Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 175

Obesity Related Abstracts

175 Physical Fitness Evaluation of Physical Education Teachers in Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Physical Education teacher at the school should have good physical fitness to educate and guide students in the school. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for teachers who teaches physical education at the school. Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of teacher of Physical Education at Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM). A total of 28 samples (18 men and 10 women, age 33 ± 4.91), teachers of physical education at MRSM, were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for teachers of Physical Education is 25.9 ± 4:57. Body mass index (BMI) of teachers can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Body fat percentage for male (age; 34.3 ± 5.13) and female (age; 30.9 ± 3.81) teachers is 24.7% ± 6.54 and 30.6% ± 6.28, respectively. Male teachers were categorized as overfat, however, female teachers were categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 4 and shuttle 2; average VO2max was 27.5 ± 5.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of physical education teachers at MRSM is much lower compared to the rugby junior athlete in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of teachers must be improved to ensure the physical education classes at MRSM could be done better.

Keywords: Obesity, Physical Fitness, BMI, bleep test

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174 The Inhibitory Effect of Weissella koreensis 521 Isolated from Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

Authors: Kibeom Lee, KyungBae Pi, Yongil Kim, Eun-Jung Lee

Abstract:

Abnormal adipocyte growth, in terms of increased cell numbers and increased cell differentiation, is considered to be a major pathological feature of obesity. Thus, the inhibition of preadipocyte mitogenesis and differentiation could help prevent and suppress obesity. The aim of this study was to assess whether extracts from Weissella koreensis 521 cells isolated from kimchi could exert anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells). Differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated with W. koreensis 521 cell extracts (W. koreensis 521_CE), and cell viability was assessed by MTT assays. At concentrations below 0.2 mg/ml, W. koreensis 521_CE did not exert any cytotoxic effect in 3T3-L1 cells. However, treatment with W. koreensis 521_CE significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as assessed by morphological analysis and Oil Red O staining of fat. W. koreensis 521_CE treatment (0.2 mg/ml) also reduced lipid accumulation by 24% in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings collectively indicate that Weissella koreensis 521 may help prevent obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, Weissella koreensis 521, adipocyte differentiation

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173 The Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Impaired Reproductive Function According to Astana, Kazakhstan

Authors: A. T. Nakysh, A. S. Idrisov, S. A. Baidurin

Abstract:

This work presents the results of a study the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with impaired reproductive function (IRF) according to the data of Astana, Kazakhstan. The anthropometric, biochemical and instrumental studies were conducted among 515 women, of which 53 patients with MetS according to IDF criteria, 2006, were selected. The frequency of occurrence of the IRF, due to MetS – 10.3% of cases according to the data of Astana. In women of childbearing age with IRF and the MetS, blood pressure (BP), indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were significantly higher and the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly lower compared to the same in women with the IRF without MetS. The hyperandrogenism, the hyperestrogenemia, the hyperprolactinemia and the hypoprogesteronemia were found in the patients with MetS and IRF, indicating the impact of MetS on the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome in 28% of cases and hyperplastic processes of the myometrium in 20% of cases.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, reproductive disorders

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172 Impact of Obesity on Fertility in a Population of Women in the Wilaya of Batna

Authors: M. Yahia, S. Benbia, A. Chennaf, W. Bouafia, D. Khellaf

Abstract:

Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters (CH, TG, HDL, GOT, GPT, LDL, and CRP), obese women infertile fertile witnesses and research potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work was focused on a population of 24 obese women infertile, compared to controls, subjects without any pathology causing disruption of parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in serum CH, TG, HDL, TGO and TGP (P < 0.0001) and in the rate of LDL (p = 0.0017) and CRP (p = 0.02). The hormonal balance also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001).The present study indicates that obesity is associated with infertility, but there is no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has not been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: Biochemical, Obesity, Women, infertility, Fertility

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171 Comparative Study of Serum Lipid Profile of Obese and Non-Obese Students of Al-Jouf University

Authors: Mohammad Najmuddin Khan, Mohamad Khaleel Albalwi

Abstract:

The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in past several decades. Hormonal and genetic factors are rarely the cause of childhood obesity. Because obese adult may suffer life-long physical and emotional consequences, it is imperative to discuss prevention with parents during well-child examinations. Purpose of the study was to compare the serum lipid profile of obese and non-obese males. Twenty two male students were selected from Al-Jouf University. Their age ranged from 19 to 29. They were divided into groups. One group (N=15) having more than 20% fat was considered as obese group, another group (N=7) was considered as non-obese group. Fasting blood samples were analysed for blood cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Independent test was applied to compare mean difference. In obese group, significantly higher cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. On the contrary, obese group had significantly lower HDL-C concentration than the non-obese group. The adult obese has relatively larger changes in serum lipids at any given level of obesity. On the average, higher amount of fat makes it more likely for an individual to be dyslipidemic and to express elements of the metabolic syndrome. Increased triglycerides level in obese impaired lipolysis which reduced the HDL-C concentrations.

