Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Non-communicable diseases Related Abstracts

6 Nutritional Wellness at the Workplace

Authors: Siveshnee Devar

Abstract:

Background: The rate of absenteeism and prevalence of NCDs in South Africa is extremely high. This is consistent with other educational institutions and workplaces around the globe. In most cases the absence of health and the presence of one or more non communicable diseases coupled with the lack of physical exercise is a major factor in absenteeism. Absenteeism at the workplace comes at a huge cost to the employer and the country as a whole. Aim: Findings from this study was to develop a suitable nutritional wellness program for the workplace. Methodology: A needs analysis in the form of 24-hour recall, food frequency, health and socio demographic questionnaires was undertaken to determine the need for a wellness program for the institution. Anthropometric indices such as BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also undertaken to determine the state of health of the staff. Results: This study has found that obesity, central obesity, hypertension as well as deficiencies in nutrients and minerals were prevalent in this group. Fruit and vegetable consumption was also below the WHO recommendation. This study showed a link between diet, physical activity and diseases of lifestyle. There were positive correlations between age and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure and waist-to-height ratio and BMI. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for immediate intervention in the form of a wellness program. Nutrition education is important for both the workplace and out. Education and knowledge are important factors for lifestyle changes. The proposed intervention is aimed at improving presenteeism and decreasing the incidence of non- communicable diseases. Presenteeism and good health are important factors for quality education at all educational institutions.

Keywords: Nutrition, Wellness, Non-communicable diseases, absenteeism

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5 Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Nutrition Related Non-Communicable Diseases in a Cohort of Males in the Central Province of Sri Lanka

Authors: N. W. I. A. Jayawardana, W. A. T. A. Jayalath, W. M. T. Madhujith, U. Ralapanawa, R. S. Jayasekera, S. A. S. B. Alagiyawanna, A. M. K. R. Bandara, N. S. Kalupahana

Abstract:

There is mounting evidence to the effect that dietary and lifestyle changes affect the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study was conducted to investigate the association of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and duration of sleep with overweight, obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2694 individuals aged between 17 – 68 years (Mean = 31) were included in the study. Body Mass Index cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants as normal, overweight and obese. The dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] and data on the level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and sleeping hours were obtained using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, random blood glucose levels were measured to determine the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Among the individuals, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34% and 16.4% respectively. Approximately 37% of the participants suffered from hypertension. Overweight and obesity were associated with older age men (P<0.0001), frequency of smoking (P=0.0434), alcohol consumption level (P=0.0287) and the quantity of lipid intake (P=0.0081). Consumption of fish (P=0.6983) and salty snacks (P=0.8327), sleeping hours (P=0.6847) and the level of physical activity were not significantly (P=0.3301) associated with the incidence of overweight and obesity. Based on the fitted model, only age was significantly associated with hypertension (P < 0.001). Further, age (P < 0.0001), sleeping hours (P=0.0953) and consumption of fatty foods (P=0.0930) were significantly associated with diabetes. Age was associated with higher odds of pre diabetes (OR:1.089;95% CI:1.053,1.127) and diabetes (OR:1.077;95% CI:1.055,1.1) whereas 7-8 hrs. of sleep per day was associated with lesser odds of diabetes (OR:0.403;95% CI:0.184,0.884). High prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in working-age males is a threatening sign for this area. As this population ages in the future and urbanization continues, the prevalence of above risk factors will likely to escalate.

Keywords: Obesity, Non-communicable diseases, age, Males

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4 The Lopsided Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases in India: Evidences from the Decade 2004-2014

Authors: Kajori Banerjee, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi

Abstract:

India is a part of the ongoing globalization, contemporary convergence, industrialization and technical advancement that is taking place world-wide. Some of the manifestations of this evolution is rapid demographic, socio-economic, epidemiological and health transition. There has been a considerable increase in non-communicable diseases due to change in lifestyle. This study aims to assess the direction of burden of disease and compare the pressure of infectious diseases against cardio-vascular, endocrine, metabolic and nutritional diseases. The change in prevalence in a ten-year period (2004-2014) is further decomposed to determine the net contribution of various socio-economic and demographic covariates. The present study uses the recent 71st (2014) and 60th (2004) rounds of National Sample Survey. The pressure of infectious diseases against cardio-vascular (CVD), endocrine, metabolic and nutritional (EMN) diseases during 2004-2014 is calculated by Prevalence Rates (PR), Hospitalization Rates (HR) and Case Fatality Rates (CFR). The prevalence of non-communicable diseases are further used as a dependent variable in a logit regression to find the effect of various social, economic and demographic factors on the chances of suffering from the particular disease. Multivariate decomposition technique further assists in determining the net contribution of socio-economic and demographic covariates. This paper upholds evidences of stagnation of the burden of communicable diseases (CD) and rapid increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) uniformly for all population sub-groups in India. CFR for CVD has increased drastically in 2004-2014. Logit regression indicates the chances of suffering from CVD and EMN is significantly higher among the urban residents, older ages, females, widowed/ divorced and separated individuals. Decomposition displays ample proof that improvement in quality of life markers like education, urbanization, longevity of life has positively contributed in increasing the NCD prevalence rate. In India’s current epidemiological phase, compression theory of morbidity is in action as a significant rise in the probability of contracting the NCDs over the time period among older ages is observed. Age is found to play a vital contributor in increasing the probability of having CVD and EMN over the study decade 2004-2014 in the nationally representative sample of National Sample Survey.

