Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Pain Related Abstracts

24 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: Disability, low back pain, Pain, Quality of Life

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23 Opioid Administration on Patients Hospitalized in the Emergency Department

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Ali Hashemaghaee, Mona Hashemaghaee

Abstract:

Background: Acute pain and its management remained the most complaint of emergency service admission. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures add to patients’ pain. Diminishing the pain increases the quality of patient’s feeling and improves the patient-physician relationship. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and side effects of opioid administration in emergency patients. Material and Methods: patients admitted to ward II emergency service of Imam Khomeini hospital, who received one of the opioids: morphine, pethidine, methadone or fentanyl as an analgesic were evaluated. Their vital signs and general condition were examined before and after drug injection. Also, patient’s pain experience were recorded as numerical rating score (NRS) before and after analgesic administration. Results: 268 patients were studied. 34 patients were addicted to opioid drugs. Morphine had the highest rate of prescription (86.2%), followed by pethidine (8.5%), methadone (3.3%) and fentanyl (1.68). While initial NRS did not show significant difference between addicted patients and non-addicted ones, NRS decline and its score after drug injection were significantly lower in addicted patients. All patients had slight but statistically significant lower respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and O2 saturation. There was no significant difference between different kind of opioid prescription and its outcomes or side effects. Conclusion: Pain management should be always in physicians’ mind during emergency admissions. It should not be assumed that an addicted patient complaining of pain is malingering to receive drug. Titration of drug and close monitoring must be in the curriculum to prevent any hazardous side effects.

Keywords: Pain, Emergency Department, numerical rating score, opioid

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22 Thiopental-Fentanyl versus Midazolam-Fentanyl for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Patients with Shoulder Dislocation and Distal Radial Fracture-Dislocation: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: D. Farsi, S. Abbasi, S. Shafiee Ardestani, E. Payani, G. Dokhtvasi

Abstract:

Background and aim:It has not been well studied whether fentanyl-thiopental (FT) is effective and safe for PSA in orthopedic procedures in Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous FTversusfentanyl-midazolam (FM)in patients who suffered from shoulder dislocation or distal radial fracture-dislocation. Methods:In this randomized double-blinded study, Seventy-six eligible patients were entered the study and randomly received intravenous FT or FM. The success rate, onset of action and recovery time, pain score, physicians’ satisfaction and adverse events were assessed and recorded by treating emergency physicians. The statistical analysis was intention to treat. Results: The success rate after administrating loading dose in FT group was significantly higher than FM group (71.7% vs. 48.9%, p=0.04); however, the ultimate unsuccess rate after 3 doses of drugs in the FT group was higher than the FM group (3 to 1) but it did not reach to significant level (p=0.61). Despite near equal onset of action time in two study group (P=0.464), the recovery period in patients receiving FT was markedly shorter than FM group (P<0.001). The occurrence of adverse effects was low in both groups (p=0.31). Conclusion: PSA using FT is effective and appears to be safe for orthopedic procedures in the ED. Therefore, regarding the prompt onset of action, short recovery period of thiopental, it seems that this combination can be considered more for performing PSA in orthopedic procedures in ED.

Keywords: Pain, Emergency Department, procedural sedation and analgesia, thiopental, fentanyl, midazolam, orthopedic procedure

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21 A Theoretical Study on Pain Assessment through Human Facial Expresion

Authors: Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Debanjana Debnath Jr.

Abstract:

A facial expression is undeniably the human manners. It is a significant channel for human communication and can be applied to extract emotional features accurately. People in pain often show variations in facial expressions that are readily observable to others. A core of actions is likely to occur or to increase in intensity when people are in pain. To illustrate the changes in the facial appearance, a system known as Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is pioneered by Ekman and Friesen for human observers. According to Prkachin and Solomon, a set of such actions carries the bulk of information about pain. Thus, the Prkachin and Solomon pain intensity (PSPI) metric is defined. So, it is very important to notice that facial expressions, being a behavioral source in communication media, provide an important opening into the issues of non-verbal communication in pain. People express their pain in many ways, and this pain behavior is the basis on which most inferences about pain are drawn in clinical and research settings. Hence, to understand the roles of different pain behaviors, it is essential to study the properties. For the past several years, the studies are concentrated on the properties of one specific form of pain behavior i.e. facial expression. This paper represents a comprehensive study on pain assessment that can model and estimate the intensity of pain that the patient is suffering. It also reviews the historical background of different pain assessment techniques in the context of painful expressions. Different approaches incorporate FACS from psychological views and a pain intensity score using the PSPI metric in pain estimation. This paper investigates in depth analysis of different approaches used in pain estimation and presents different observations found from each technique. It also offers a brief study on different distinguishing features of real and fake pain. Therefore, the necessity of the study lies in the emerging fields of painful face assessment in clinical settings.