Keywords: Obesity, serum lipid profile, Al-Jouf, HDL, LDL

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170 Predictors of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Obese Adolescents

Authors: Moushira Zaki, Wafaa Ezzat, Yasser Elhosary, Omnia Saleh

Abstract:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in conjunction with obesity. The accuracy of risk factors for detecting NAFLD in obese adolescents has not undergone a formal evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of NAFLD among Egyptian female obese adolescents. The study included 162 obese female adolescents. All were subjected to anthropometry, biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasongraphic assessment. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to the IDF criteria. Significant association between presence of MS and NAFLD was observed. Obese adolescents with NAFLD had significantly higher levels of ALT, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, whereas decreased HDL-C levels as compared with obese cases without NAFLD. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that ALT is a sensitive predictor for NAFLD, confirming that ALT can be used as a marker of NAFLD.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, Risk Factors, Prevalence, NAFLD, predictors, Egyptians

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169 Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sexual Dysfunction in Primary Obesity through an Observational Study

Authors: Aravind Bagade Shankaranarayana, Parampalli Geetha, Pallavi Gupta

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Objective: This study intends to evaluate sexual dysfunction qualitatively and quantitatively in males suffering from primary obesity through a single centered, observational study. Design and Methods: Sexual function of 33 obese males from the outpatient department of the hospital was assessed using IIEF questionnaire and semen analysis and the results were assessed for statistical significance. Results: A varying degree of sexual dysfunction was observed in four out of five areas of sexual functioning viz. erectile function (p<0.02), orgasmic function (p<0.02), sexual desire (p<0.08) and overall satisfaction (p<0.000) in obese individuals. Statistically significant dysfunction was not observed in intercourse satisfaction. Semen analysis was normal in 19 individuals (63.3%) and abnormal in 11 individuals (36.7%), with statistically insignificant p value 0.144, suggesting mild to moderate variation in semen parameters. Conclusions: Varying degree of sexual dysfunction is present in obese males, suggesting that obesity has a possible role in reducing the quality of sexual functioning in males as indicated in the classical Ayurvedic literature.

Keywords: Obesity, erectile dysfunction, krucchra vyavaya, sthoulya

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168 Circulating Oxidized LDL and Insulin Resistance among Obese School Students

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Mones M. Abu Shady, Rokia A. El Banna, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar

Abstract:

Circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adults. Little is known about relations in children. Aim: To assess association of ox-LDL with fat distribution and insulin resistance in a group of obese Egyptian children. Methods: Study is cross-sectional consisting of 68 obese children, with a mean age of 9.96 ± 1.32. Each underwent a complete physical examination; blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI; waist, hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio), biochemical tests of fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin levels; lipid profile (TC, LDL,HDL, TG) and ox-LDL; calculated HOMA. Sample was classified according to waist/hip ratio into: group I with and group II without central obesity. Results: ox-LDL showed significant positive correlation with LDL and TC in all groups of obesity. After adjustment for age and sex, significant positive correlation was detected between ox-LDL with SBP, DBP, TC, LDL, insulin, and HOMA in group II and with TC and FBS in group I. Insignificant association was detected between ox-LDL and other anthropometric parameters including BMI in any group of obese children (p > 0.05). Conclusions: ox-LDL, as a marker of oxidative stress is not correlated with BMI among all studied obese children (aged 6-12 years). Increased oxidative stress has causal effects on insulin resistance in obese children without central obesity and on fasting blood sugar in those with central obesity. These findings emphasize the importance of obesity during childhood and suggest that the metabolic complications of obesity and body fat distribution are detectable early in life.