Keywords: Non-communicable diseases, Communicable diseases, cardio-vascular disease, case-fatality rate, hospitalization rate, multivariate decomposition, prevalence rate

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3 Non-Communicable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Risk Factors among Secondary School Students in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: A. Al-Ali, A. Al-Wandi, R. Dali, Y. Al-Karaghouli

Abstract:

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become an alarming health problem across the globe. The risk of developing those diseases begins in childhood and develops gradually under the influence of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking and decreased physical activity. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the risk factors of lifestyle induced chronic diseases (non-communicable diseases) among secondary school students in Sharjah city. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-one school children, from grades 10 to 12, formed the study sample, using the multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Four governmental schools were chosen, for each gender. Data was collected through a pretested, close-ended questionnaire consisting of five sections; demographics, physical activity, diet, smoking and sleeping patterns. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data through SPSS 23. Results: The data showed 64.6% of students had low knowledge of risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Concerning physical activity, 58.2 % were physically inactive and females being less active than males. More than 2/3 of students didn’t fulfill the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables (75.9%). 8% reported to be smokers with cigarettes being the most encountered tobacco product. Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated a low level of knowledge and practices yet, positive attitudes towards risk factors of chronic diseases. We recommend implementation of thorough awareness campaigns through public health education about the risk factors of non-communicable diseases.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Knowledge, diet, Practices, attitudes, Non-communicable diseases, Smoking

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2 Assessment of Impact of Physiological and Biochemical Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: V. Mathad, S. Shivprasad, P. Shivsharannappa, M. K. Patil

Abstract:

Introduction: Non-communicable diseases are emerging diseases in India. Government of India launched National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer and Stroke (NPCDCS) during the year 2008. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of non communicable diseases by health promotion and prompt treatment. Objective: The present study was intended to assess the impact of National Program for prevention and control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer and Stroke Programme on biochemical and physiological factors influencing Type 2 diabetes in Kalaburagi District. Material and Method: NCD Clinic was established at District Hospital during April 2016. All the patients attending District Hospital Kalaburagi above the age of 30 years are screened for Non Communicable Diseases under NPCDCS Programme. A total sample of 7447 patients attending NCD Clinic situated at Kalaburagi district was assessed in this study. Pre structured and pretested schedule seeking information was obtained from all the patients by the counselor working under NPCDCS programme. All the Patients attending District Hospital were screened for Diabetes using Glucometer at NCD clinic. The suspected cases were further confirmed through Biochemical investigations like Fasting Blood glucose, HBA1c, Urine Glucose, Kidney Function test. SPSS 20 version was used for analysis of data. Chi square test, P values and odds ratio was used to study the association of factors. Results: A Total of 7447 patients attended NCD clinic during the year 2017-18 were analyzed, Diabetes was seen among 3028 individuals were as comorbidities along with Hypertension was seen among 757 individuals. The mean age of the population was 50 ± 2.84. 3440(46.2%) were males whereas Female constituted 4007(53.8%) of population. The incidence and prevalence of Diabetes being 8.6 and 12.8 respectively. Diabetes was more commonly seen during the age group of 40 to 69 years. Diabetes was significantly associated with Age group 40 to 69 years, obesity and female gender (p < 0.05). The risk of developing Hypertension and comorbidity conditions of hypertension and Diabetes was 1.224 and 1.305 times higher among males, whereas the risk of diabetes was 1.127 higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: The screening for NCD has significantly increased after launching of NPCDCS programme. NCD was significantly associated with obesity, female gender, increased age as well as comorbid conditions like hypertension and tuberculosis.

Keywords: Non-communicable diseases, Type 2 diabetes, NPCDCS programme, physiological factors

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1 The Cost of Non-Communicable Diseases in the European Union: A Projection towards the Future

Authors: Desiree Vandenberghe, Johan Albrecht

Abstract:

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for the vast majority of deaths in the European Union (EU) and represent a large share of total health care spending. A future increase in this health and financial burden is likely to be driven by population ageing, lifestyle changes and technological advances in medicine. Without adequate prevention measures, this burden can severely threaten population health and economic development. To tackle this challenge, a correct assessment of the current burden of NCDs is required, as well as a projection of potential increases of this burden. The contribution of this paper is to offer perspective on the evolution of the NCD burden towards the future and to give an indication of the potential of prevention policy. A Non-Homogenous, Semi-Markov model for the EU was constructed, which allowed for a projection of the cost burden for the four main NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus) towards 2030 and 2050. This simulation is done based on multiple baseline scenarios that vary in demand and supply factors such as health status, population structure, and technological advances. Finally, in order to assess the potential of preventive measures to curb the cost explosion of NCDs, a simulation is executed which includes increased efforts for preventive health care measures. According to the Markov model, by 2030 and 2050, total costs (direct and indirect costs) in the EU could increase by 30.1% and 44.1% respectively, compared to 2015 levels. An ambitious prevention policy framework for NCDs will be required if the EU wants to meet this challenge of rising costs. To conclude, significant cost increases due to Non-Communicable Diseases are likely to occur due to demographic and lifestyle changes. Nevertheless, an ambitious prevention program throughout the EU can aid in making this cost burden manageable for future generations.

Keywords: Health Policy, Non-communicable diseases, Preventive Health Care, Markov Model, scenario analysis

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