controller for PWM Based Buck Converter

Authors: Bandreddy Anand Babu, Mandadi Srinivasa Rao, Chintala Pradeep Reddy


The main theme of this paper is to design fuzzy logic Proportional Integral Derivative controller for controlling of Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) based DCDC buck converter in continuous conduction mode of operation and comparing the results of FPID and ANFIS. Simulation is done to fuzzy the given input variables and membership functions of input values, creating the interference rules linking the input and output variables and after then defuzzfies the output variables. Fuzzy logic is simple for nonlinear models like buck converter. Fuzzy logic based PID controller technique is to control, nonlinear plants like buck converters in switching variables of power electronics. The characteristics of FPID are in terms of rise time, settling time, rise time, steady state errors for different inputs and load disturbances.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, PID Controller, dc-dc buck converter, pulse width modulation

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10 Design of Chaos Algorithm Based Optimal PID Controller for SVC

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh


SVC is one of the most significant devices in FACTS technology which is used in parallel compensation, enhancing the transient stability, limiting the low frequency oscillations and etc. designing a proper controller is effective in operation of svc. In this paper the equations that describe the proposed system have been linearized and then the optimum PID controller has been designed for svc which its optimal coefficients have been earned by chaos algorithm. Quick damping of oscillations of generator is the aim of designing of optimum PID controller for svc whether the input power of generator has been changed suddenly. The system with proposed controller has been simulated for a special disturbance and the dynamic responses of generator have been presented. The simulation results showed that a system composed with proposed controller has suitable operation in fast damping of oscillations of generator.

Keywords: Chaos, PID Controller, SVC, frequency oscillation

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9 Improve Closed Loop Performance and Control Signal Using Evolutionary Algorithms Based PID Controller

Authors: Mehdi Shahbazian, Alireza Aarabi, Mohsen Hadiyan


Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are the most widely used controllers in industry because of its simplicity and robustness. Different values of PID parameters make different step response, so an increasing amount of literature is devoted to proper tuning of PID controllers. The problem merits further investigation as traditional tuning methods make large control signal that can damages the system but using evolutionary algorithms based tuning methods improve the control signal and closed loop performance. In this paper three tuning methods for PID controllers have been studied namely Ziegler and Nichols, which is traditional tuning method and evolutionary algorithms based tuning methods, that are, Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. To examine the validity of PSO and GA tuning methods a comparative analysis of DC motor plant is studied. Simulation results reveal that evolutionary algorithms based tuning method have improved control signal amplitude and quality factors of the closed loop system such as rise time, integral absolute error (IAE) and maximum overshoot.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, PID Controller, evolutionary algorithm

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8 Speed Control of DC Motor Using Optimization Techniques Based PID Controller

Authors: Santosh Kumar Suman, Vinod Kumar Giri


The goal of this paper is to outline a speed controller of a DC motor by choice of a PID parameters utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs), the DC motor is extensively utilized as a part of numerous applications such as steel plants, electric trains, cranes and a great deal more. DC motor could be represented by a nonlinear model when nonlinearities such as attractive dissemination are considered. To provide effective control, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the model must be taken into account in the control design. The DC motor is considered as third order system. Objective of this paper three type of tuning techniques for PID parameter. In this paper, an independently energized DC motor utilizing MATLAB displaying, has been outlined whose velocity might be examined utilizing the Proportional, Integral, Derivative (KP, KI , KD) addition of the PID controller. Since, established controllers PID are neglecting to control the drive when weight parameters be likewise changed. The principle point of this paper is to dissect the execution of optimization techniques viz. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) for improve PID controllers parameters for velocity control of DC motor and list their points of interest over the traditional tuning strategies. The outcomes got from GA calculations were contrasted and that got from traditional technique. It was found that the optimization techniques beat customary tuning practices of ordinary PID controllers.

