Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Physicochemical properties Related Abstracts

15 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Starches Extracted from Newly Released Rice Varieties Grown in North Temperate Regions of India

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Ashwar, Asima Shah, S. A. Rather, Asir Gani, S.M. Wani, I.D. Wani, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani


Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 & K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, transmittance and solubility were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, rice starch, gamma irradiation, morphological properties, pasting properties

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14 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Yaowaporn Sangsen, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Boonchoo Sritularak


Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, solid lipid nanoparticles, in vitro drug release, oxyresveratrol

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13 Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Akmalluddin Md. Yunus


Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, Bread, soursop pulp flour, sensory attributes, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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12 Famotidine Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for Oral Delivery System

Authors: Diky Mudhakir, Rachmat Mauludin, Novita R. Kusuma


Famotidine (FMT) is one of used substances in the treatment of hiperacidity and peptic ulcer, administered orally and parenterally via intravenous injection. Oral administration, which is more favorable, has been reported to have many obstacles in the process of the treatment, includes decreasing the bioavailability of FMT. This research was aimed to prepare FMT in form of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with size ranging between 100-200 nm. The research was carried out also by optimizing factors that may affect physical stability of SLN. Formulation of Famotidine SLN was carried out by optimizing factors, such as duration of homogenization and sonication, lipid concentration, stabilizer composition and stabilizer concentration. SLN physical stability was evaluated (particle size distribution) for 42 days in 3 diferent temperatures. Entrapment efficiency and drug loading was determined indirectly and directly. The morphology of SLN was visualized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro release study of FMT was conducted in 2 mediums, at pH of 1.2 and 7.4. Chemical stability of FMT was determined by quantifying the concentration of FMT within 42 days. Famotidin SLN consisted of GMS as lipid and poloxamer 188, lecithin, and polysorbate 80 as stabilizers. Homogenization and sonication was performed for 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Physyical stability of nanoparticles at 3 different temperatures was no significant difference. The best formula was physically stable until 42 days with mean particle size below 200 nm. Nanoparticles produced was able to entrap FMT until 86.6%. Evaluation by TEM showed that nanoparticles was spherical and solid. In medium pH of 1.2, FMT was released only 30% during 4 hour. On the other hand, within 4 hours SLN could release FMT completely in medium pH of 7.4. The FMT concentration in nanoparticles dispersion was maintained until 95% in 42 days (40oC, RH 75%). Famotidine SLN was able to be produced with mean particle size ranging between 100-200 nm and physically stable for 42 days. SLN could be loaded by 86,6% of FMT. Morphologically, obtained SLN was spheric and solid. During 4 hours in medium pH of 1.2 and 7.4, FMT was released until 30% and 100%, respectively.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), famotidine (FMT), release study

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11 Changes of Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Banana during Ethylene-Induced Ripening

Authors: Chiun-C.R. Wang, Po-Wen Yen, Chien-Chun Huang


Banana is produced in large quantities in tropical and subtropical areas. Banana is one of the important fruits which constitute a valuable source of energy, vitamins and minerals. The ripening and maturity standards of banana vary from country to country depending on the expected shelf life of market. The compositions of bananas change dramatically during ethylene-induced ripening that are categorized as nutritive values and commercial utilization. Nevertheless, there is few study reporting the changes of physicochemical properties of banana starch during ethylene-induced ripening of green banana. The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes of chemical composition and enzyme activity of banana and physicochemical properties of banana starch during ethylene-induced ripening. Green bananas were harvested and ripened by ethylene gas at low temperature (15℃) for seven stages. At each stage, banana was sliced and freeze-dried for banana flour preparation. The changes of total starch, resistant starch, chemical compositions, physicochemical properties, activity of amylase, polyphenolic oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) of banana were analyzed each stage during ripening. The banana starch was isolated and analyzed for gelatinization properties, pasting properties and microscopic appearance each stage of ripening. The results indicated that the highest total starch and resistant starch content of green banana were 76.2% and 34.6%, respectively at the harvest stage. Both total starch and resistant starch content were significantly declined to 25.3% and 8.8%, respectively at the seventh stage. Soluble sugars content of banana increased from 1.21% at harvest stage to 37.72% at seventh stage during ethylene-induced ripening. Swelling power of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage, but solubility increased. These results strongly related with the decreases of starch content of banana flour during ethylene-induced ripening. Both water insoluble and alcohol insoluble solids of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage. Both activity of PPO and PAL increased, but the total free phenolics content decreased, with the increases of ripening stages. As ripening stage extended, the gelatinization enthalpy of banana starch significantly decreased from 15.31 J/g at the harvest stage to 10.55 J/g at the seventh stage. The peak viscosity and setback increased with the progress of ripening stages in the pasting properties of banana starch. The highest final viscosity, 5701 RVU, of banana starch slurry was found at the seventh stage. The scanning electron micrograph of banana starch showed the shapes of banana starch appeared to be round and elongated forms, ranging in 10-50 μm at the harvest stage. As the banana closed to ripe status, some parallel striations were observed on the surface of banana starch granular which could be caused by enzyme reaction during ripening. These results inferred that the highest resistant starch was found in the green banana at the harvest stage could be considered as a potential application of healthy foods. The changes of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of banana could be caused by the hydrolysis of enzymes during the ethylene-induced ripening treatment.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, ethylene-induced ripening, banana starch, resistant starch, soluble sugars, gelatinization enthalpy, pasting characteristics, microscopic appearance

