Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1323

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nutrition and Food Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1323 Trends and Priorities for the Fishing Sector in the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Mihaela Munteanu Pila

Abstract:

Abstract The Republic of Moldova has a high potential for commercial growth of fish, due to its rich natural resources. Every year, national actions are implemented for the development and improvement of wetlands through acclimatization of hydrobionts, cleaning of adjacent waste areas and repopulation with valuable fish species. Due to aggressive environmental factors, anthropogenic factors, poaching or insufficient financial resources allocated to the authorities, there is a strong degradation of aquatic resources in the area. The main issue of the study is to identify priority areas for the development of fish farming in the area and maintain potential reserves to increase the efficiency of fish production in the pond. The rational operation of pond-type reservoirs will make it possible to maintain the breeding base of many fish species and will in future become a valuable source of local marketable products, in order to increase the productivity of fish in ponds and exploit the region's resources. The research looked at the problems that led to a decline in local fish production and identified a number of long-term measures needed to develop aquaculture.

Keywords:

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1322 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer

Abstract:

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, microwave drying, eggplant, Drying Rate, drying efficiency

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1321 Determination of Chemical Contaminants in UHT Milk Consumed in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: Fatima Mohamed, Adem Rama, Rabiha Seboussi, Mahmoud Muhamadin, Sultan Alzarooni, Khuloud Al Ali

Abstract:

To assess public health hazards associated with the occurrence of Antibiotics and AFM1 residues in UHT milk, a survey was carried out in Sharjah, UAE. In the present study, a total of 42 UHT milk samples analyzed were from different commercial brands manufactured in industrial dairy units in the UAE and from foreign producers. Milk samples were collected for four months (January to April 2020). The occurrence and concentration range of Antibiotics (Streptomycin and Gentamycin) and AFM1 in the samples were investigated by applying the ELISA method. According to the methodology used in this study, in total, 2 (5%) out of 42(95%) samples tested positive on the presence of AFM1. While, 1(2.4%) out of 41(97.6%) positive samples were found to contain Streptomycin and Gentamycin, respectively. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the UHT milk samples ranged from 58.8 to 1074 µg/L, for Streptomycin from up to 1004 µg/L, and Gentamycin up to 6909 µg/L. There were no positive samples found in locally produced UHT milk. AFM1 and antibiotic levels in positive samples UHT milk samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limits as set by the European Union - EC guidelines/standards. These levels in the samples show a presence of contaminants that might constitute a human health risk in Sharjah. The results of this study imply that more emphasis should be given to the routine inspection of milk and dairy products in the Sharjah region.

Keywords: Public Health, Milk, ELISA, Sharjah, contaminant residues

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1320 Physical Property Characterization of Adult Dairy Nutritional Products for Powder Reconstitution

Authors: Wei Wang, Martin Chen

Abstract:

The reconstitution behaviours of nutritional products could impact user experience. Reconstitution issues such as lump formation and white flecks sticking to bottles surfaces could be very unappealing for the consumers in milk preparation. The controlling steps in dissolving instant milk powders include wetting, swelling, sinking, dispersing, and dissolution as in the literature. Each stage happens simultaneously with the others during milk preparation, and it is challenging to isolate and measure each step individually. This study characterized three adult nutritional products for different properties including particle size, density, dispersibility, stickiness, and capillary wetting to understand the relationship between powder physical properties and their reconstitution behaviours. From the results, the formation of clumps can be caused by different factors limiting the critical steps of powder reconstitution. It can be caused by small particle size distribution, light particle density limiting powder wetting, or the rapid swelling and dissolving of particle surface materials to impede water penetration in the capillary channels formed by powder agglomerates. For the grain or white flecks formation in milk preparation, it was believed to be controlled by dissolution speed of the particles after dispersion into water. By understanding those relationship between fundamental powder structure and their user experience in reconstitution, this information provides us new and multiple perspectives on how to improve the powder characteristics in the commercial manufacturing.

Keywords: Characterization, reconstitution, physical property, dairy nutritional powder

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1319 Objective vs. Perceived Quality in the Cereal Industry

Authors: Albena Ivanova, Jill Kurp, Austin Hampe

Abstract:

Cereal products in the US contain rich information on the front of the package (FOP) as well as point-of-purchase (POP) summaries provided by the store. These summaries frequently are confusing and misleading to the consumer. This study explores the relationship between perceived quality, objective quality, price, and value in the cold cereal industry. A total of 270 cold cereal products were analyzed and the price, quality and value for different summaries were compared using ANOVA tests. The results provide evidence that the United States Department of Agriculture Organic FOP/POP are related to higher objective quality, higher price, but not to a higher value. Whole grain FOP/POP related to a higher objective quality, lower or similar price, and higher value. Heart-healthy POP related to higher objective quality, similar price, and higher value. Gluten-free FOP/POP related to lower objective quality, higher price, and lower value. Kid's cereals were of lower objective quality, same price, and lower value compared to family and adult markets. The findings point to a disturbing tendency of companies to continue to produce lower quality products for the kids’ market, pricing them the same as high-quality products. The paper outlines strategies that marketers and policymakers can utilize to contribute to the increased objective quality and value of breakfast cereal products in the United States.

Keywords: cereals, consumer health, certifications, front-of-package claims

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1318 The Development of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Citrinin Determination in Dry-Fermented Meat Products

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Nina Kudumija, Manuela Zadravec, Nada Vahcic, Maja Kis, Tomaz Polak

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by numerous types of molds. They can contaminate both food and feed so that they represent a serious public health concern. Production of dry-fermented meat products involves ripening, during which molds can overgrow the product surface, produce mycotoxins, and consequently contaminate the final product. Citrinin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by the Penicillium citrinum. Data on citrinin occurrence in both food and feed are limited. Therefore, there is a need for research on citrinin occurrence in these types of meat products. The LC-MS/MS method for citrinin determination was developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed using immunoaffinity columns, which resulted in clean sample extracts. Method validation included the determination of the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, linearity, and matrix effect in accordance to the latest validation guidance. The determined LOD and LOQ were 0.60 µg/kg and 1.98 µg/kg, respectively, showing a good method sensitivity. The method was tested for its linearity in the calibration range of 1 µg/L to 10 µg/L. The recovery was 100.9 %, while the matrix effect was 0.7 %. This method was employed in the analysis of 47 samples of dry-fermented sausages collected from local households. Citrinin wasn’t detected in any of these samples, probably because of the short ripening period of the tested sausages that takes three months tops. The developed method shall be used to test other types of traditional dry-cured products, such as prosciuttos, whose surface is usually more heavily overgrown by surface molds due to the longer ripening period.

