Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Neural Networks Related Abstracts

81 Investigations into Effect of Neural Network Predictive Control of UPFC for Improving Transient Stability Performance of Multimachine Power System

Authors: Sheela Tiwari, R. Naresh, R. Jha


The paper presents an investigation into the effect of neural network predictive control of UPFC on the transient stability performance of a multi-machine power system. The proposed controller consists of a neural network model of the test system. This model is used to predict the future control inputs using the damped Gauss-Newton method which employs ‘backtracking’ as the line search method for step selection. The benchmark 2 area, 4 machine system that mimics the behavior of large power systems is taken as the test system for the study and is subjected to three phase short circuit faults at different locations over a wide range of operating conditions. The simulation results clearly establish the robustness of the proposed controller to the fault location, an increase in the critical clearing time for the circuit breakers and an improved damping of the power oscillations as compared to the conventional PI controller.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Identification, Predictive control, Transient Stability, UPFC

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80 The Ability of Forecasting the Term Structure of Interest Rates Based on Nelson-Siegel and Svensson Model

Authors: Branka Marasovic, Tea Poklepović, Zdravka Aljinović


Due to the importance of yield curve and its estimation it is inevitable to have valid methods for yield curve forecasting in cases when there are scarce issues of securities and/or week trade on a secondary market. Therefore in this paper, after the estimation of weekly yield curves on Croatian financial market from October 2011 to August 2012 using Nelson-Siegel and Svensson models, yield curves are forecasted using Vector auto-regressive model and Neural networks. In general, it can be concluded that both forecasting methods have good prediction abilities where forecasting of yield curves based on Nelson Siegel estimation model give better results in sense of lower Mean Squared Error than forecasting based on Svensson model Also, in this case Neural networks provide slightly better results. Finally, it can be concluded that most appropriate way of yield curve prediction is neural networks using Nelson-Siegel estimation of yield curves.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Nelson-Siegel Model, Svensson Model, vector autoregressive model, yield curve

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79 Modeling and Prediction of Zinc Extraction Efficiency from Concentrate by Operating Condition and Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: D. Ashouri, S. Mousavian, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, N. Ghazinia


PH, temperature, and time of extraction of each stage, agitation speed, and delay time between stages effect on efficiency of zinc extraction from concentrate. In this research, efficiency of zinc extraction was predicted as a function of mentioned variable by artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN with different layer was employed and the result show that the networks with 8 neurons in hidden layer has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Efficiency, zinc extraction, operating condition

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78 Delay-Dependent Passivity Analysis for Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: J. H. Park, H. Y. Jung, Jing Wang, Hao Shen


This brief addresses the passivity problem for neural networks with time-varying delays. The aim is focus on establishing the passivity condition of the considered neural networks.

Keywords: Neural Networks, passivity analysis, time-varying delays, linear matrix inequality

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77 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian


Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Simulation, separation, Recovery, desalting unit, crude oil

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76 Fault Diagnosis of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor by a Neural Network Multi-Models

Authors: Yahia. Kourd, N. Guersi D. Lefebvre


In this paper we propose to study the faults diagnosis in squirrel-cage induction motor using MLP neural networks. We use neural healthy and faulty models of the behavior in order to detect and isolate some faults in machine. In the first part of this work, we have created a neural model for the healthy state using Matlab and a motor located in LGEB by acquirins data inputs and outputs of this engine. Then we detected the faults in the machine by residual generation. These residuals are not sufficient to isolate the existing faults. For this reason, we proposed additive neural networks to represent the faulty behaviors. From the analysis of these residuals and the choice of a threshold we propose a method capable of performing the detection and diagnosis of some faults in asynchronous machines with squirrel cage rotor.