Keywords: Obesity, Children, insulin resistance, ox-LDL

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167 Possible Modulation of FAS and PTP-1B Signaling in Ameliorative Potential of Bombax ceiba against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity

Authors: Rohit Goyal, Paras Gupta, Yamini Chauhan, Pyare Lal Sharma

Abstract:

Background: Bombax ceiba Linn., commonly called as Semal, is used in various gastro-intestinal disturbances. It contains lupeol which inhibits PTP-1B, adipogenesis, TG synthesis and accumulation of lipids in adipocytes and adipokines whereas the flavonoids isolated from B. ceiba has FAS inhibitory activity. The present study was aimed to investigate ameliorative potential of Bombax ceiba to experimental obesity in Wistar rats, and its possible mechanism of action. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 180–220 g were employed in present study. Experimental obesity was induced by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Methanolic extract of B. ceiba extract 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and Gemfibrozil 50 mg/kg as standard drug were given orally from 7th to 10th week. Results: Induction with HFD for 10 weeks caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in % body wt, BMI, LEE indices; serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, free fatty acid, ALT, AST; tissue TBARS, nitrate/nitrite levels; different fat pads and relative liver weight; and significant decrease in food intake (g and kcal), serum HDL and tissue glutathione levels in HFD control rats. Treatment with B. ceiba extract and Gemfibrozil significantly attenuated these HFD induced changes, as compared to HFD control. The effect of B. ceiba 200 and 400 mg/kg was more pronounced in comparison to Gemfibrozil. Conclusion: On the basis of results obtained, it may be concluded that the methanolic extract of stem bark of Bombax ceiba has significant ameliorative potential against HFD induced obesity in rats, possibly through modulation of FAS and PTP-1B signaling due to the presence of flavonoids and lupeol.

Keywords: Obesity, Bombax ceiba, free fatty acid, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, fatty acid synthase

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166 Public Policy for Quality School Lunch Development in Thailand

Authors: W. Kongnoo, J. Loysongkroa, S. Chotivichien, N. Viriyautsahakul, N. Saiwongse

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Obesity, stunting and wasting problems among Thai school-aged children are increasing due to inappropriate food consumption behavior and poor environments for desirable nutritional behavior. Because of a low school lunch budget of only 0.40 USD per person per day, food quality is not up to nutritional standards. Therefore, the Health Department with the Education Ministry and the Thai Health Promotion Foundation have developed a quality school lunch project during 2009–2013. The program objectives were development and management of public policy to increase school lunch budget. The methods used a healthy public policy motivation process and movement in 241 local administrative organizations and 538 schools. The problem and solution research was organized to study school food and nutrition management, create a best practice policy mobilization model and hold a public hearing to motivate an increase of school meal funding. The results showed that local public policy has been motivated during 2009-2011 to increase school meal budget using local budgets. School children with best food consumption behavior and exercise increased from 13.2% in 2009 to 51.6% in 2013 and stunting decreased from 6.0% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2013. As the result of national policy motivation (2012-2013), the cabinet meeting on October 22, 2013 has approved an increase of school lunch budget from 0.40 USD to 0.62 USD per person per day. Thus, 5,800,469 school children nationwide have benefited from the budget increase.

Keywords: Public Policy, Obesity, Thailand, quality school lunch

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165 Body Composition Response to Lower Body Positive Pressure Training in Obese Children

Authors: Basant H. El-Refay, Nabeel T. Faiad

Abstract:

Background: The high prevalence of obesity in Egypt has a great impact on the health care system, economic and social situation. Evidence suggests that even a moderate amount of weight loss can be useful. Aim of the study: To analyze the effects of lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training, conducted with hypocaloric diet, on body composition of obese children. Methods: Thirty children aged between 8 and 14 years, were randomly assigned into two groups: intervention group (15 children) and control group (15 children). All of them were evaluated using body composition analysis through bioelectric impedance. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention: body mass, body fat mass, muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat and basal metabolic rate (BMR). The study group exercised with antigravity treadmill three times a week during 2 months, and participated in a hypocaloric diet program. The control group participated in a hypocaloric diet program only. Results: Both groups showed significant reduction in body mass, body fat mass and BMI. Only study group showed significant reduction in percentage of body fat (p = 0.0.043). Changes in muscle mass and BMR didn't reach statistical significance in both groups. No significant differences were observed between groups except for muscle mass (p = 0.049) and BMR (p = 0.042) favoring study group. Conclusion: Both programs proved effective in the reduction of obesity indicators, but lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training was more effective in improving muscle mass and BMR.