Keywords: Pain, facial action coding system (FACS), pain behavior, Prkachin and Solomon pain intensity (PSPI)

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20 Treatment of Premalignant Lesions: Curcumin a Promising Non-Surgical Option

Authors: Heba A. Hazzah, Ragwa M. Farid, Maha M. A. Nasra, Mennatallah Zakria, Magda A. El Massik, Ossama Y. Abdallah

Abstract:

Introduction: Curcumin (Cur) is a polyphenol derived from the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It possesses diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties following oral or topical administration. The buccal delivery of curcumin can be useful for both systemic and local disease treatments such as gingivitis, periodontal diseases, oral carcinomas, and precancerous oral lesions. Despite of its high activity, it suffers a limited application due to its low oral bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility, and instability. Aim: Preparation and characterization of curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles with a high loading capacity into a mucoadhesive gel for buccal application. Methodology: Curcumin was formulated as nanoparticles using different lipids, namely Gelucire 39/01, Gelucire 50/13, Precirol, Compritol, and Polaxomer 407 as a surfactant. The SLN were dispersed in a mucoadhesive gel matrix to be applied to the buccal mucosa. All formulations were evaluated for their content, entrapment efficiency, particle size, in vitro drug dialysis, ex vivo mucoadhesion test, and ex vivo permeation study using chicken buccal mucosa. Clinical evaluation was conducted on 15 cases suffering oral erythroplakia and erosive lichen planus. Results: The results showed high entrapment efficiency reaching almost 90 % using Gelucire 50, the loaded gel with Cur-SLN showed good adhesion property and 25 minutes in vivo residence time. In addition to stability enhancement for the Cur powder. All formulae did not show any drug permeated however, a significant amount of Cur was retained within the mucosal tissue. Pain and lesion sizes were significantly reduced upon topical treatment. Complete healing was observed after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: These results open a room for the pharmaceutical technology to optimize the use of this golden magical powder to get the best out of it. In addition, the lack of local anti-inflammatory compounds with reduced side effects intensifies the importance of studying natural products for this purpose.

Keywords: Pain, Curcumin, solid lipid nanoparticles, erythroplakia, mucoadhesive

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19 Chronic and Sub-Acute Lumbosacral Radiculopathies Behave Differently to Repeated Back Extension Exercises

Authors: Sami Alabdulwahab

Abstract:

Background: Repeated back extension exercises (RBEEs) are among the management options for symptoms associated with lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). RBEEs have been reported to cause changes in the distribution and intensity of radicular symptoms caused by possible compression/decompression of the compromised nerve root. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the RBEEs on the neurophysiology of the compromised nerve root and on standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute and chronic LSR. Methods: A total of 40 patients with unilateral sub-acute/chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy voluntarily participated in the study; the patients performed 3 sets of 10 RBEEs in the prone position with 1 min of rest between the sets. The soleus H-reflex, standing mobility and pain intensity were recorded before and after the RBEEs. Results: The results of the study showed that the RBEEs significantly improved the H-reflex, standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute LSR (p<0.01); there was not a significant improvement in the patients with chronic LSR (p<0.61). Conclusion: RBEEs in prone position is recommended for improving the neurophysiological function of the compromised nerve root and standing mobility in patients with sub-acute LSR. Implication: Sub-acute and chronic LSR responded differently to RBEEs. Sub-acute LSR appear to have flexible and movable disc structures, which could be managed with RBEEs.