Keywords: Mycotoxins, LC-MS/MS, citrinin, dry-fermented meat products

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1317 Medical Nutritional Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with Tuberculosis and Severe Malnutrition: A Case Report

Authors: Lista Andriyati, Nurpudji A Taslim

Abstract:

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients have potential nutritional and metabolic problems. HIV is a virus that attacks cells T helper and impairs the function of immune cells. Infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient, results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections such as tuberculosis (TB). Malnutrition has destructive effects on the immune system and host defense mechanisms. Effective and proper nutritional therapies are important to improve medical outcomes and quality of life, which is associated with functional improvement. A case of 38-years old man admitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and was diagnosed HIV infection and relapse lung TB with severe malnutrition, fever, oral candidiasis, anemia (6.3 g/dL), severe hypoalbuminemia (1.9 g/dL), severe hypokalemia (2.2 mmol/L), immune depletion (1085 /µL) and elevated liver enzyme (ALT 1198/AST 375 U/L). Nutritional intervention by giving 2300 kcal of energy, protein 2 g/IBW/day, carbohydrate 350 g, fat 104 g through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Supplementations administered are zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, and snakehead fish extract high content of protein albumin (Pujimin®). After 46 days, there are clinical and metabolic improvement in Hb (6.3 to 11.2 g/dL), potassium (2.2 to 3.4 mmol/L), albumin (1.9 to 2.3 g/dL), ALT 1198 to 47/AST 375 to 68 U/L) and improved awareness. In conclusion, nutritional therapy in HIV infection with adequate macronutrients and micronutrients fulfillment and immunonutrition is very important to avoid cachexia and to improve nutritional status and immune disfunction.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Tuberculosis, HIV, hypoalbuminemia

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1316 Quality Assessment of Some Selected Locally Produced and Marketed Soft Drinks

Authors: Gerardette Darkwah, Gloria Ankar Brewoo, John Barimah, Gilbert Owiah Sampson, Vincent Abe-Inge

Abstract:

Soft drinks which are widely consumed in Ghana have been reported in other countries to contain toxic heavy metals beyond the acceptable limits in other countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of selected locally produced and marketed soft drinks. Three (3) different batches of 23 soft drinks were sampled from the Takoradi markets. The samples were prescreened for the presence of reducing sugars, phosphates, alcohol and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties were also determined with AOAC methods. The results indicated the presence of reducing sugars, carbon dioxide and the absence of alcohol in all the selected soft drink samples. The pH, total sugars, moisture, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity ranged from 2.42 – 3.44, 3.30 – 10.44%, 85.63 – 94.85%, 5.00 – 13.33°Brix, and 0.21 – 1.99% respectively. The concentration of heavy metals were also below detection limits in all samples. The quality of the selected were within specifications prescribed by regulatory bodies.

Keywords: Quality, heavy metal contamination, soft drinks, locally manufactured

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1315 Effects of Enzymatic Liquefaction on the Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Zn-Amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) Puree

Authors: M. A. Siti Faridah, K. Muhammad, H. M. Ghazali, Y. A. Yusof

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of three variables namely types of cell wall degrading enzymes (Viscozyme L, Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Rapidase PAC, Rohament CL and Rohapect PTE) at varying concentrations (0.25-3% v/w) and times (30 min-24 h) on the zinc (Zn-) amaranth purees. Liquefaction treatment of the Zn-amaranth purees with Viscozyme (1% v/w at pH 5 and 45ºC for 3 h) was found to be the best procedure, which produced Zn-amaranth puree with low viscosity (8.60 mPas). Zn-amaranth purees were also found to have the highest metallo-chlorophyll derivative contents (0.16 mg/g), free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) values (12.49 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (4.57 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) within 3 h of liquefaction. Other physicochemical properties of the enzyme-liquefied Zn-amaranth purees indicated that lightness (L*) (12.54), greenness a*/b* (-0.30), reducing sugar (103.88 mg/mL) and soluble dietary fibre (5.94%) of the purees were higher compared to that of nonenzyme-liquefied amaranth purees.

Keywords: antioxidant, amaranth, chlorophyll derivative, enzymatic liquefaction

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1314 Adequate Dietary Intake to Improve Outcome of Urine: Urea Nitrogen with Balance Nitrogen and Total Lymphocyte Count

Authors: Mardiana Madjid, Nurpudji Astuti Taslim, Suryani As'ad, Haerani Rasyid, Agussalim Bukhari

Abstract:

The high level of Urine Urea Nitrogen (UUN) indicates hypercatabolism occurs in hospitalized patients. High levels of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) indicates the immune system condition, adequate wound healing, and limit complication. Adequate dietary intake affects to decrease of hypercatabolism status in treated patient’s hospitals. Nitrogen Balance (NB) is simply the difference between nitrogen (N₂) intake and output. If more N₂ intake than output, then positive NB or anabolic will occur. This study aims to evaluate the effect of dietary intake in influencing balance nitrogen and total lymphocyte count. Method: A total of 43 patients admitted to a Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital between 2018 and 2019 for 10 days' treats are included. The inclusion criteria were patients who were treated for 10 days and receives food from the hospital orally. Patients did not experience gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea and experience impair kidney function and liver function and expressed approval to participate in this study. During hospitalization, food intake, UUN, albumin serum, balance nitrogen, and TLC was assessed twice on day 1 and day 10. There is no Physician Clinical Nutritional intervention to correct food intake. UUN is 24 hours of urine collected on the second day after admission and the tenth day. Statistical analysis uses SPSS 24 with observational cohort methods. Result: The Forty-three participants completed the follow-up (27 men and 18 women). The age of fewer than 4 years is 22 people, 45 to 60 years is 16 people, and over 60 years is 4 people. The result of the study on day 1 obtained SGA score A, SGA score B, SGA score C are 8, 32, 3 until day 10 are 8, 31, 4, respectively. According to 24h dietary recalls, the energy intake during observation was from 522.5 ± 400.4 to 1011.9 ± 545.1 kcal/day P < 0.05, protein intake from 20.07 ± 17.2 to 40.3 ± 27.3 g/day P < 0.05, carbohydrates from 92.5 ± 71.6 to 184.8 ± 87.4 g/day, and fat from 5.5 ± 3.86 to 13.9 ± 13.9 g/day. The UUN during the observation was from 6.6 ± 7.3 to 5.5 ± 3.9 g/day, TLC decreased from 1622.9 ± 897.2 to 1319.9 ± 636.3/mm³ value target 1800/mm³, albumin serum from 3.07 ± 0.76 to 2.9 ± 0.57 g/day, and BN from -7.5 ± 7.2 to -3.1 ± 4.86. Conclusion: The high level of UUN needs to correct adequate dietary intake to improve NB and TLC status on hospitalized patients.