Keywords: Obesity, Children, hypocaloric diet, lower body positive pressure supported treadmill

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164 Association of Selected Biochemical Markers and Body Mass Index in Women with Endocrine Disorders

Authors: M. Mydlárová Blaščáková, J. Bernasovská, J. Poráčová, I. Boroňová

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Obesity is frequent attendant phenomenon of patients with endocrinological disease. Between BMI and endocrinological diseases is close correlation. In thesis we focused on the allocation of hormone concentration – PTH and TSH, CHOL a mineral element Ca in a blood serum. The examined group was formed by 100 respondents (women) aged 36 – 83 years, who were divided into two groups – control group (CG), group with diagnosed endocrine disease (DED). The concentration of PTH and TSH, Ca and CHOL was measured through the medium of analyzers Cobas e411 (Japan); Cobas Integra 400 (Switzerland). At individuals was measured body weight as well as stature and thereupon from those data we enumerated BMI. On the basis of Student T-test in biochemical parameter of PTH and Ca we found out significantly meaningful difference (p<0,05) between CG and DED. In CG we made a founding the association between BMI and PTH by means of correlation analysis.

Keywords: Obesity, Women, Hormones, biochemical markers

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163 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: Obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome, Bariatric surgery, infertility

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162 Impact of Obesity on Female Fertility

Authors: M. Yahia, A. Chennai, H. Boussenan

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Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters such as (CH, TG, HDL, TGO, TGP, LDL, and CRP), hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, TSH, and leptin), in women who suffer from over weight and fertile controls as well as the research for potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work has been focused on a population of 24 over weight infertile women, compared to control subjects without any pathology causing disturbance parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in the serum levels of CH, TG, HDL, and TGO TGP (P <0.0001) as well as the rate of LDL (p=0.0017) and CRP (p=0.02). Hormonal profile also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.0001) for LH and leptin but no difference was found for serum TSH. A significant correlation between leptin and FSH, LH, and FSH, age and LH, PRL and age and between HDL and CRP. The present study suggests that obesity is associated with infertility, but no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has been determined. More in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: Biochemical, Obesity, Fertility, Hormones, pathophysiological

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161 Association of Genetic Variants of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene with the Metabolic Syndrome in the Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Bernard M. Y. Cheung, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja

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Background: Association of C allele of rs662799 SNP of APOA5 gene with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported in different populations around the world. A case control study was conducted to explore the relationship of rs662799 variants (T/C) with the MetS and the associated risk phenotypes in a population of Pakistani origin. Methods: MetS was defined according to the IDF criteria. Blood samples were collected from the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan for biochemical profiling and DNA extraction. Genotyping of rs662799 was performed using mass ARRAY, iPEX Gold technology. A total of 712 unrelated case and control subjects were genotyped. Data were analyzed using Plink software and SPSS 16.0. Results: The risk allele C of rs662799 showed highly significant association with MetS (OR=1.5, Ρ=0.002). Among risk phenotypes, dyslipidemia, and obesity showed strong association with SNP (OR=1.49, p=0.03; OR =1.46, p=0.01) respectively in models adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion: The rs662799C allele is a significant risk marker for MetS in the local Pakistani population studied. The effect of the SNP is more on dyslipidemia than the other components of the MetS.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Dyslipidemia, APOA5, rs662799

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160 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: Obesity, Breast Cancer, Overweight, review study

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159 The Endocrinology of Obesity and Dejenerative Joint Disease

Authors: Kebret Kebede, Anthony Scinta

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Obesity is the most prevalent global problem that continues to rise at alarming rates both in the industrialized and developing countries. Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue that secretes numerous chemical signals, hormones, lipids, cytokines and coagulation factors as well as prompting insulin resistance which is a primary contributor to Type II Diabetes- one of its most common adverse effects on health. Other hormones whose levels are linked to obesity and nutritional state are leptin, IGF-1, and adiponectin. Several studies indicate that obesity is the leading cause of high levels of cholesterol that leads to fatty liver disease, gallstones, hypertension, increased risk for cancer and degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the weight bearing joints of the lower extremities. The activation of inflammatory pathways promotes synovial pathology that results in accelerated degeneration of the joints. The study examines the prevalence of obesity in the US female population in comparison to that of the developing world and its emergence as a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in degenerative disease of the hip and knee joints that has resulted in staggering healthcare cost. Studies have shown that as the prevalence of obesity rises, we continue to see a rise in degenerative joint disease. The percentage of arthritis cases linked directly to obesity has risen from 3 percent in 1971 to 18 percent in 2002. A person with obesity is around 60 percent more likely to develop arthritis than someone of normal body weight. In women, obesity is associated with increased mortality from breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer that may accompany debilitating joint diseases and restricted mobility.