Keywords: Pain, h-reflex, back extension, lumbosacral radiculopathy

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18 Acupuncture Reduces Pain Disability, Stress, and Depression in United States Military Veterans with Chronic Pain

Authors: Christine Eickhoff, Alyssa Adams, Alaine Duncan

Abstract:

The Washington, DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DC VAMC) offers complementary and integrative health (CIH) services such as acupuncture, yoga, meditation, and nutrition education through a coordinated outpatient clinic. The primary population utilizing CIH services are veterans with chronic pain. Acupuncture is one of the most popular of the CIH services available at the DC VAMC. As interest and availability grows, it is important to measure health outcomes associated with CIH service utilization. The purpose of this study was to investigate pain and mental health outcomes for veterans with chronic pain enrolled in individual acupuncture services in the DC VAMC. Veterans at the DC VAMC with self-identified chronic pain and no prior acupuncture experience were recruited for the study (n=70). Veterans were referred for services by a medical provider and completed baseline assessments at the program orientation prior to participating in any CIH services. Veterans received four individual, full-body acupuncture appointments within four weeks of study enrollment. After the first month, participants were scheduled for six appointments that occurred every two weeks and then eight more sessions that were scheduled one month apart. Follow-up assessments were administered at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months. The findings reported will include completed time points at two and four months. Measures include a demographics survey, the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile-2 (MYMOP-2), The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS), and the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ). In this sample, 67% identified a pain condition as their primary health concern. Between baseline and two-month follow-up, there were significant improvements in participants’ primary health concern (MYMOP-2 p=0.010), general wellbeing (MYMOP-2 p=0.011), and a significant decrease in the use of medication (MYMOP-2 p<0.000). Between 2 and 4-month follow-up, pain disability (PDQ p=0.035), pain rating (DVPRS p=0.027), and depression (BDI-II p=0.003) significantly improved. Preliminary findings indicate that individual acupuncture therapy can be effective at improving health outcomes, well-being, and decreasing medication use in U.S. military veterans with chronic pain. Findings also suggest that individual acupuncture therapy can improve pain ratings, pain disability, and depression in veterans with chronic pain.

Keywords: Military, Depression, Wellbeing, Pain, Integrative Health, Acupuncture, Chronic Pain, medication use, veterans

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17 Prevalence of the Musculoskeletal Disorder amongst School Teachers

Authors: Nirav Vaghela, Sanket Parekh

Abstract:

Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent one of the most common and important occupational health problems in working populations, being responsible for a substantial impact on quality of life and incurring a major economic burden in compensation cost and lost wages. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Design: Three hundred and fourteen teachers were enrolled in this study. Teachers were interview with the Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Result: In current study total 314 participants have been recruited in that minimum age of participants is 22 and maximum age is 59 with mean 40.5± 9.88. Total prevalence of the MSD is 71.95% among the teachers. In that Female were more affected with 72% than the males with 28%. Conclusion: The teachers here in reported a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, knee and back.

Keywords: Physical Health, Disability, Occupational Hazards, Pain, Quality of Life, repetitive stress injury, abneetism

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16 Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Surgeons

Authors: Nirav P. Vaghela

Abstract:

Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMS) are a major health issue in many occupations all over the world. Past research on hospital workers have mainly been focused on nurses [8] and very few studies have examined musculoskeletal symptoms among doctors in various specialties. The work of surgeons can involve high levels of mental concentration and very precise movements that can be categorized as mild-to-moderate physical demands. Design: Forty-three surgeons were enrolled in this study. To investigate musculoskeletal disorder among the surgeons we had used Standardised Nordic Questionnaire, Quick Exposure Check (QEC) and Workstyle Short Form. Result: In the current study, total 43 surgeons participants out of 30 males and 13 females. Their mean age was 42.07 ± 12.35, and the mean working years of the group were 15.14years ±9.017. On the average, they worked a total of about 8.58 h (±1.967) per day. The prevalence of work related musculoskeletal symptoms among the surgeons indicating 83.70% surgeons had atleast one joint affected while 16.30% had no symptoms at all. Conclusion: The present survey study has shown high prevalence rates of neck, back and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms in surgeons.

Keywords: Physical Health, Disability, Occupational Hazards, Pain, Quality of Life, repetitive stress injury, abneetism

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15 Comparative Study of Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique in Patients with Upper Trapezius Spasm

Authors: Harihara Prakash Ramanathan, Daksha Mishra, Ankita Dhaduk

Abstract:

Relevance: This qualitative study will educate the clinician in putting into practice the advanced method of movement science in restoring the function. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique and myofascial release technique on range of motion, neck function and pain in patients with upper trapezius spasm. Methods/Analysis: The study was approved by the institutional Human Research and Ethics committee. This study included sixty patients of age group between 20 to 55 years with upper trapezius spasm. Patients were randomly divided into two groups receiving Active Release Technique (Group A) and Myofascial Release Technique (Group B). The patients were treated for 1 week and three outcome measures ROM, pain and functional level were measured using Goniometer, Visual analog scale(VAS), Neck disability Index Questionnaire(NDI) respectively. Paired Sample 't' test was used to compare the differences of pre and post intervention values of Cervical Range of motion, Neck disability Index, Visual analog scale of Group A and Group B. Independent't' test was used to compare the differences between two groups in terms of improvement in cervical range of motion, decrease in visual analogue scale(VAS), decrease in Neck disability index score. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant improvements in cervical ROM, reduction in pain and in NDI scores. However, mean change in Cervical flexion, cervical extension, right side flexion, left side flexion, right side rotation, left side rotation, pain, neck disability level showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0. 05)) in the patients who received Active Release Technique as compared to Myofascial release technique. Discussion and conclusions: In present study, the average improvement immediately post intervention is significantly greater as compared to before treatment but there is even more improvement after seven sessions as compared to single session. Hence, this proves that several sessions of Manual techniques are necessary to produce clinically relevant results. Active release technique help to reduce the pain threshold by removing adhesion and promote normal tissue extensibility. The act of tensioning and compressing the affected tissue both with digital contact and through the active movement performed by the patient can be a plausible mechanism for tissue healing in this study. This study concluded that both Active Release Technique (ART) and Myofascial release technique (MFR) are equally effective in managing upper trapezius muscle spasm, but more improvement can be achieved by Active Release Technique (ART). Impact and Implications: Active Release Technique can be adopted as mainstay of treatment approach in treating trapezius spasm for faster relief and improving the functional status.

Keywords: Pain, trapezius spasm, myofascial release, active release technique

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14 Investigating Acute and Chronic Pain after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Wei Wang, Patti Kastanias, Karyn Mackenzie, Sandra Robinson, Susan Wnuk

Abstract:

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is recognized as a chronic disease. Pain in the obese individual is a multidimensional issue. An increase in BMI is positively correlated with pain incidence and severity, especially in central obesity where individuals are twice as likely to have chronic pain. Both obesity and chronic pain are also associated with mood disorders. Pain is worse among obese individuals with depression and anxiety. Bariatric surgery provides patients with an effective solution for long-term weight loss and associated health problems. However, not much is known about acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery and its contributing factors, including mood disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) at one large multidisciplinary bariatric surgery centre led two studies to examine acute and chronic pain and pain management over time after bariatric surgery. The purpose of the initial study was to examine the incidence and severity of acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery. The aim of the secondary study was to further examine chronic pain, specifically looking at psychological factors that influence severity or incidence of both neuropathic and somatic pain as well as changes in opioid use. The initial study was a prospective, longitudinal study where patients having bariatric surgery at one surgical center were followed up to 6 months postop. Data was collected at 7 time points using validated instruments for pain severity, pain interference, and patient satisfaction. In the second study, subjects were followed longitudinally starting preoperatively and then at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively to capture changes in chronic pain and influencing variables over time. Valid and reliable instruments were utilized for all major study outcomes. In the first study, there was a trend towards decreased acute post-operative pain over time. The incidence and severity of chronic pain was found to be significantly reduced at 6 months post bariatric surgery. Interestingly, interference of chronic pain in daily life such as normal work, mood, and walking ability was significantly improved at 6 months postop however; this was not the case with sleep. Preliminary results of the secondary study indicate that pain severity, pain interference, anxiety and depression are significantly improved at 6 months postoperatively. In addition, preoperative anxiety, depression and emotional regulation were predictive of pain interference, but not pain severity. The results of our regression analyses provide evidence for the impact of pre-existing psychological factors on pain, particularly anxiety in obese populations.