Keywords: adequate dietary intake, balance nitrogen, total lymphocyte count, urine urea nitrogen

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1313 Quality Control: Quantitative Determination of Polyphenolic Contents and Flavonoid C-Glycosides in Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Leaf Extracts Prepared by Different Drying Treatments and Solvent Extractions

Authors: Mohamad Shazeli Che Zain, Nadiah Mad Nasir, Sharida Fakurazi, Khozirah Shaari

Abstract:

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tree has a rich culture of being used traditionally for many purposes. Apart from being a main source of edible oil, its biomass; the oil palm fronds can be used as a source of phytochemicals. It is interesting to note that a significant large number of flavonoid C-glycosides of various aglycones including luteolin and apigenin derivatives were found in oil palm leaves (OPL). In this study, OPL were subjected to three different drying methods; freeze drying (FD), oven drying (OD) and shade drying (SD) and five different solvent extractions; hexane, ethyl acetate, 1:1 ethyl acetate-methanol, absolute methanol and 4:1 methanol-water. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total flavonol content (TFoC) and in vitro antioxidant activity of OPL were determined using ultraviolet visible microplate spectrophotometric methods. Four flavonoids C-glycosides, including isoorientin, orientin, vitexin and isovitexin, were quantified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detection (UHPLC-UV/PDA) method. The method was developed and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) requirements for specificity, linearity, sensitivity (limit of detection and quantification), accuracy, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and robustness. The TPC was ranged from 119.35-552.80 mg/g of gallic acid equivalents, while both TFC and TFoC ranged from 9.07-171.07 mg/g and 11.35-138.36 mg/g of quercetin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 values (µg/mL) for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity which ranged from 14.29-917.34 µg/mL. Overall, freeze-dried and aqueous methanolic extracts of OPL demonstrated the highest phenolic and flavonoid content with excellent antioxidant activity. The significant correlation between the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity of OPL extracts was evaluated using Pearson correlation analysis. In addition, by using validated UHPLC-UV/PDA method, vitexin was the highest flavonoid C-glycosides present in OPL with value of 259.26 µg/mg extract, followed by isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin with values of 97.04, 30.73 and 5.67 µg/mg extract, respectively. Thus, UHPLC-UV/PDA method proved suitable and reliable for quantitative analysis of flavonoid C-glycosides present in OPL. These findings clearly indicated that the OPL can be regarded as potential candidates for natural plant sources of antioxidants with high value, and the developed method could be useful for quality control purpose in plant-based nutraceutical industries by adopting these four flavonoid C-glycosides as chemical marker compounds present in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf.

Keywords: Method validation, antioxidant activity, flavonoid C-glycosides, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaves, polyphenolic contents

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1312 Mathematical Modelling of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment in Microwave Dried Strawberry (Fragaria L.) Slices

Authors: Hilal Uslu, Salih Eroglu, Betul Ozkan, Ozcan Bulantekin, Alper Kuscu

Abstract:

In this study, the strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruits, which were pretreated with ultrasound (US), were worked on in the microwave by using 90W power. Then mathematical modelling was applied to dried fruits by using different experimental thin layer models. The sliced fruits were subjected to ultrasound treatment at a frequency of 40 kHz for 10, 20, and 30 minutes, in an ultrasonic water bath, with a ratio of 1:4 to fruit/water. They are then dried in the microwave (90W). The drying process continued until the product moisture was below 10%. By analyzing the moisture change of the products at a certain time, eight different thin-layer drying models, (Newton, page, modified page, Midilli, Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, two-term, Wang and Singh) were tested for verification of experimental data. MATLAB R2015a statistical program was used for the modelling, and the best suitable model was determined with R²adj (coefficient of determination of compatibility), and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to analysis, the drying model that best describes the drying behavior for both drying conditions was determined as the Midilli model by high R²adj and low RMSE values. Control, 10, 20, and 30 min US for groups R²adj and RMSE values was established as respectively; 0,9997- 0,005298; 0,9998- 0,004735; 0,9995- 0,007031; 0,9917-0,02773. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for each group and were determined as 3,80x 10⁻⁸, 3,71 x 10⁻⁸, 3,26 x10⁻⁸ ve 3,5 x 10⁻⁸ m/s, respectively.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Ultrasound, microwave drying, strawberry

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1311 Experimental and Modelling Performances of a Sustainable Integrated System of Conditioning for Bee-Pollen

Authors: Andrés Durán, Brian Castellanos, Marta Quicazán, Carlos Zuluaga-Domínguez

Abstract:

Bee-pollen is an apicultural-derived food product, with a growing appreciation among consumers given the remarkable nutritional and functional composition, in particular, protein (24%), dietary fiber (15%), phenols (15 – 20 GAE/g) and carotenoids (600 – 900 µg/g). These properties are given by the geographical and climatic characteristics of the region where it is collected. There are several countries recognized by their pollen production, e.g. China, United States, Japan, Spain, among others. Beekeepers use traps in the entrance of the hive where bee-pollen is collected. After the removal of foreign particles and drying, this product is ready to be marketed. However, in countries located along the equator, the absence of seasons and a constant tropical climate throughout the year favors a more rapid spoilage condition for foods with elevated water activity. The climatic conditions also trigger the proliferation of microorganisms and insects. This, added to the factor that beekeepers usually do not have adequate processing systems for bee-pollen, leads to deficiencies in the quality and safety of the product. In contrast, the Andean region of South America, lying on equator, typically has a high production of bee-pollen of up to 36 kg/year/hive, being four times higher than in countries with marked seasons. This region is also located in altitudes superior to 2500 meters above sea level, having extremes sun ultraviolet radiation all year long. As a mechanism of defense of radiation, plants produce more secondary metabolites acting as antioxidant agents, hence, plant products such as bee-pollen contain remarkable more phenolics and carotenoids than collected in other places. Considering this, the improvement of bee-pollen processing facilities by technical modifications and the implementation of an integrated cleaning and drying system for the product in an apiary in the area was proposed. The beehives were modified through the installation of alternative bee-pollen traps to avoid sources of contamination. The processing facility was modified according to considerations of Good Manufacturing Practices, implementing the combined use of a cabin dryer with temperature control and forced airflow and a greenhouse-type solar drying system. Additionally, for the separation of impurities, a cyclone type system was implemented, complementary to a screening equipment. With these modifications, a decrease in the content of impurities and the microbiological load of bee-pollen was seen from the first stages, principally with a reduction of the presence of molds and yeasts and in the number of foreign animal origin impurities. The use of the greenhouse solar dryer integrated to the cabin dryer allowed the processing of larger quantities of product with shorter waiting times in storage, reaching a moisture content of about 6% and a water activity lower than 0.6, being appropriate for the conservation of bee-pollen. Additionally, the contents of functional or nutritional compounds were not affected, even observing an increase of up to 25% in phenols content and a non-significant decrease in carotenoids content and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Processing, Drying, Beekeeping

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1310 Agroecology and Seasonal Disparity Nexus with Nutritional Status of Children in Ethiopia

Authors: Dagem Alemayehu, Samson Gebersilassie, Jan Frank

Abstract:

Climate change is impacting nutrition through reducing food quantity and access, limiting dietary diversity, and decreased nutritional food content as well as strongly affecting seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, only a few data is available on the impacts of seasonality in Infant, and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices undernutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of poor resource settings of Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometry, and IYCF indicators were assessed in the harvest and lean seasons among children aged 6–23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Results: Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 32.8 % and 23.9 % (lowland &midland respectively) in the lean season to 36.1% and 33.8 % harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in the prevalence of stunting and underweight between harvest and lean seasons was noted in the lowland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% lean to 8.5% harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the midland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet, and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in harvest compared to a lean season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children's age was a predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. Conclusion: There is seasonal variation in undernutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect lowland agro-ecological zone.

Keywords: Agroecology, Seasonality, Stunting, Wasting

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1309 Great Food, No Atmosphere: A Review of Performance Nutrition for Application to Extravehicular Activities in Spaceflight

Authors: Lauren E. Church

Abstract:

Background: Extravehicular activities (EVAs) are a critical aspect of missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It has long been noted that the spaceflight environment and the physical demands of EVA cause physiological and metabolic changes in humans; this review aims to combine these findings with nutritional studies in analogues of the spaceflight and EVA environments to make nutritional recommendations for astronauts scheduled for and immediately returning from EVAs. Results: Energy demands increase during orbital spaceflight and see further increases during EVA. Another critical element of EVA nutrition is adequate hydration. Orbital EVA appears to provide adequate hydration under current protocol, but during lunar surface EVA (LEVA) and in a 10km lunar walk-back test astronauts have stated that up to 20% more water was needed. Previous attempts for in-suit edible sustenance have not been adequately taken up by astronauts to be economically viable. In elite endurance athletes, a mixture of glucose and fructose is used in gels, improving performance. Discussion: A combination of non-caffeinated energy drink and simple water should be available for astronauts during EVA, allowing more autonomy. There should also be provision of gels or a similar product containing appropriate sodium levels to maintain hydration, but not so much as to hyperhydrate through renal water reabsorption. It is also suggested that short breaks be built into the schedule of EVAs for these gels to be consumed, as it is speculated that reason for low uptake of in-suit sustenance is the lack of time available in which to consume it.

Keywords: Sport, Nutrition, Space, astronaut

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1308 Analysis of the Presence of Alkylglycerols by Gas Chromatography in Ostrich Oil

Authors: Luana N. Cardozo, Debora A. S. Coutinho, Fabiola Lagher, Bruno J. G. Silva, Ivonilce Venture, Mainara Tesser, Graciela Venera

Abstract:

Ostrich oil is used as food in Brazil, and it has been the subject of scientific research because it contains essential fatty acids (Omega 3, 6, 7, and 9), which provide benefits to human health. Alkylglycerols are lipid ethers consisted of a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon chain joined by ether-type bonding to one of the glycerol hydroxyls. It is known that supplementation with alkylglycerols can act significantly on the functioning of immune system cells, both in pathological situations and in homeostasis. Objective: Analyze the presence of alkylglycerols in ostrich oil. Methods: The ostrich oil was bought from an industry that manufactures the product for sale as food, located in Mirante da Serra, northern Brazil. The samples were sent for analysis to the chemistry department of the Federal University of Paraná, where they were analyzed by the gas chromatography method. Results: The analysis of the ostrich oil presented alkylglycerols in area 514505154. Comparison, it is possible to observe that shark liver oil contains the area 26190196, and the difference between both is highly significant. Conclusion: The importance of alkylglycerol supplementation for the immune system is known. The analysis of the results made it possible to verify the presence of alkylglycerols in the ostrich oil, which is five times higher than in the shark liver oil, that would be the largest source food, but was surpassed by the ostrich oil until the present time. The present study emphasizes that ostrich oil can be considered a food source of alkylglycerols and may play a promising role in the immune system because it contains such substance, but further studies are needed to prove its performance in the body.