Keywords: Optimization Techniques, PID Controller, objective function, genetic algorithm (GA), DC motor, IAE

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7 Performance Comparison of Microcontroller-Based Optimum Controller for Fruit Drying System

Authors: Umar Salisu


This research presents the development of a hot air tomatoes drying system. To provide a more efficient and continuous temperature control, microcontroller-based optimal controller was developed. The system is based on a power control principle to achieve smooth power variations depending on a feedback temperature signal of the process. An LM35 temperature sensor and LM399 differential comparator were used to measure the temperature. The mathematical model of the system was developed and the optimal controller was designed and simulated and compared with the PID controller transient response. A controlled environment suitable for fruit drying is developed within a closed chamber and is a three step process. First, the infrared light is used internally to preheated the fruit to speedily remove the water content inside the fruit for fast drying. Second, hot air of a specified temperature is blown inside the chamber to maintain the humidity below a specified level and exhaust the humid air of the chamber. Third, the microcontroller disconnects the power to the chamber after the moisture content of the fruits is removed to minimal. Experiments were conducted with 1kg of fresh tomatoes at three different temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C) at constant relative humidity of 30%RH. The results obtained indicate that the system is significantly reducing the drying time without affecting the quality of the fruits. In the context of temperature control, the results obtained showed that the response of the optimal controller has zero overshoot whereas the PID controller response overshoots to about 30% of the set-point. Another performance metric used is the rising time; the optimal controller rose without any delay while the PID controller delayed for more than 50s. It can be argued that the optimal controller performance is preferable than that of the PID controller since it does not overshoot and it starts in good time.

Keywords: Drying, PID Controller, microcontroller, optimum controller

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6 Development of Adaptive Proportional-Integral-Derivative Feeding Mechanism for Robotic Additive Manufacturing System

Authors: Andy Alubaidy


In this work, a robotic additive manufacturing system (RAMS) that is capable of three-dimensional (3D) printing in six degrees of freedom (DOF) with very high accuracy and virtually on any surface has been designed and built. One of the major shortcomings in existing 3D printer technology is the limitation to three DOF, which results in prolonged fabrication time. Depending on the techniques used, it usually takes at least two hours to print small objects and several hours for larger objects. Another drawback is the size of the printed objects, which is constrained by the physical dimensions of most low-cost 3D printers, which are typically small. In such cases, large objects are produced by dividing them into smaller components that fit the printer’s workable area. They are then glued, bonded or otherwise attached to create the required object. Another shortcoming is material constraints and the need to fabricate a single part using different materials. With the flexibility of a six-DOF robot, the RAMS has been designed to overcome these problems. A feeding mechanism using an adaptive Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is utilized along with a national instrument compactRIO (NI cRIO), an ABB robot, and off-the-shelf sensors. The RAMS have the ability to 3D print virtually anywhere in six degrees of freedom with very high accuracy. It is equipped with an ABB IRB 120 robot to achieve this level of accuracy. In order to convert computer-aided design (CAD) files to digital format that is acceptable to the robot, Hypertherm Robotic Software Inc.’s state-of-the-art slicing software called “ADDMAN” is used. ADDMAN is capable of converting any CAD file into RAPID code (the programing language for ABB robots). The robot uses the generated code to perform the 3D printing. To control the entire process, National Instrument (NI) compactRIO (cRio 9074), is connected and communicated with the robot and a feeding mechanism that is designed and fabricated. The feeding mechanism consists of two major parts, cold-end and hot-end. The cold-end consists of what is conventionally known as an extruder. Typically, a stepper-motor is used to control the push on the material, however, for optimum control, a DC motor is used instead. The hot-end consists of a melt-zone, nozzle, and heat-brake. The melt zone ensures a thorough melting effect and consistent output from the nozzle. Nozzles are made of brass for thermo-conductivity while the melt-zone is comprised of a heating block and a ceramic heating cartridge to transfer heat to the block. The heat-brake ensures that there is no heat creep-up effect as this would swell the material and prevent consistent extrusion. A control system embedded in the cRio is developed using NI Labview which utilizes adaptive PID to govern the heating cartridge in conjunction with a thermistor. The thermistor sends temperature feedback to the cRio, which will issue heat increase or decrease based on the system output. Since different materials have different melting points, our system will allow us to adjust the temperature and vary the material.