Keywords: Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Pain, Mood Disorders

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13 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Gamze Kurt, Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Ozgen Aras

Abstract:

Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: low back pain, Pain, Functionality, gait

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12 A Study of Emergency Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pain

Authors: Liqun Zou, Ling Wang, Xiaoli Chen

Abstract:

Objective: Through the questionnaire about emergency nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management to understand whether they are well mastered and practiced the related knowledge about pain management, providing a reference for continuous improvement of the quality of nursing care in acute pain and for improving the effect of management on emergency pain patients. Method: The Chinese version questionnaire about KASRP (knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain) was handed out to 132 emergency nurses to do a study about the knowledge and attitude of pain management. Meanwhile, SPSS17.0 was used to do a descriptive analysis and variance analysis on collected data. Results: The emergency nurses’ correct answer rate about KASRP questionnaire is from 25% to 65% and the average correct rate is (44.65 + 7.85)%. In addition, there are 10 to 26 items being given the right answer. Therefore, the average correct items are (17.86 ± 3.14). Moreover, there is no statistical significant on the differences about the correct rate for different age, gender and work experience to answer; however, the difference of the correct rate in different education background and the professional title is significant. Conclusion: There is a remarkable lack of knowledge and attitude towards pain management in emergency nurses, whose basic knowledge of pain is sufficient. Besides, there is a deviation between the knowledge of pain management and clinical practice, which needs to be improved.

Keywords: Pain, Pain Management, emergency nurse, KASRP questionnaire

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11 The Effect of Music Therapy on Anxiety, Fear and Pain Management in 6-12 Year Old Children Undergoing Surgery

Authors: Meltem Kürtüncü, Özgür Bahadir

Abstract:

The study was designed as quasi-experimental and conducted to determine the effect of music therapy on anxiety, fear and pain management in 6-12-year-old children undergoing surgery. The present study was carried out between 01.01.2016 and 19.08.2016 in BEU. Application and Research Center. The children aged 6 -12 who applied for surgery between the mentioned dates constituted the universe of the study. In the quasi-experimental study that was conducted in the clinics where children received operational treatment, two groups were formed: experimental group (the children who received musical therapy before the surgery) and control group (the children who were administered surveys and the surgery service routines only). Each group consisted of 30 children, and the participants of the study were 60 children in total. Necessary permissions were obtained from the parents of the children hospitalized before the beginning of the implementation. The data was collected through Child Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI), “Fear In Medical Treatment Scale”, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability Scale (FLACC), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Participant Information Form. In the analysis of the data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution scale was used to examine the normality of the distribution along with descriptive statistics methods (Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation). Data was presented in the tables in numbers and percentages. Means were demonstrated along with the standard deviations. The research compared children received; case and control groups include socio-demographic perspective, non-significant difference statistically among similar groups are intertwined. The general level of fear regarding the medical processes before returning to service after the operation and 30 minutes before getting discharged was found to be significantly low in the experimental group compared to control group (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in terms of general level of fear regarding the medical processes before the operation, during the operation day and in the recovery room after the operation (p>0.05). Total CASI AD (anxiety sensitivity) levels before the operation, day of the operation and 30 minutes before the discharge for patients in experimental group was found to be significantly higher than the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the total CASI AD levels for the post-operative recovery room and for returning to the service room after the operation (p>0.05). VAS levels for patients in the experimental group in the post-operative recovery room was significantly higher than the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS findings in returning to service room after the operation and in 30 minutes before the discharge (p>0.05). As a result of the research; applied children music therapy in the experimental group anxiety, fear, and pain of the scales, their scores average, is lower than the control group children in this situation an increase in the satisfaction of children and parents was observed. In line with this, music therapy preoperative anxiety, fear, and can be used as an effective method of decreasing postoperative pain clinics is suggested.

Keywords: Children, Anxiety, Pain, music therapy, fear

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10 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani

Abstract:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: Evaluation, Pain, Dialysis, Chronic kidney disease

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9 Relationship between Pain, Social Support and Socio-Economic Indicators in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Zahra Khazaeipour, Ehsan Ahmadipour, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Fereshteh Ahmadipour

Abstract:

Research Objectives: Chronic pain is one of the common problems associated with spinal cord injuries (SCI), which causes many complications. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the relationship between pain and demographic, injury characteristics, socio-economic and social support in individuals with spinal cord Injury in Iran. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between 2012 and 2013. Participants: The participants were 140 individuals with SCI, 101 (72%) men and 39 (28%) women, with mean age of 29.4 ±7.9 years. Main Outcome Measure: The Persian version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used to measure the pain, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure social support. Results: About 50.7% complained about having pain, which 79.3% had bilateral pain. The most common locations of pain were lower limbs and back. The most quality of pain was described as aching (41.4%), and tingling (32.9%). Patients with a medium level of education had the least pain compared to high and low level of education. SCI individuals with good economic situation reported higher frequency of having pain. There was no significant relationship between pain and social support. There was positive correlation between pain and impairment of mood, normal work, relations with other people and lack of sleep (P < 0.001). Conclusion: These findings revealed the importance of socioeconomic factors such as economic situation and educational level in understanding chronic pain in people with SCI and provide further support for the bio-psychosocial model. Hence, multidisciplinary evaluations and treatment strategies are advocated, including biomedical, psychological, and psycho-social interventions.