Keywords: Food, ostrich oil, nutritional composition, alkylglycerols

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1307 Quantitative on Fatty Acid Profiles, Lipid Contents and Fat-Soluble Vitamin A of Freshwater Fish Species in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

Authors: Sengly Sroy, Elodie Arnaud, Adrien Servent, Sokneang In, Sylvie Avallone

Abstract:

In Cambodia, fish plays an important role for local community in term of food habits, preference and contribution to several nutritional intakes. Consumed on a daily basis, fishes and their derivatives products are good sources of proteins, essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. They mainly obtain from the Tonle Sap Lake but, during the last decade, the fish population decreased drastically due to climate change and human activities as well. Contamination by agricultural residues and heavy metals were identified. However, fishes are currently used in several nutrition programs for children and pregnant women to improve their nutritional status. The aim of our work was to characterize the nutritional profile and contamination of 10 fish species consumed near the Tonle Sap Lake with a special attention to fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin profiles. Fish samples were analyzed for their nutritional profiles (AOAC methods for macronutrients and micronutrients), their lipid content (Folch modified method), their Fatty acid (FAME method), their vitamin A (HPLC) and their heavy metals (ICP-MS). The total lipid contents ranged from 1.43 to 10.00% according to fish species. Lipid profile was mainly dominated by saturated fat (from 47.95 to 57.32%) but some fish species were particularly rich in ω-3 and ω-6 especially eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (3.05%) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (2.82%). The more the fishes were fats, the more they contained vitamin A, DHA and EPA. Vitamin A is particularly abundant in small fishes (250.10 μg RE/100 g) compare to big ones (13.77 μg RE/100 g) because they are consumed as a whole with their organs (liver) and head. However, the contents of heavy metal in some species are higher than the maximum permitted level (MPL) from codex alimentarius, especially Mn. The results obtained provided important information on the most interesting fish in term of human nutrition and the potential risk of contaminants. The fatty acids are important for child development and pregnant women. These data are useful for supply chain stakeholders and the people in charge of nutrition program.

Keywords: fatty acid, lipid content, freshwater fish, fat-soluble vitamin, Tonle Sap Lake

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1306 Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) Has Protective Effect on Colonic Inflammation: An in Vitro Study in Raw 264.7 and Caco-2 Cells

Authors: Sukru Gulec, Aysegul Alyamac

Abstract:

Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a plant extract used to stop bleeding caused by injuries and surgical interventions. ABS also involved in wound healing of intestinal mucosal damage due to oxidative stress and inflammation. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a common chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding, and increases the risk of colon cancer. Inflammation is an essential factor in the development of IBD. The various studies have been performed about the physiological effects of ABS; however, ABS dependent mechanism on colonic inflammation has not been elucidated. Thus, the protective effect of ABS on colonic inflammation was investigated in this study. The Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used as a model of in vitro colonic inflammation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 hours to induce the inflammation, and a conditional medium was obtained. Caco-2 cells were treated with 15 µl/ml ABS for 4 hours, then incubated with conditional medium and the cells also were incubated with 15 µl/ml ABS and conditional medium together for 4 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein levels were targeted in testing inflammatory condition and its level was significantly increased (25 fold, p<0.001) compared to the control group by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The COX-2 mRNA level was used as a marker gene to show the possible anti-inflammatory effect of ABS in Caco-2 cells. RAW cells-derived conditional medium significantly (3.3 fold, p<0.001) induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels in Caco-2 cells. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells caused a significant decrease (3.3 fold, p<0.001) in COX-2 mRNA levels relative to conditional medium given group. Furthermore, COX-2 mRNA level was significantly reduced (4,7 fold, p<0.001) in ABS and conditional medium treated group. These results suggest that ABS might have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro.

Keywords: RAW 264.7, Ankaferd Blood Stopper, CaCo-2, Colonic Inflammation

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1305 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery, closed cycle spray drying system

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1304 Analytical Authentication of Butter Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics

Authors: M. Bodner, M. Scampicchio

Abstract:

Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.

Keywords: PCA, margarine, simca, adulterated butter, PLS-DA, PLS-R

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1303 Chemical, Biochemical and Sensory Evaluation of a Quadrimix Complementary Food Developed from Sorghum, Groundnut, Crayfish and Pawpaw Blends

Authors: Ogechi Nzeagwu, Assumpta Osuagwu, Charlse Nkwoala

Abstract:

Malnutrition in infants due to poverty, poor feeding practices, and high cost of commercial complementary foods among others is a concern in developing countries. The study evaluated the proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions, antinutrients and functional properties, biochemical, haematological and sensory evaluation of complementary food made from sorghum, groundnut, crayfish and paw-paw flour blends using standard procedures. The blends were formulated on protein requirement of infants (18 g/day) using Nutrisurvey linear programming software in ratio of sorghum(S), groundnut(G), crayfish(C) and pawpaw(P) flours as 50:25:10:15(SGCP1), 60:20:10:10 (SGCP2), 60:15:15:10 (SGCP3) and 60:10:20:10 (SGCP4). Plain-pap (fermented maize flour)(TCF) and cerelac (commercial complementary food) served as basal and control diets. Thirty weanling male albino rats aged 28-35 days weighing 33-60 g were purchased and used for the study. The rats after acclimatization were fed with gruel produced with the experimental diets and the control with water ad libitum daily for 35days. Effect of the blends on lipid profile, blood glucose, haematological (RBC, HB, PCV, MCV), liver and kidney function and weight gain of the rats were assessed. Acceptability of the gruel was conducted at the end of rat feeding on forty mothers of infants’ ≥ 6 months who gave their informed consent to participate using a 9 point hedonic scale. Data was analyzed for means and standard deviation, analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range test and significance judged at 0.05, all using SPSS version 22.0. The results indicated that crude protein, fibre, ash and carbohydrate of the formulated diets were either comparable or higher than values in cerelac. The formulated diets (SGCP1- SGCP4) were significantly (P>0.05) higher in vitamin A and thiamin compared to cerelac. The iron content of the formulated diets SGCP1- SGCP4 (4.23-6.36 mg/100) were within the recommended iron intake of infants (0.55 mg/day). Phytate (1.56-2.55 mg/100g) and oxalate (0.23-0.35 mg/100g) contents of the formulated diets were within the permissible limits of 0-5%. In functional properties, bulk density, swelling index, % dispersibility and water absorption capacity significantly (P<0.05) increased and compared favourably with cerelac. The essential amino acids of the formulated blends were within the amino acid profile of the FAO/WHO/UNU reference protein for children 0.5 -2 years of age. Urea concentration of rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (19.48 mmol/L),(23.76 mmol/L),(24.07 mmol/L),(23.65 mmol/L) respectively was significantly higher than that of rat fed cerelac (16.98 mmol/L); however, plain pap had the least value (9.15 mmol/L). Rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (116 mg/dl), (119 mg/dl), (115 mg/dl), (117 mg/dl) respectively had significantly higher glucose levels those fed with cerelac (108 mg/dl). Liver function parameters (AST, ALP and ALT), lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL) and hematological parameters of rats fed with formulated diets were within normal range. Rats fed SGCP1 gained more weight (90.45 g) than other rats fed with SGCP2-SGCP4 (71.65 g, 79.76 g, 75.68 g), TCF (20.13 g) and cerelac (59.06 g). In all the sensory attributes, the control was preferred with respect to the formulated diets. The formulated diets were generally adequate and may likely have potentials to meet nutrient requirements of infants as complementary food.