Keywords: Robotic, Additive manufacturing, PID Controller, cRIO

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5 Design, Control and Autonomous Trajectory Tracking of an Octorotor Rotorcraft

Authors: Seyed Jamal Haddadi, M. Reza Mehranpour, Roya Sadat Mortazavi, Zahra Sadat Mortazavi


Principal aim of this research is trajectory tracking, attitude and position control scheme in real flight mode by an Octorotor helicopter. For more stability, in this Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), number of motors is increased to eight motors which end of each arm installed two coaxial counter rotating motors. Dynamic model of this Octorotor includes of motion equation for translation and rotation. Utilized controller is proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop. The proposed controller is designed such that to be able to attenuate an effect of external wind disturbance and guarantee stability in this condition. The trajectory is determined by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Also an ARM CortexM4 is used as microprocessor. Electronic board of this UAV designed as able to records all of the sensors data, similar to an aircraft black box in external memory. Finally after auto landing of Octorotor, flight data is shown in MATLAB software and Experimental results of the proposed controller show the effectiveness of our approach on the Autonomous Quadrotor in real conditions.

Keywords: Design, Autonomous, PID Controller, trajectory tracking, octorotor

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4 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda


In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, PID Controller, pitch rate, elevation angle, phugoid

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3 Reliability Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle Using Non-Parametric Method

Authors: Apurv Kulkarni, Shreyas Badave, B. Rajiv


Non-parametric reliability technique is useful for assessment of reliability of systems for which failure rates are not available. This is useful when detection of malfunctioning of any component is the key purpose during ongoing operation of the system. The main purpose of the Heat Exchanger Cycle discussed in this paper is to provide hot water at a constant temperature for longer periods of time. In such a cycle, certain components play a crucial role and this paper presents an effective way to predict the malfunctioning of the components by determination of system reliability. The method discussed in the paper is feasible and this is clarified with the help of various test cases.

Keywords: PID Controller, System Reliability, heat exchanger cycle, k-statistics

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2 Control System Design for a Simulated Microbial Electrolysis Cell

Authors: Pujari Muruga, T. K. Radhakrishnan, N. Samsudeen


Hydrogen is considered as the most important energy carrier and fuel of the future because of its high energy density and zero emission properties. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) is a new and promising approach for hydrogen production from organic matter, including wastewater and other renewable resources. By utilizing anode microorganism activity, MEC can produce hydrogen gas with smaller voltages (as low as 0.2 V) than those required for electrolytic hydrogen production ( ≥ 1.23 V). The hydrogen production processes of the MEC reactor are very nonlinear and highly complex because of the presence of microbial interactions and highly complex phenomena in the system. Increasing the hydrogen production rate and lowering the energy input are two important challenges of MEC technology. The mathematical model of the MEC is based on material balance with the integration of bioelectrochemical reactions. The main objective of the research is to produce biohydrogen by selecting the optimum current and controlling applied voltage to the MEC. Precise control is required for the MEC reactor, so that the amount of current required to produce hydrogen gas can be controlled according to the composition of the substrate in the reactor. Various simulation tests involving multiple set-point changes disturbance and noise rejection were performed to evaluate the performance using PID controller tuned with Ziegler Nichols settings. Simulation results shows that other good controller can provide better control effect on the MEC system, so that higher hydrogen production can be obtained.

Keywords: Hydrogen production, PID Controller, microbial electrolysis cell, applied voltage

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1 Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot

Authors: Abdallah Ghoul, Bachir Ouamri, Ismail Khalil Bousserhane


In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.

Keywords: Internet, Teleoperation, Remote Control, PID Controller, sliding mode, manipulator robot

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