Keywords: Pain, Spinal Cord Injury, Social Support, socio-economic indicators

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8 An Investigation of Pain and Life Satisfaction in Elderly Individuals in Turkey

Authors: Senay Karadag Arli, Ayse Berivan Bakan, Ela Varol, Gulpinar Aslan

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Objective: This study aims to investigate pain and life satisfaction in elderly individuals. Methods: This study, which is descriptive in nature, utilized relational screening model. It was conducted between September 2016 and March 2017, with 387 people aged 65 and over who were registered in Family Health Centers in Ağrı, a city located in eastern Turkey. Results: The Geriatric Pain Measure mean score of the participants was 53.23 ± 29.40, indicating moderate pain. The Life Satisfaction Scale mean score was found 8.50 ± 5.34, indicating moderate life satisfaction level. The study also found a statistically significant, negative relationship between life satisfaction and geriatric pain. Conclusion: Increase in elderly population brings along various health problems. Results of this study show that the rate of chronic diseases is very high in elderly individuals. Therefore, pain is one of the most frequently encountered health problems, and it has negative effects on life satisfaction. In conclusion, it is considered that elderly people’s life satisfaction could increase if their pain is identified and reduced effectively.

Keywords: Turkey, Pain, Life Satisfaction, geriatric pain measure

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7 Ultrasound Guided Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Authors: Alireza Pishgahi, Shahla Dareshiri, Kazem Shakouri, Homayoun Sadeghi-bBazargani

Abstract:

Introduction: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome has numerous nonsurgical treatments including splint, physical therapy and corticosteroid injections. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an ultrasound guided treatment procedure, for individuals with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Materials and Method: 20 patients with an electrodiagnostic evidence of severe carpal tunnel syndrome were treated by an office-based ultrasound guided procedure (combination of percutaneous needle release of carpal tunnel and corticosteroid injection). Electrodiagnostic (nerve conduction study), clinical (Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, grip strength) and ultrasonic (median nerve and carpal tunnel cross-sectional area) measurements were recorded at baseline and one month after intervention. Results: Our preliminary data analysis showed that in one month follow up, patients had a significantly smaller cross-sectional area of the median nerve compared to pretreatment values (mean difference 0.06; 95%CI: 0.02-0.1; p < 0.001). In addition, patients had significantly less functional impairment (mean difference 35; 95% CI:28.7-43.4 ; p < 0.001), and an improved hand grip strength in one month follow up (mean difference 5.4; 95%CI: 3.1-7.8; p < 0.001;). There were no significant complications. Conclusion: Patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome, who are candidates for surgical intervention, can consider office-based ultrasound guided needle release of carpal tunnel as an alternative safe treatment.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pain, Carpal tunnel syndrome, needle release

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6 The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care and Swaddling Method on Venipuncture Pain in Premature Infant: Randomized Clinical Trials

Authors: Faezeh Jahanpour, Shahin Dezhdar, Saeedeh Firouz Bakht, Afshin Ostovar

Abstract:

Objective: The hospitalized premature babies often undergo various painful procedures such as venous sampling. The Kangaroo mother care (KMC) method is one of the pain reduction methods, but as mother’s presence is not always possible, this research was done to compare the effect of swaddling and KMC method on venous sampling pain on premature neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 90 premature infants selected and randomly alocated into three groups; Group A (swaddling), Group B (the kangaroo care), and group C (the control). From 10 minutes before blood sampling to 2 minutes after that in group A, the infant was wrapped in a thin sheet, and in group B, the infant was under Kangaroo care. In all three groups, the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation in time intervals of 30 seconds before, during, 30-60-90, and 120 seconds after sampling were measured and recorded. The infant’s face was video recorded since sampling till 2 minutes and the videos were checked by a researcher who was unaware of the kind of intervention and the pain assessment tools for infants (PIPP) for time intervals of 30 seconds were completed. Data analyzed by t-test, Q square, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Post-hoc and Bonferroni test. Results: Findings revealed that the pain was reduced to a great extent in swaddling and kangaroo method compared to that in control group. But there was not a significant difference between kangaroo and swaddling care method (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, the findings showed that the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation was low and stable in swaddling and Kangaroo care method and returned to base status faster, whereas, the changes were severe in control group and did not return to base status even after 120 seconds. Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was not a meaningful difference between swaddling and kangaroo care method on physiological indexes and pain in infants. Therefore, swaddling method can be a good substitute for kangaroo care method in this regard.