Keywords: Biochemical, complementary food, chemical evaluation, quadrimix

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1302 Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality of Functional Bread Enriched with Morus Alba Leaf Extract during Storage

Authors: Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Daria Szymanowska, Piotr Szulc, Oskar Szczepaniak, Marcin Dziedzinski, Szymon Byczkiewicz

Abstract:

A wide range of food products is offered on the market. However, increasing consumer awareness of the impact of food on health causes a growing interest in enriched products. Cereal products are an important element of the daily diet of man. In the literature, no data was found on the impact of Morus alba preparations on the content of active ingredients and properties of wholemeal bread. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L) are a rich source of bioactive compounds with multidirectional antioxidant activity, which means that they can be a component of new foods that prevent disease or support therapy and improve the patient's health. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the addition of white mulberry leaf extract on the antioxidant activity of bread. It has been shown that bread can be a carrier of biologically active substances from mulberry leaves, because the addition of mulberry at a sensory acceptable level and meeting microbiological requirements significantly influenced the increase in the content of bioactive ingredients and the antioxidant activity of bread. The addition of mulberry leaf water extract to bread increased the level of flavonols and phenolic acids, in particular protocatechic, chlorogenic gallic and caffeic acid and isoquercetin and rutine, and also increased the antioxidant potential, which were microbiological stable during 5 days storage. It has been shown also that the addition of Morus alba preparations has a statistically significant effect on anti-radical activity. In addition, there were no differences in activity in DPPH · and ABTS · + tests between post-storage samples. This means that the compounds responsible for the anti-radical activity present in the bread were not inactivated during storage. It was found that the tested bread was characterized by high microbiological purity, which is indicated by the obtained results of analyzes performed for the titers of indicator microorganisms and the absence of pathogens. In the tested products from the moment of production throughout the entire storage period, no undesirable microflora was found, which proves their safety and guarantees microbiological stability during the storage period.

Keywords: Quality, Antioxidants, Bread, extract

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1301 Biological Studies on Producing Samoli Bread Supplement with Irradiated Sunflower Flour by Gamma Rays

Authors: Amal. N. Al-Kuraieef

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Smoli bread was made by supplementation sunflower flour which was prepared from sunflower (Dahr-EL-Haea) gray after hilling and milling, flour was irradiated by two doses (5 and 10 kGy). After that, the ratios of irradiated sunflower flour were 5 and 10%. All samples of samoli bread were examined for organoleptic and biological evaluation. Biological assay (PER, NPU, FE, DC and BV) was carried out on rats fed 5 and 10% irradiated and non-irradiated sunflower Samoli bread. Results obtained showed that, total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable, to that of casein. Also, figures of the biological evaluations were higher than those of the control samoli bread and improved its nutritive values.

Keywords: Lipids, Gamma rays, Sunflower, cholesterol, triglycerides, samoli bread

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1300 Effect of Low Calorie Sweeteners on Chemical, Sensory Evaluation and Antidiabetic of Pumpkin Jam Fortified with Soybean

Authors: Amnah M. A. Alsuhaibani, Amal N. Al-Kuraieef

Abstract:

Introduction: In the recent decades, production of low-calorie jams is needed for diabetics that comprise low calorie fruits and low calorie sweeteners. Object: the research aimed to prepare low calorie formulated pumpkin jams (fructose, stevia and aspartame) incorporated with soy bean and evaluate the jams through chemical analysis and sensory evaluation after storage for six month. Moreover, the possible effect of consumption of low calorie jams on diabetic rats was investigated. Methods: Five formulas of pumpkin jam with different sucrose, fructose, stevia and aspartame sweeteners and soy bean were prepared and stored at 10 oC for six month compared to ordinary pumpkin jam. Chemical composition and sensory evaluation of formulated jams were evaluated at zero time, 3 month and 6 month of storage. The best three acceptable pumpkin jams were taken for biological study on diabetic rats. Rats divided into group (1) served as negative control and streptozotocin induce diabetes four rat groups that were positive diabetic control (group2), rats fed on standard diet with 10% sucrose soybean jam, fructose soybean jam and stevia soybean jam (group 3, 4&5), respectively. Results: The content of protein, fat, ash and fiber were increased but carbohydrate was decreased in low calorie formulated pumpkin jams compared to ordinary jam. Production of aspartame soybean pumpkin jam had lower score of all sensory attributes compared to other jam then followed by stevia soybean Pumpkin jam. Using non nutritive sweeteners (stevia & aspartame) with soybean in processing jam could lower the score of the sensory attributes after storage for 3 and 6 months. The highest score was recorded for sucrose and fructose soybean jams followed by stevia soybean jam while aspartame soybean jam recorded the lowest score significantly. The biological evaluation showed a significant improvement in body weight and FER of rats after six weeks of consumption of standard diet with jams (Group 3,4&5) compared to Group1. Rats consumed 10% low calorie jam with nutrient sweetener (fructose) and non nutrient sweetener (stevia) soybean jam (group 4& 5) showed significant decrease in glucose level, liver function enzymes activity, and liver cholesterol & total lipids in addition of significant increase of insulin and glycogen compared to the levels of group 2. Conclusion: low calorie pumpkin jams can be prepared by low calorie sweeteners and soybean and also storage for 3 months at 10oC without change sensory attributes. Consumption of stevia pumpkin jam fortified with soybean had positive health effects on streptozoticin induced diabetes in rats.