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10 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi


In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, titanium dioxide, FTIR, band gap, APCVD

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9 Clustering of Natural and Nature Derived Compounds for Cardiovascular Disease: Pharmacophore Modeling

Authors: S. Roy, R. Rekha, K. Sriram, G. Subhadra, R. Johana


Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Many chemical drugs are available in the market which targets different receptor proteins related to cardiovascular diseases. Of late the traditional herbal drugs are safer when compared to chemical drugs because of its side effects. However, many herbal remedies used in treating cardiovascular diseases have not undergone scientific assessment to prove its pharmacological activities. There are many natural compounds, nature derived and Natural product mimic compounds are available which are in the market as approved drug. In the most of the cases drug activity at the molecular level are not known. Here we have categorized those compounds with our experimental compounds in different classes based on the structural similarity and physicochemical properties, using a tool, Chemmine and has attempted to understand the mechanism of the action of a experimental compound, which are clustered with Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Mevastatin and Pravastatin. Target protein molecule for Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Mevastatin and Pravastatin is HMG-CoA reductase, so we concluded that the experimental compound may be able to bind to the same target. Molecular docking and atomic interaction studies with simvastatin and our experimental compound were compared. A pharmacophore modeling was done based on the experimental compound and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Physicochemical properties, pharmacophore modeling structural similarity, pravastatin

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8 MCD-017: Potential Candidate from the Class of Nitroimidazoles to Treat Tuberculosis

Authors: Gurleen Kour, Mowkshi Khullar, B. K. Chandan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Kushalava Reddy Yumpalla, Gurunadham Munagala, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed


New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). Apart from in-vitro potency against the target, physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetic properties play an imperative role in the process of drug discovery. We have identified novel nitroimidazole derivatives with potential activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis. One lead candidates, MCD-017, which showed potent activity against H37Rv strain (MIC=0.5µg/ml) and was further evaluated in the process of drug development. Methods: Basic physicochemical parameters like solubility and lipophilicity (LogP) were evaluated. Thermodynamic solubility was determined in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) using LC/MS-MS. The partition coefficient (Log P) of the compound was determined between octanol and phosphate buffered saline (PBS at pH 7.4) at 25°C by the microscale shake flask method. The compound followed Lipinski’s rule of five, which is predictive of good oral bioavailability and was further evaluated for metabolic stability. In-vitro metabolic stability was determined in rat liver microsomes. The hepatotoxicity of the compound was also determined in HepG2 cell line. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the compound after oral dosing was also obtained using balb/c mice. Results: The compound exhibited favorable solubility and lipophilicity. The physical and chemical properties of the compound were made use of as the first determination of drug-like properties. The compound obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five, with molecular weight < 500, number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) < 5 and number of hydrogen bond acceptors(HBA) not more then 10. The log P of the compound was less than 5 and therefore the compound is predictive of exhibiting good absorption and permeation. Pooled rat liver microsomes were prepared from rat liver homogenate for measuring the metabolic stability. 99% of the compound was not metabolized and remained intact. The compound did not exhibit cytoxicity in hepG2 cells upto 40 µg/ml. The compound revealed good pharmacokinetic profile at a dose of 5mg/kg administered orally with a half life (t1/2) of 1.15 hours, Cmax of 642ng/ml, clearance of 4.84 ml/min/kg and a volume of distribution of 8.05 l/kg. Conclusion : The emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis emphasize the requirement of novel drugs active against tuberculosis. Thus, the need to evaluate physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties in the early stages of drug discovery is required to reduce the attrition associated with poor drug exposure. In summary, it can be concluded that MCD-017 may be considered a good candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluations.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Physicochemical properties, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity

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7 Sensory Acceptability of Novel Sorrel/Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Authors: Neela Badrie, Tamara Anderson


Plant phenolics which are found in red grape wine, have received considerable attention due to their potential antioxidant activity. Grape by-products contain large amounts of phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids at high concentrations of 1000-1800 mg/L. Plant phenolics contribute to the flavor, and nutritional value. Sorrel or roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) belongs to the family Malvaceae. The brilliant red pigments in sorrel calyces contain anthocyanins which are the major sources of antioxidant capacity. Consumers are demanding novel beverages that are healthier, convenient and have appealing consumer acceptance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of adding grape polyphenols and the influence of presenting health claims on the sensory acceptability of the wines. Fresh red sorrel calyces were fermented into wines. The total soluble solids of the pectinase-treated sorrel puree were from 4°Brix to 23.8°Brix. Polyphenol in the form of grape pomace extract was added to sorrel wines (w/v) in specified levels to give 0. 25. 50 and 75 ppm. A focus group comprising of 12 panelists was use to select the level of polyphenol to be added to sorrel wines for sensory preference The sensory attributed of the wines which were evaluated were colour, clarity, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall preference. The sorrel wine which was most preferred from focus group evaluation was presented for hedonic rating. In the first stage of hedonic testing, the sorrel wine was served chilled at 7°C for 24 h prior to sensory evaluation. Each panelist was provided with a questionnaire and was asked to rate the wines on colour, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. In the second stage of hedonic testing, the panelist were instructed to read a health abstract on the health benefits of polyphenolic compounds and again to rate sorrel wine with added 25 ppm polyphenol. Paired t-test was used for the analysis of the influence of presenting health information on polyphenols on hedonic scoring of sorrel wines. Focus groups found that the addition of polyphenol addition had no significant effect on sensory color and aroma but affected clarity and flavor. A 25 ppm wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability. The presentation of information on the health benefit of polyphenols in sorrel wines to panelists had no significant influence on the sensory acceptance of wine. More than half of panelists would drink this wine now and then. This wine had color L 19.86±0.68, chroma 2.10±0.12, hue° 16.90 ±3.10 and alcohol content of 13.0%. The sorrel wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability with the added polyphenols.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, Health Benefits, polyphenols, sorrel wines, Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa L, novel wine

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6 Hedonic Pricing Model of Parboiled Rice

Authors: Roengchai Tansuchat, Wassanai Wattanutchariya, Aree Wiboonpongse


Parboiled rice is one of the most important food grains and classified in cereal and cereal product. In 2015, parboiled rice was traded more than 14.34 % of total rice trade. The major parboiled rice export countries are Thailand and India, while many countries in Africa and the Middle East such as Nigeria, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia, are parboiled rice import countries. In the global rice market, parboiled rice pricing differs from white rice pricing because parboiled rice is semi-processing product, (soaking, steaming and drying) which affects to their color and texture. Therefore, parboiled rice export pricing does not depend only on the trade volume, length of grain, and percentage of broken rice or purity but also depend on their rice seed attributes such as color, whiteness, consistency of color and whiteness, and their texture. In addition, the parboiled rice price may depend on the country of origin, and other attributes, such as certification mark, label, packaging, and sales locations. The objectives of this paper are to study the attributes of parboiled rice sold in different countries and to evaluate the relationship between parboiled rice price in different countries and their attributes by using hedonic pricing model. These results are useful for product development, and marketing strategies development. The 141 samples of parboiled rice were collected from 5 major parboiled rice consumption countries, namely Nigeria, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Spain. The physicochemical properties and optical properties, namely size and shape of seed, colour (L*, a*, and b*), parboiled rice texture (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness), nutrition (moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and ash), amylose, package, country of origin, label are considered as explanatory variables. The results from parboiled rice analysis revealed that most of samples are classified as long grain and slender. The highest average whiteness value is the parboiled rice sold in South Africa. The amylose value analysis shows that most of parboiled rice is non-glutinous rice, classified in intermediate amylose content range, and the maximum value was found in United Arab Emirates. The hedonic pricing model showed that size and shape are the key factors to determine parboiled rice price statistically significant. In parts of colour, brightness value (L*) and red-green value (a*) are statistically significant, but the yellow-blue value (b*) is insignificant. In addition, the texture attributes that significantly affect to the parboiled rice price are hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess. The findings could help both parboiled rice miller, exporter and retailers formulate better production and marketing strategies by focusing on these attributes.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, Optical Properties, parboiled rice, hedonic pricing model