Keywords: premature, Pain, Neonate, venipuncture, Kangaroo mother care, swaddling

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5 The Effect of Ice in Pain Control before Digital Nerve Block

Authors: Maryam Bahreini, Fatemeh Rasooli, Atefeh Abdollahi, Behzad Simiari, Pooya Payandemehr, Amir Nejati

Abstract:

Introduction: Pain is a complex physiological reaction to tissue injury. In the course of painful procedures such as nerve block, ice has been shown to be a feasible and inexpensive material to control pain. It delays nerve conduction, actives other senses and reduces inflammatory and painful responses. This study assessed the effect of ice in reducing pain caused by needling and infiltration during digital block. Patient satisfaction recorded as a secondary outcome. Methods: This study was designed as a non-blinded randomized clinical trial approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences Ethical Committee. Informed consent was taken from all the participants who were then randomly divided into two groups. Digital block performed by standard approach in selected patients. Tubes of ice were prepared in gloves and were fragmented at a time of application for circling around the finger. Tubes were applied for 6 minutes before digital nerve block in the site of needling in the case group. Patients in the control group underwent digital nerve block with the conventional method without ice administration. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) used for grading pain. 0 used for no pain and 10 for the worst pain that patient had experienced until now. Scores were analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and compared in case and control groups. Results: 100 patients aged 16-50 years were enrolled. Mean NRS scores with and without ice were 1.5 mm (S.D ± 1.44) and 6.8 mm (S.D ± 1.40) for needling pain and for infiltration pain were 2.7mm ( S.D ±1.65) and 8.5mm ( S.D ± 1.47), respectively (p<0.001). Besides, patients’ satisfactions were significantly higher in the ice group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of ice for 6 minutes significantly reduced pain of needling and infiltration in digital nerve block; thus, it seems to be a feasible and inexpensive material which acts effectively to decrease pain and stress before the procedure.

Keywords: Pain, ice, digital block, needle

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4 Laser Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Joao Paulo Matheus, Renan Fangel

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, systemic and progressive disease that affects the synovial joints bilaterally, causing definitive orthopedic damage. It has a higher prevalence in postmenopausal female patients. It is a disabling disease that causes joint deformities that may compromise the functionality of the affected segment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of low-intensity therapeutic laser on the perception of pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This is a randomized clinical study involving 6 women with a mean age of 56.8+6.3 years. Exclusion criteria: patients with acute pain, chronic infectious disease, underlying acute or chronic underlying disease. An AsGaAl laser with 808nm wavelength, 100mW power, beam output area of 0.028cm2, power density of 3.57W/cm2 was used. The laser was applied at pre-defined points in the interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, totaling 24 points, 2 times a week, for 4 weeks, totaling 8 sessions. The Pain Inventory (IBD) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used for the analysis of pain and for the WHOQOL-bref quality of life assessment. There was no statistical difference between the onset (5.67±2.66) and the final (4.67±3.78) of treatments (p=0.70). There was also no statistical difference between the beginning (5.67±2.66) and the final (4.67±3.78) of the treatments in the VAS analysis (p=0.68). The overall mean quality of life obtained by the questionnaire at the start of treatment was 42.3±7.6, while at the end of treatment it was 58.5±7.6 (p=0.01) and the domains of the questionnaire with significant differences were: psychological domain 42.9±6.8 and 66.7±12.9 (p=0.004), social domain 39.9±5.7 and 68.1±6.3 (p=0,0005) and environmental domain 36.3±7.3 and 56.3±12.5 (p=0.003). It can be concluded that the low-intensity therapeutic laser did not produce significant changes in the painful period of rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, there was an improvement in patients' quality of life in the psychological, social and environmental aspects.