Keywords: Mobility, Cancer, Endocrine, Obesity, Mortality, degenerative, joint diseases, debilitating

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158 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Mehwish Azam, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim

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Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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157 Dietary Modification and Its Effects in Overweight or Obese Saudi Women with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Dara A. Al-Disi, Asim Al-Fadda, Mohamed Al-Seif, Gyanendra Tripathi, A. L. Harte, Philip G. Mcternan

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For the last few decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is increasing alarmingly high and is unprecedented at 31.6 %. Preventive measures should be taken to curb down the increasing incidence. In this prospective, 3-month study, we aimed to determine whether dietary modification program would confer favorable affects among overweight and obese adult Saudi women with or without T2DM. A total of 92 Saudi women [18 healthy controls, 24 overweight subjects and 50 overweight or obese patients with early onset T2DM were included in this prospective study. Baseline anthropometrics and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 3 months. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured routinely. A 500 Kcal deficit energy diet less than their daily recommended dietary allowances were prescribed to all participants. After 3 months of follow-up visit, significant improvements were observed in both the overweight and DMT2 group as compared to baseline with decreased mean BMI [Overweight Group 28.54±1.49 versus 27.95±2.25, p<0.05; DMT2 group 35.24±7.67 versus 35.04±8.07, p<0.05] and hip circumference [Overweight group 109.67±5.01 versus 108.07±4.07, p<0.05; DMT2 group 112.3±13.43 versus 109.21±12.71, p<0.01]. Moreover, in the overweight group, baseline HDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with protein intake and inversely associated with carbohydrate intake in controls. In the DMT2 group, carbohydrate intake at baseline was significantly associated with BMI. A 3-month 500kcal/day deficit dietary modification alone is probably effective among adult overweight or obese Saudi females without or with T2DM. Longer prospective studies are to determine whether the dietary intervention alone can reduce progression of T2DM among high-risk adult Arabs.

Keywords: Obesity, diet, lipid, T2DM

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156 A Comparison of Three Protocols Weight-Loss Interventions for Obese Females

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia El-Banna, Mohamed S. El Hussieny

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There are several different modalities for treatment of obesity. Common intervention methods for obesity include low-calorie diet, exercise. Also acupuncture has shown good therapeutic results in the treatment of obesity. A recent clinical observation showed that laser acupuncture could reduce body weight and body mass index in obese persons. So, the aim of this research is focused on body composition changes as related to type of intervention, before and after intentional weight loss in overweight and obesity. 76 subjects were included in the study analysis. The present study recommended that every obese female must do lipid profile and fasting blood sugar analysis before weight-loss intervention to take the decision of which method should be used.

Keywords: Obesity, modalities, Body Composition, weight-loss

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155 Childhood Obesity: Future Direction and Education Priorities

Authors: Zahra Ranjbar

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Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific variables, which define a problem or an issue. In this study most important variables that have critical role in children obesity problem were introduce by ISM questionnaire technique and their relationships were determine. Our findings suggested that sedentary activities are top level variables and school teachers and administrators, public education and scientific collaborations are bottom level variables in children obesity problem. Control of dietary, Physical education program, parents, government and motivation strategies variables are depend to other variables. They are very sensitive to external variables. Also, physical education program, parents, government, motivation, school teachers and administrators, public education and collaboration variables have strong driving power. They are linkage factors; it means that they can be effective on children obesity problem directly.

Keywords: Physical Education, Obesity, Children, ISM, variable

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154 Diagnosis and Management of Obesity Among South Asians: A Paradigm

Authors: Deepa Vasudevan, Thomas Northrup, Angela Stotts, Michelle Klawans

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To date, we have conducted three studies on this subject. The research done to date is through three studies. The initial study was to document that modified criteria independently identified higher numbers of overweight/obese South Asian Indians. The second study was to document physician knowledge of appropriate diagnosis of obesity among South Asian Indians. The final study was an intervention to evaluate the efficacy of a training module on improving physician diagnosis and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients.