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5 Development of a Passive Solar Tomato Dryer with Movable Heat Storage System

Authors: Jacob T. Liberty, Wilfred I. Okonkwo


The present study designed and constructed a post-harvest passive solar tomato dryer of dimension 176 x 152 x 54cm for drying tomato. Quality of the dried crop was evaluated and compared with the fresh ones. The solar dryer consist of solar collector (air heater), 110 x 61 x 10 x 10cm, the drying chamber, 102 x54cm, removal heat storage unit, 40 x 35 x 13cm and drying trays, 43 x 42cm. The physicochemical properties of this crop were evaluated before and after drying. Physicochemical properties evaluated includes moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C, contents. The fresh, open and solar dried samples were analysed for their proximate composition using the recommended method of AOAC. Also, statistical analysis of the data was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely Randomize Design (CRD) and means were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (DNMRT). Proximate analysis showed that solar dried tomato had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C except for the fat content that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all the open sun dried samples than the solar dried and fresh product. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. Result indicates that moisture loss in solar dried tomato was faster and lower than the open dried samples and as such makes the solar dried products of lesser tendency to mould and bacterial growth. Also, the open sun dried samples had to be carried into the sheltered place each time it rained. The solar dried produce is of high quality. Further processing of the dried crops will involve packaging for commercial purposes. This will also help in making these agricultural product available in a relatively cheap price in off season and also avert micronutrient deficiencies in diet especially among the low-income groups in Nigeria.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, tomato, passive solar dryer, removal heat storage

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4 Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour on the Soaking Time of Peeled Grains and Particle Size Treatment

Authors: Harijono, Sri Satya Antarlina, Elok Zubaidah, Teti Istiana


Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential as a flour for gluten-free food products. Sorghum flour production needs grain soaking treatment. Soaking can reduce the tannin content which is an anti-nutrient, so it can increase the protein digestibility. Fine particle size decreases the yield of flour, so it is necessary to study various particle sizes to increase the yield. This study aims to determine the characteristics of sorghum flour in the treatment of soaking peeled grain and particle size. The material of white sorghum varieties KD-4 from farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Factorial randomized factorial design (two factors), repeated three times, factor I were the time of grain soaking (five levels) that were 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, factor II was the size of the starch particles sifted with a fineness level of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mesh. The method of making sorghum flour is grain peeling, soaking peeled grain, drying using the oven at 60ᵒC, milling, and sieving. Physico-chemical analysis of sorghum flour. The results show that there is an interaction between soaking time of grain with the size of sorghum flour particles. Interaction in yield of flour, L* color (brightness level), whiteness index, paste properties, amylose content, protein content, bulk density, and protein digestibility. The method of making sorghum flour through the soaking of peeled grain and the difference in particle size has an important role in producing the physicochemical properties of the specific flour. Based on the characteristics of sorghum flour produced, it is determined the method of making sorghum flour through sorghum grain soaking for 24 hours, the particle size of flour 80 mesh. The sorghum flour with characteristic were 24.88% yield of flour, 88.60 color L* (brightness level), 69.95 whiteness index, 3615 Cp viscosity, 584.10 g/l of bulk density, 24.27% db protein digestibility, 90.02% db starch content, 23.4% db amylose content, 67.45% db amylopectin content, 0.22% db crude fiber content, 0.037% db tannin content, 5.30% db protein content, ash content 0.18% db, carbohydrate content 92.88 % db, and 1.94% db fat content. The sorghum flour is recommended for cookies products.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, particle size, characteristic, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) flour, grain soaking