Keywords: Pain, Quality of Life, Laser therapy, Rheumatoid Arthritis

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3 Microglia Activity and Induction of Mechanical Allodynia after Mincle Receptor Ligand Injection in Rat Spinal Cord

Authors: Jihoon Yang, Jeong II Choi

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Mincle is expressed in macrophages and is members of immunoreceptors induced after exposure to various stimuli and stresses. Mincle receptor activation promotes the production of these substances by increasing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines, which play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of such inflammatory pain diseases, have a significant effect on sensory neurons in addition to their enhancement and inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cells as mediators of cell interaction. Glial cells in the central nervous system play a critical role in development and maintenance of chronic pain states. Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and belong to a group of mononuclear phagocytes. In the central nervous system, mincle receptor is present in neurons and glial cells of the brain.This study was performed to identify the Mincle receptor in the spinal cord and to investigate the effect of Mincle receptor activation on nociception and the changes of microglia. Materials and Methods: C-type lectins(Mincle) was identified in spinal cord of Male Sprague–Dawley rats. Then, mincle receptor ligand (TDB), via an intrathecal catheter. Mechanical allodynia was measured using von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of TDB. Result: The present investigation shows that the intrathecal administration of TDB in the rat produces a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, The mechanical hyperalgesia after TDB injection gradually developed over time and remained until 10 days. Mincle receptor is identified in the spinal cord, mainly expressed in neuronal cells, but not in microglia or astrocyte. These results suggest that activation of mincle receptor pathway in neurons plays an important role in inducing activation of microglia and inducing mechanical allodynia.

Keywords: Spinal Cord, Pain, microglia, mincle

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2 Experimental Pain Study Investigating the Distinction between Pain and Relief Reports

Authors: Abeer F. Almarzouki, Christopher A. Brown, Richard J. Brown, Anthony K. P. Jones

Abstract:

Although relief is commonly assumed to be a direct reflection of pain reduction, it seems to be driven by complex emotional interactions in which pain reduction is only one component. For example, termination of a painful/aversive event may be relieving and rewarding. Accordingly, in this study, whether terminating an aversive negative prediction of pain would be reflected in a greater relief experience was investigated, with a view to separating apart the effects of the manipulation on pain and relief. We use aversive conditioning paradigm to investigate the perception of relief in an aversive (threat) vs. positive context. Participants received positive predictors of a non-painful outcome which were presented within either a congruent positive (non-painful) context or an incongruent threat (painful) context that had been previously conditioned; trials followed by identical laser stimuli on both conditions. Participants were asked to rate the perceived intensity of pain as well as their perception of relief in response to the cue predicting the outcome. Results demonstrated that participants reported more pain in the aversive context compared to the positive context. Conversely, participants reported more relief in the aversive context compares to the neutral context. The rating of relief in the threat context was not correlated with pain reports. The results suggest that relief is not dependant on pain intensity. Consistent with this, relief in the threat context was greater than that in the positive expectancy condition, while the opposite pattern was obtained for the pain ratings. The value of relief in this study is better appreciated in the context of an impending negative threat, which is apparent in the higher pain ratings in the prior negative expectancy compared to the positive expectancy condition. Moreover, the more threatening the context (as manifested by higher unpleasantness/higher state anxiety scores), the more the relief is appreciated. The importance of the study highlights the importance of exploring relief and pain intensity in monitoring separately or evaluating pain-related suffering. The results also illustrate that the perception of painful input may largely be shaped by the context and not necessarily stimulus-related.

Keywords: Pain, relief, predictions, aversive context

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1 In vivo Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic Activities of Crataegus Sinaica Methanol Extract

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, A. H. El-Desoky, Gihan F. Asaad

Abstract:

Objective: The research was designed to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Crataegus sinaica methanol extract Methods: The anti-inflammatory were measured by edema rate and inhibition rate using plethysmometer and by determinig PGE2, TNF-ɑ and MPO levels in paw exudate. Both central and peripheral analgesic effect were examined using Writhing test and hot plate test Key Findings: The methanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing paw edema induced by carrageenan; also results showed that anti-inflammatory effect increased by increasing the dose. All dose levels of the extract showed significant reduction in Prostaglandin E2, Tumor necrosis factor-ɑ, and Meyloperoxidase levels. Crataegus sinaica methanol extract showed both peripheral and central analgesic effect. Conclusion: The C. sinaica methanolic extract can be considered a promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic product.

Keywords: Pain, Analgesia, prostaglandins, edema, Crataegus sinaica, hot plate

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