Keywords: Obesity, South Asian Indians, physicians, BMI and waist circumference

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153 The M Health Paradigm for the Chronic Care Management of Obesity: New Opportunities in Clinical Psychology and Medicine

Authors: Gianluca Castelnuovo, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Giada Pietrabissa, Stefania Corti, Emanuele Giusti, Roberto Cattivelli, Enrico Molinari, Susan Simpson

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Obesity is currently an important public health problem of epidemic proportions (globesity). Moreover Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is typically connected with obesity, even if not occurring exclusively in conjunction with overweight conditions. Typically obesity with BED requires a longer term treatment in comparison with simple obesity. Rehabilitation interventions that aim at improving weight-loss, reducing obesity-related complications and changing dysfunctional behaviors, should ideally be carried out in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of psychologists, dieticians, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, nutritionists, physiotherapists, etc. Long-term outpatient multidisciplinary treatments are likely to constitute an essential aspect of rehabilitation, due to the growing costs of a limited inpatient approach. Internet-based technologies can improve long-term obesity rehabilitation within a collaborative approach. The new m health (m-health, mobile health) paradigm, defined as clinical practices supported by up to date mobile communication devices, could increase compliance- engagement and contribute to a significant cost reduction in BED and obesity rehabilitation. Five psychological components need to be considered for successful m Health-based obesity rehabilitation in order to facilitate weight-loss.1) Self-monitoring. Portable body monitors, pedometers and smartphones are mobile and, therefore, can be easily used, resulting in continuous self-monitoring. 2) Counselor feedback and communication. A functional approach is to provide online weight-loss interventions with brief weekly or monthly counselor or psychologist visits. 3) Social support. A group treatment format is typically preferred for behavioral weight-loss interventions. 4) Structured program. Technology-based weight-loss programs incorporate principles of behavior therapy and change with structured weekly protocolos including nutrition, exercise, stimulus control, self-regulation strategies, goal-setting. 5) Individually tailored program. Interventions specifically designed around individual’s goals typically record higher rates of adherence and weight loss. Opportunities and limitations of m health approach in clinical psychology for obesity and BED are discussed, taking into account future research directions in this promising area.

Keywords: Clinical Psychology, Rehabilitation, Obesity, Psychotherapy, New Technologies, Tele Medicine, out-patient, tele care, m health, chronic care management

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152 Osteoporosis and Weight Gain – Two Major Concerns for Menopausal Women - a Physiotherapy Perspective

Authors: Renu Pattanshetty

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The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the impact of menopause on osteoporosis and weight gain. The review also aims to summarize physiotherapeutic strategies to combat the same.A thorough literature search was conducted using electronic databases like MEDline, PUBmed, Highwire Press, PUBmed Central for English language studies that included search terms like menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies from the year 2000 till date. Out of 157 studies that included metanalyses, critical reviews and randomized clinical trials, a total of 84 were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of obesity is increasing world - wide and is reaching epidemic proportions even in the menopausal women. Prevalence of abdominal obesity is almost double than that general obesity with rates in the US with 65.5% in women ages 40-59 years and 73.8 in women aged 60 years or more. Physical activities and exercises play a vital role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and weight gain related to menopause that aim to boost the general well-being and any symptoms brought about by natural body changes. Endurance exercises lasting about 30 minutes /day for 5 days/ week has shown to decrease weight and prevent weight gain. In addition, strength training with at least 8 exercises of 8-12 repetitions working for whole body and for large muscle groups has shown to result positive outcomes. Hot flashes can be combatted through yogic breathing and relaxation exercises. Prevention of fall strategies and resistance training are key to treat diagnosed cases of osteoporosis related to menopause. One to three sets with five to eight repetitions of four to six weight bearing exercises have shown positive results. Menopause marks an important time for women to evaluate their risk of obesity and osteoporosis. It is known fact that bone benefit from exercises are lost when training is stopped, hence, practicing bone smart habits and strict adherence to recommended physical activity programs are recommended which are enjoyable, safe and effective.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Physical Activity, Obesity, Menopause, exercises, weight gain, physiotherapy strategies

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151 Low Density Lipoprotein: The Culprit in the Development of Obesity

Authors: Ojiegbe Ikenna Nathan

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it leads to reduced life expectancy and or increased health problems. Obesity as a worldwide problem is seen clustered in the families and it moves from generation to generation. It causes some disabilities, mortality and morbidity if left unattended to. The predisposing factors to obesity are either genetic or environment in origin. Nevertheless, the main predisposing factor to obesity is the excessive consumption of food rich in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) such as organ meats, saturated fats etc. This low-density lipoprotein causes an increase in adipose tissue and complicates to obesity. There are varieties of obesity which one needs to take appropriate measures to avoid; such as android, gynoid and morbid obesity. Nonetheless, studies have shown that there is hope for the obese individuals, despite the cause, type and degree of their obesity. This is through the use of the different available treatment measures which increase in physical activities, caloric restrictions, drug therapy and surgical intervention.