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3 The Physicochemical Properties of Two Rivers in Eastern Cape South Africa as Relates to Vibrio Spp Density

Authors: Anthony Okoh, Oluwatayo Abioye


In the past view decades; human has experienced outbreaks of infections caused by pathogenic Vibrio spp which are commonly found in aquatic milieu. Asides the well-known Vibrio cholerae, discovery of other pathogens in this genus has been on the increase. While the dynamics of occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp have been linked to some physicochemical parameters in salt water, data in relation to fresh water is limited. Hence, two rivers of importance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa were selected for this study. In all, eleven sampling sites were systematically identified and relevant physicochemical parameters, as well as Vibrio spp density, were determined for the period of six months using standard instruments and methods. Results were statistically analysed to determined key physicochemical parameters that determine the density of Vibrio spp in the selected rivers. Results: The density of Vibrio spp in all the sampling points ranges between < 1 CFU/mL to 174 x 10-2 CFU/mL. The physicochemical parameters of some of the sampling points were above the recommended standards. The regression analysis showed that Vibrio density in the selected rivers depends on a complex relationship between various physicochemical parameters. Conclusion: This study suggests that Vibrio spp density in fresh water does not depend on only temperature and salinity as suggested by earlier studies on salt water but rather on a complex relationship between several physicochemical parameters.

Keywords: pathogen, Physicochemical properties, vibrio density, aquatic milieu

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2 Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Raw and Calcined Kaolinitic Clays Using Analytical Techniques

Authors: Alireza Khaloo, Asghar Gholizadeh-Vayghan


The present work focuses on the characterization of the physicochemical properties of kaolinitic clays in both raw and calcined (i.e., dehydroxylated) states. The properties investigated included the dehydroxylation temperature, chemical composition and crystalline phases, band types, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, and reactive and unreactive silica and alumina. The thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy results suggest that full dehydroxylation takes place at 639°C, converting kaolinite to reactive metakaolinite (Si₂Al₂O₇). Application of higher temperatures up to 800 °C leads to complete decarbonation of the calcite phase, and the kaolinite converts to mullite at temperatures exceeding 957 °C. Calcination at 639°C was found to cause a 50% increase in the vitreous content of kaolin. Statistically meaningful increases in the reactivity of silica, alumina, calcite and sodium carbonate in kaolin were detected as a result of such thermal treatment. Such increases were found to be 11%, 47%, 240% and 10%, respectively. The ferrite phase, however, showed a 36% decline in reactivity. The proposed approach can be used as an analytical method to determine the viability of the source of kaolinite and proper physical and chemical modifications needed to enhance its suitability for geopolymer production.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, Reactivity, dehydroxylation, kaolinitic clays, kaolinite content, vitreous phase

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1 Characterization of Coal Fly Ash with Potential Use in the Manufacture Geopolymers to Solidify/Stabilize Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: P. M. Fonseca Alfonso, E. A. Murillo Ruiz, M. Diaz Lagos


Understanding the physicochemical properties and mineralogy of fly ash from a particular source is essential for to protect the environment and considering its possible applications, specifically, in the production of geopolymeric materials that solidify/stabilize heavy metals ions. The results of the characterization of three fly ash samples are shown in this paper. The samples were produced in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant in the State of Boyaca, Colombia. The particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogy, and molecular structure of three samples were analyzed using laser diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy respectively. The particle size distribution of the three samples probably ranges from 0.128 to 211 μm. Approximately 59 elements have been identified in the three samples. It is noticeable that the ashes are made up of aluminum and silicon compounds. Besides, the iron phase in low content was also found. According to the results found in this study, the fly ash samples type F has a great potential to be used as raw material for the manufacture of geopolymers with potential use in the stabilization/solidification of heavy metals; mainly due to the presence of amorphous aluminosilicates typical of this type of ash, which react effectively with alkali-activator.

Keywords: geopolymers, fly ash, Physicochemical properties, Molecular Structure

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