Keywords: Neural Networks, faults diagnosis, multi-models, squirrel-cage induction motor

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75 Artificial Neural Networks with Decision Trees for Diagnosis Issues

Authors: Y. Kourd, D. Lefebvre, N. Guersi


This paper presents a new idea for fault detection and isolation (FDI) technique which is applied to industrial system. This technique is based on Neural Networks fault-free and Faulty behaviors Models (NNFM's). NNFM's are used for residual generation, while decision tree architecture is used for residual evaluation. The decision tree is realized with data collected from the NNFM’s outputs and is used to isolate detectable faults depending on computed threshold. Each part of the tree corresponds to specific residual. With the decision tree, it becomes possible to take the appropriate decision regarding the actual process behavior by evaluating few numbers of residuals. In comparison to usual systematic evaluation of all residuals, the proposed technique requires less computational effort and can be used for on line diagnosis. An application example is presented to illustrate and confirm the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Diagnosis, Behaviors, Decision trees

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74 Poster : Incident Signals Estimation Based on a Modified MCA Learning Algorithm

Authors: Rashid Ahmed, John N. Avaritsiotis


Many signal subspace-based approaches have already been proposed for determining the fixed Direction of Arrival (DOA) of plane waves impinging on an array of sensors. Two procedures for DOA estimation based neural networks are presented. First, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to extract the maximum eigenvalue and eigenvector from signal subspace to estimate DOA. Second, minor component analysis (MCA) is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will modify a Minor Component Analysis (MCA(R)) learning algorithm to enhance the convergence, where a convergence is essential for MCA algorithm towards practical applications. The learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Preliminary results will be furnished to illustrate the convergences results achieved.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Direction of Arrival, Principle Component Analysis, Minor Component Analysis

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73 Forecasting Optimal Production Program Using Profitability Optimization by Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

Authors: Galal H. Senussi, Muamar Benisa, Sanja Vasin


In our business field today, one of the most important issues for any enterprises is cost minimization and profit maximization. Second issue is how to develop a strong and capable model that is able to give us desired forecasting of these two issues. Many researches deal with these issues using different methods. In this study, we developed a model for multi-criteria production program optimization, integrated with Artificial Neural Network. The prediction of the production cost and profit per unit of a product, dealing with two obverse functions at same time can be extremely difficult, especially if there is a great amount of conflict information about production parameters. Feed-Forward Neural Networks are suitable for generalization, which means that the network will generate a proper output as a result to input it has never seen. Therefore, with small set of examples the network will adjust its weight coefficients so the input will generate a proper output. This essential characteristic is of the most important abilities enabling this network to be used in variety of problems spreading from engineering to finance etc. From our results as we will see later, Feed-Forward Neural Networks has a strong ability and capability to map inputs into desired outputs.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Multi-objective optimization, Genetic Algorithm, project profitability, Pareto set

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72 Optimizing Operation of Photovoltaic System Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: N. Drir, L. Barazane, M. Loudini


It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) cells are an attractive source of energy. Abundant and ubiquitous, this source is one of the important renewable energy sources that have been increasing worldwide year by year. However, in the V-P characteristic curve of GPV, there is a maximum point called the maximum power point (MPP) which depends closely on the variation of atmospheric conditions and the rotation of the earth. In fact, such characteristics outputs are nonlinear and change with variations of temperature and irradiation, so we need a controller named maximum power point tracker MPPT to extract the maximum power at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this context, the authors propose here to study the modeling of a photovoltaic system and to find an appropriate method for optimizing the operation of the PV generator using two intelligent controllers respectively to track this point. The first one is based on artificial neural networks and the second on fuzzy logic. After the conception and the integration of each controller in the global process, the performances are examined and compared through a series of simulation. These two controller have prove by their results good tracking of the MPPT compare with the other method which are proposed up to now.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Photovoltaic, maximum power point tracking, P&O

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71 Alphabet Recognition Using Pixel Probability Distribution