Keywords: Storage, aspartame, Stevia, Pumpkin jam, HFCS

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1299 Nutrition Environments and the Development of Taste Preferences: A Cross-Sectional Study of Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Fareena Alladin

Abstract:

In the Caribbean, issues of food security, health and taste are intricately linked, seen most clearly in the increasing incidence of lifestyle diseases among children coupled with a taste for high calorie and Westernized diets. In order to fully appreciate this link, the role of nutrition environments must be examined. To this end, the present study incorporates tenets of Bourdieu’s social constructivist theory with the Community Nutrition Environment Model. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between availability of and access to healthy/unhealthy foods within nutrition environments, namely the household and school, and the development of taste preferences for healthy/unhealthy foods among primary school children in a selected educational district in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 400 children between the ages of 9 and 11 years was conducted. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 24. Results indicated that availability of healthy food at home was positively correlated with preference for vegetables, and negatively correlated with preference for salty snacks and fast food. The availability of unhealthy food within the home was found to be negatively correlated with preference for vegetables and positively correlated with preference for salty snacks. Access to unhealthy foods at school had a positive correlation with preference for fast food. These findings highlight the role of the food environment in shaping taste preferences, and point to the need for interrogating the centrality of food security concerns in emerging health concerns of Caribbean countries. Such interrogations are a necessary part of the development of research agendas, and policy formulation and implementation.

Keywords: Food Security, Trinidad and Tobago, nutrition environment, taste preference

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1298 Utilization of Chicken Skin Based Products as Fat Replacers for Improving the Nutritional Quality, Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Sensory Attributes of Beef Fresh Sausage

Authors: Hussein M. H. Mohamed, Hamdy M. B. Zaki

Abstract:

Fresh sausage is one of the cheapest and delicious meat products that are gaining popularity all over the world. It is considered as a practice of adding value to low-value meat cuts of high fat and connective tissue contents. One of the most important characteristics of fresh sausage is the distinctive marbling appearance between lean and fatty portions, which can be achieved by using animal fat. For achieving the marbling appearance of fresh sausage, a lager amount of fat needs to be used. The use of animal fat may represent a health concern due to its content of saturated fatty acids and trans-fats, which increase the risk of heart diseases. There is a need for reducing the fat content of fresh sausage to obtain a healthy product. However, fat is responsible for the texture, flavor, and juiciness of the product. Therefore, developing reduced-fat products is a challenging process. The main objectives of the current study were to incorporate chicken skin based products (chicken skin emulsion, gelatinized chicken skin, and gelatinized chicken skin emulsion) during the formulation of fresh sausage as fat replacers and to study the effect of these products on the nutritional quality, physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of the processed product. Three fresh sausage formulae were prepared using chicken skin based fat replacers (chicken skin emulsion, gelatinized chicken skin, and gelatinized chicken skin emulsion) beside one formula prepared using mesenteric beef fat as a control. The proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, Physico-chemical characteristics, and sensory attributes of all formulas were assessed. The results revealed that the use of chicken skin based fat replacers resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reduction of fat contents from 17.67 % in beef mesenteric fat formulated sausage to 5.77, 8.05 and 8.46 in chicken skin emulsion, gelatinized chicken skin, and gelatinized chicken skin emulsion formulated sausages, respectively. Significant reduction in the saturated fatty acid contents and a significant increase in mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated, and omega-3 fatty acids have been observed in all formulae processed with chicken skin based fat replacers. Moreover, significant improvements in the physico-chemical characteristics and non-significant changes in the sensory attributes have been obtained. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the chicken skin based products can be used safely to improve the nutritional quality and physico chemical properties of beef fresh sausages without changing the sensory attributes of the product. This study may encourage meat processors to utilize chicken skin based fat replacers for the production of high quality and healthy beef fresh sausages.

Keywords: chicken skin emulsion, fresh sausage, gelatinized chicken skin, gelatinized chicken skin emulsion

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1297 Energy Recovery Potential from Food Waste and Yard Waste in New York and Montréal

Authors: T. Malmir, U. Eicker

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Landfilling of organic waste is still the predominant waste management method in the USA and Canada. Strategic plans for waste diversion from landfills are needed to increase material recovery and energy generation from waste. In this paper, we carried out a statistical survey on waste flow in the two cities New York and Montréal and estimated the energy recovery potential for each case. Data collection and analysis of the organic waste (food waste, yard waste, etc.), paper and cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, carton, textile, electronic products and other materials were done based on the reports published by the Department of Sanitation in New York and Service de l'Environnement in Montréal. In order to calculate the gas generation potential of organic waste, Buswell equation was used in which the molar mass of the elements was calculated based on their atomic weight and the amount of organic waste in New York and Montréal. Also, the higher and lower calorific value of the organic waste (solid base) and biogas (gas base) were calculated. According to the results, only 19% (598 kt) and 45% (415 kt) of New York and Montréal waste were diverted from landfills in 2017, respectively. The biogas generation potential of the generated food waste and yard waste amounted to 631 million m3 in New York and 173 million m3 in Montréal. The higher and lower calorific value of food waste were 3482 and 2792 GWh in New York and 441 and 354 GWh in Montréal, respectively. In case of yard waste, they were 816 and 681 GWh in New York and 636 and 531 GWh in Montréal, respectively. Considering the higher calorific value, this amount would mean a contribution of around 2.5% energy in these cities.