Keywords: Obesity, lipoprotein, low-density, culprit

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150 Correlations between Obesity Indices and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Subgroups in Severely Obese Women

Authors: Seung Hun Lee, Sang Yeoup Lee

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Objectives: To investigate associations between degrees of obesity using correlations between obesity indices and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: BMI, waist circumference (WC), fasting insulin, fasting glucose, lipids, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area using computed tomographic images were measured in 113 obese female without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Correlations between obesity indices and cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed in obese subgroups defined using sequential obesity indices. Results: Mean BMI and WC were 29.6 kg/m2 and 92.8 cm. BMI showed significant correlations with all five cardiometabolic risk factors until the BMI cut-off point reached 27 kg/m2, but when it exceeded 30 kg/m2, correlations no longer existed. WC was significantly correlated with all five cardiometabolic risk factors up to a value of 85 cm, but when WC exceeded 90 cm, correlations no longer existed. Conclusions: Our data suggest that moderate weight-loss goals may not be enough to ameliorate cardiometabolic markers in severely obese patients. Therefore, individualized weight-loss goals should be recommended to such patients to improve health benefits.

Keywords: Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, correlation, Risk Factors

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149 Mirna Expression Profile is Different in Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Obese Respect to Normal Weight Women

Authors: Carmela Nardelli, Laura Iaffaldano, Valentina Capobianco, Antonietta Tafuto, Maddalena Ferrigno, Angela Capone, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Maddalena Raia, Rosa Di Noto, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Lucio Pastore, Lucia Sacchetti

Abstract:

Maternal obesity and nutrient excess in utero increase the risk of future metabolic diseases in the adult life. The mechanisms underlying this process are probably based on genetic, epigenetic alterations and changes in foetal nutrient supply. In mammals, the placenta is the main interface between foetus and mother, it regulates intrauterine development, modulates adaptive responses to sub optimal in uterus conditions and it is also an important source of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs). We previously highlighted a specific microRNA (miRNA) profiling in amnion from obese (Ob) pregnant women, here we compared the miRNA expression profile of hA-MSCs isolated from (Ob) and control (Co) women, aimed to search for any alterations in metabolic pathways that could predispose the new-born to the obese phenotype. Methods: We isolated, at delivery, hA-MSCs from amnion of 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women with pre-pregnancy body mass index (mean/SEM) 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Globally, 384 miRNAs were evaluated by the TaqMan Array Human MicroRNA Panel v 1.0 (Applied Biosystems). By the TargetScan program we selected the target genes of the miRNAs differently expressed in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs; further, by KEGG database, we selected the statistical significant biological pathways. Results: The immunophenotype characterization confirmed the mesenchymal origin of the isolated hA-MSCs. A large percentage of the tested miRNAs, about 61.4% (232/378), was expressed in hA-MSCs, whereas 38.6% (146/378) was not. Most of the expressed miRNAs (89.2%, 207/232) did not differ between Ob- and Co-hA-MSCs and were not further investigated. Conversely, 4.8% of miRNAs (11/232) was higher and 6.0% (14/232) was lower in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs. Interestingly, 7/232 miRNAs were obesity-specific, being expressed only in hA-MSCs isolated from obese women. Bioinformatics showed that these miRNAs significantly regulated (P<0.001) genes belonging to several metabolic pathways, i.e. MAPK signalling, actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, axon guidance, insulin signaling, etc. Conclusions: Our preliminary data highlight an altered miRNA profile in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs and suggest that an epigenetic miRNA-based mechanism of gene regulation could affect pathways involved in placental growth and function, thereby potentially increasing the newborn’s risk of metabolic diseases in the adult life.

Keywords: Obesity, biosystem, miRNA, hA-MSCs

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148 Hypertension and Obesity: A Cross-National Comparison of BMI and Waist-Height Ratio

Authors: Adam M. Yates, Julie E. Byles

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Hypertension has been identified as a prominent co-morbidity of obesity. To improve clinical intervention of hypertension, it is critical to identify metrics that most accurately reflect risk for increased morbidity. Two of the most relevant and accurate measures for increased risk of hypertension due to excess adipose tissue are Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-Height Ratio (WHtR). Previous research has examined these measures in cross-national and cross-ethnic studies, but has most often relied on secondary means such as meta-analysis to identify and evaluate the efficacy of individual body mass measures. In this study, we instead use cross-sectional analysis to assess the cross-ethnic discriminative power of BMI and WHtR to predict risk of hypertension. Using the WHO SAGE survey, which collected anthropometric and biometric data from respondents in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa), we implement logistic regression to examine the discriminative power of measured BMI and WHtR with a known population of hypertensive and non-hypertensive respondents. We control for gender and age to identify whether optimum cut-off points that are adequately sensitive as tests for risk of hypertension may be different between groups. We report results for OR, RR, and ROC curves for each of the six SAGE countries. As seen in existing literature, results demonstrate that both WHtR and BMI are significant predictors of hypertension (p < .01). For these six countries, we find that cut-off points for WHtR may be dependent upon gender, age and ethnicity. While an optimum omnibus cut-point for WHtR may be 0.55, results also suggest that the gender and age relationship with WHtR may warrant the development of individual cut-offs to optimize health outcomes. Trends through multiple countries show that the optimum cut-point for WHtR increases with age while the area under the curve (AUROC) decreases for both men and women. Comparison between BMI and WHtR indicate that BMI may remain more robust than WHtR. Implications for public health policy are discussed.

Keywords: Obesity, Hypertension, SAGE, Waist-Height ratio

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147 Sports and Exercise Medicine: A Public Health Tool in Combating and Preventing the Side Effects of a Sedentary Lifestyle

Authors: Shireen Ibish

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Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets have contributed to a global burden of disease with increased relation to non-communicable diseases, increased risk of colon and breast cancer, high prevalence of depression, reduced quality of life and early death. The World Health Organisation’s facts on Obesity show a tripling in prevalence across the European Region since the 1980s. This has lead to a huge public health burden, being responsible for and 10-13% of deaths (fourth largest cause of global mortality) and 2-8% of health costs in the Region. In the UK alone, the present cost of physical inactivity has been estimated to be £8.2 billion. In 2002 a paper published in the International Journal of Epidemiology on ‘sedentary’ lifestyle, put into figures the increasingly worrying statistics across European countries. “Percentages of sedentary lifestyles across European countries ranged between 43.3% (Sweden) and 87.8% (Portugal)”. This was especially so amongst obese subjects, less- educated people, and smokers. While in the UK’s “50% of adult population in the UK is predicted to be obese by 2050.” Sports and Exercise Medicine, as a specialty, has a lot to offer in targeting this globally increasing epidemic. The worrying figures and the increasing knowledge of combating and preventing this issue have lead to increased awareness amongst the medical profession and more targeted interventions to reduce the burden of disease. “The public health element of the specialty is critical – this is not simply a specialty for the management of elite athletes’ medical conditions – it is central to the promotion of exercise as a means of disease prevention, to enhance well-being and in the management of disease.” WHO advised on creating National policies, encouraging and providing opportunities for greater physical activity, and improve the affordability, availability and accessibility of healthy foods. In the UK various different movements have been established to target this problem. The Motivate2Move, Move Eat Treat and guidelines advising specialties on targeting and encouraging exercise in the population (Sport and Exercise Medicine A Fresh Approach).

Keywords: Medicine, Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, public health burden

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146 Behavior and Obesity: The Perception of Healthcare Professionals Concerning the Role of Behavior on Obesity

Authors: Saeed Wahass

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Objective: Obesity is epidemic, affecting all societies and cultures. Most serious medical illnesses are attributed to obesity. For this reason, all healthcare systems worldwide have focused on obesity for both intervention and prevention. However, there is scientific evidence supporting that obesity is treatable through implementing different modalities of interventions. They include biological interventions like medications and bariatric surgeries and behavioral interventions. It seems healthcare professionals may suggest the quick and the easiest interventions for obesity like surgery, ignoring other modesties that might require efforts from their sides and patients as well. Searching on the onset, progression and prevention, behavior plays a major role. As a result, psychological interventions have become increasingly core for intervention and prevention of obesity. They are effective and cost effective in dealing with obesity. Methods: A questionnaire describing the role of behavior on obesity and the way it can be prevented and treated was distributed to a group of health professionals who are dealing with obesity e.g. bariatric surgeons, bariatric physicians, psychologists, health educators, nurses and social workers. Results: 88% of healthcare professionals believed that behavior plays a major role on the onset and progression of obesity, 95% of them recognized that obesity can be prevented with consideration for behavior factors. A major proportion (87%) of the respondents see that psychological interventions are effective and cost effective in treating obesity. Conclusions: It optimistically appears that the majority of healthcare professionals believe that behavior is a key component in understanding, preventing and treating obesity. This outcome may help in developing specific training courses for healthcare professionals, who are dealing with obesity concerning the way they can treat patients behaviorally and, moreover, educating the community.

Keywords: Obesity, Behavior, Psychological Interventions, healthcare provider

Procedia PDF Downloads 344