Keywords: energy recovery, Organic Waste, waste flow, urban energy modelling with INSEL

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1296 Changes in Some Bioactive Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Brassica Herbals after Pretreatment and Herbal Infusion

Authors: Evren C. Eroglu, Ridvan Arslan

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Over the course of herbal production, various pretreatments are performed and some of which have serious effect on the bioactive properties. Especially in the production of herbal tea from fresh herbals, it is considered that elapsed time from blending to last product may affect the bioactive properties and antioxidant contents. Herbal infusion is basically prepared by mixing herbs with hot water for 10-20 min. During the brewing of these herbs, it is supposed to be significant decrease in the antioxidant and phenolics content. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of vitamin C (VitC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant contents (AO) of two brassica varieties (brussel sprouts and white head cabbage) with different holding time after blending. Second aim of this study was to understand the effect of herbal infusion on VitC, TPC and AO contents. In this study, fresh samples were subjected to 0-30 min holding time after blending. Then, samples was immediately taken to -80 °C and freeze drying process was performed. Herbal infusion was performed for 20 minutes. According to results, VitC contents in brussel sprouts was not changed significantly (p=0.12). However, there was a significant decreasing of VitC content in cabbage sample (p=0.034). 20 min of brewing caused a significant decrement in VitC of brussel sprouts by approximately 76% (1071 ppm dw), while decline in cabbage VitC content was 87% (531 ppm dw). AO and TPC values of unprocessed cabbage control sample (13791.87 ppm FeSO4·7H2O eq. dw and 5301.85 ppm gallic acid eq. dw) were higher than brussel sprouts control samples (11571.75 ppm FeSO4·7H2O dw and 5202.76 ppm, respectively). The change in AO and TPC of both brussel sprouts and cabbage samples were not statistically significant at the end of 30 minutes holding time (p=0.24 and p=0.38). After 20 minutes of brewing, AO content in brussel sprouts significantly decreased by 44% (p ˂0.05). Although, the decreasing of AO in white head cabbage was statistically important (p=0.034), decreasing was just 8%. TPC values were found to decrease by 54% in cabbage, while it was 35% in brussel sprouts after herbal infusion. It was observed that 30 min holding time had no statistically important effect on TPC values of both cabbage and brussel sprouts. As a conclusion, herbal infusion has more or less effect on VitC, TPC and AO contents of samples. Therefore, it is important to decrease brewing time. Another result was that there were no significant differences in TPC and AO content of both samples when holding samples 30 min outside after blending. However, this process had significant effect on VitC content of white head cabbage.

Keywords: vitamin C, total phenolic content, antioxidant content, brussel sprouts, herbal infusion, white head cabbage

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1295 Anti-Nutritional Factors, In-Vitro Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Peptidase Multi Enzyme Protein Digestibility of Some Melon (Egusi) Seeds and Their Protein Isolates

Authors: Joan O. Ogundele, Aladesanmi A. Oshodi, Adekunle I. Amoo

Abstract:

Abstract In-vitro multi-enzyme protein digestibility (IVMPD) and some anti-nutritional factors (ANF) of five melon (egusi) seed flours (MSF) and their protein isolates (PI) were carried out. Their PI have potentials comparable to that of soya beans. It is important to know the IVMPD and ANF of these protein sources as to ensure their safety when adapted for use as alternate protein sources to substitute for cow milk, which is relatively expensive in Nigeria. Standard methods were used to produce PI of Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus vulgaris, African Wine Kettle gourd (Lageneria siceraria I), Basket Ball gourd (Lagenaria siceraria II) and Bushel Giant Gourd (Lageneria siceraria III) seeds and to determine the ANF and IVMPD of the MSF and PI unheated and at 37oC. Multi-enzymes used were trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. IVMPD of MSF ranged from (70.67±0.70) % (C. vulgaris) to (72.07± 1.79) % (L.siceraria I) while for their PI ranged from 74.33% (C.vulgaris) to 77.55% (L.siceraria III). IVMPD of the PI were higher than those of MSF. Heating increased IVMPD of MSF with average value of 79.40% and those of PI with average of 84.14%. ANF average in MSF are tannin (0.11mg/g), phytate (0.23%). Differences in IVMPD of MSF and their PI at different temperatures may arise from processing conditions that alter the release of amino acids from proteins by enzymatic processes. ANF in MSF were relatively low, but were found to be lower in the PI, therefor making the PI safer for human consumption as an alternate source of protein.

Keywords: Anti-nutrients, Enzymatic protein digestibility, Melon (egusi), Protein Isolates

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1294 Improvement in Drying Characteristics of Raisin by Carbonic Maceration– Process Optimization

Authors: Nursac Akyol, Merve S. Turan, Mustafa Ozcelik, Erdogan Kucukoner, Erkan Karacabey

Abstract:

Traditional raisin production is a long time drying process under sunlight. During this procedure, grapes are open to some environmental effects besides the adverse effects of the long drying period. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternative method being applicable instead of traditional one. To this extent, a combination of a potential pretreatment (carbonic maceration, CM) with convectional oven drying was examined. CM application was used in raisin production (grape drying) as a pretreatment process before oven drying. Pressure, temperature and time were examined as application parameters of CM. In conventional oven drying, the temperature is a process variable. The aim is to find out how CM and convectional drying processes affect the drying characteristics of grapes as well as their physical and chemical properties. For this purpose, the response surface method was used to determine both the effects of the variables and the optimum pretreatment and drying conditions. The optimum conditions of CM for raisin production were 0.3 MPa of pressure value, 4°C of application temperature and 8 hours of application time. The optimized drying temperature was 77°C. The results showed that the application of CM before the drying process improved the drying characteristics. Drying took only 389 minutes for grapes pretreated by CM under optimum conditions and 495 minutes for the control group dried only by the conventional drying process. According to these results, a decrease of 21% was achieved in the time requirement for raisin production. Also, it was observed that the samples dried under optimum conditions had similar physical properties as those the control group had. It was seen that raisin, which was dried under optimum conditions were in better condition in terms of some of the bioactive contents compared to control groups. In light of all results, it is seen that CM has an important potential in the industrial drying of grape samples. The current study was financially supported by TUBITAK, Turkey (Project no: 116R038).

Keywords: Pretreatment, total phenolic, drying time, response surface methodlogy

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