Authors: Vaidehi Murarka, Sneha Mehta, Dishant Upadhyay


Our project topic is “Alphabet Recognition using pixel probability distribution”. The project uses techniques of Image Processing and Machine Learning in Computer Vision. Alphabet recognition is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files etc. Alphabet Recognition based OCR application is sometimes used in signature recognition which is used in bank and other high security buildings. One of the popular mobile applications includes reading a visiting card and directly storing it to the contacts. OCR's are known to be used in radar systems for reading speeders license plates and lots of other things. The implementation of our project has been done using Visual Studio and Open CV (Open Source Computer Vision). Our algorithm is based on Neural Networks (machine learning). The project was implemented in three modules: (1) Training: This module aims “Database Generation”. Database was generated using two methods: (a) Run-time generation included database generation at compilation time using inbuilt fonts of OpenCV library. Human intervention is not necessary for generating this database. (b) Contour–detection: ‘jpeg’ template containing different fonts of an alphabet is converted to the weighted matrix using specialized functions (contour detection and blob detection) of OpenCV. The main advantage of this type of database generation is that the algorithm becomes self-learning and the final database requires little memory to be stored (119kb precisely). (2) Preprocessing: Input image is pre-processed using image processing concepts such as adaptive thresholding, binarizing, dilating etc. and is made ready for segmentation. “Segmentation” includes extraction of lines, words, and letters from the processed text image. (3) Testing and prediction: The extracted letters are classified and predicted using the neural networks algorithm. The algorithm recognizes an alphabet based on certain mathematical parameters calculated using the database and weight matrix of the segmented image.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Segmentation, Pre-processing, contour-detection, recognition coefficient, runtime-template generation, weight matrix

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70 Application of Artificial Intelligence in EOR

Authors: Masoumeh Mofarrah, Amir NahanMoghadam


Higher oil prices and increasing oil demand are main reasons for great attention to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Comprehensive researches have been accomplished to develop, appraise, and improve EOR methods and their application. Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) gained popularity in petroleum industry that can help petroleum engineers to solve some fundamental petroleum engineering problems such as reservoir simulation, EOR project risk analysis, well log interpretation and well test model selection. This study presents a historical overview of most popular AI tools including neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and expert systems in petroleum industry and discusses two case studies to represent the application of two mentioned AI methods for selecting an appropriate EOR method based on reservoir characterization infeasible and effective way.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, EOR

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69 Literature Review: Application of Artificial Intelligence in EOR

Authors: Masoumeh Mofarrah, Amir NahanMoghadam


Higher oil prices and increasing oil demand are main reasons for great attention to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Comprehensive researches have been accomplished to develop, appraise and improve EOR methods and their application. Recently Artificial Intelligence (AI) gained popularity in petroleum industry that can help petroleum engineers to solve some fundamental petroleum engineering problems such as reservoir simulation, EOR project risk analysis, well log interpretation and well test model selection. This study presents a historical overview of most popular AI tools including neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and expert systems in petroleum industry and discusses two case studies to represent the application of two mentioned AI methods for selecting an appropriate EOR method based on reservoir characterization in feasible and effective way.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, EOR

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68 Recognition of Noisy Words Using the Time Delay Neural Networks Approach

Authors: Khenfer-Koummich Fatima, Mesbahi Larbi, Hendel Fatiha


This paper presents a recognition system for isolated words like robot commands. It’s carried out by Time Delay Neural Networks; TDNN. To teleoperate a robot for specific tasks as turn, close, etc… In industrial environment and taking into account the noise coming from the machine. The choice of TDNN is based on its generalization in terms of accuracy, in more it acts as a filter that allows the passage of certain desirable frequency characteristics of speech; the goal is to determine the parameters of this filter for making an adaptable system to the variability of speech signal and to noise especially, for this the back propagation technique was used in learning phase. The approach was applied on commands pronounced in two languages separately: The French and Arabic. The results for two test bases of 300 spoken words for each one are 87%, 97.6% in neutral environment and 77.67%, 92.67% when the white Gaussian noisy was added with a SNR of 35 dB.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Noise, Speech Recognition, TDNN

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67 Comparison between LQR and ANN Active Anti-Roll Control of a Single Unit Heavy Vehicle

Authors: Babesse Saad, Ameddah Djemeleddine


In this paper, a learning algorithm using neuronal networks to improve the roll stability and prevent the rollover in a single unit heavy vehicle is proposed. First, LQR control to keep balanced normalized rollovers, between front and rear axles, below the unity, then a data collected from this controller is used as a training basis of a neuronal regulator. The ANN controller is thereafter applied for the nonlinear side force model, and gives satisfactory results than the LQR one.

Keywords: Neural Networks, rollover, single unit heavy vehicle, nonlinear side force

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66 Application of Adaptive Neural Network Algorithms for Determination of Salt Composition of Waters Using Laser Spectroscopy

Authors: Tatiana A. Dolenko, Sergey A. Burikov, Alexander O. Efitorov, Sergey A. Dolenko


In this study, a comparative analysis of the approaches associated with the use of neural network algorithms for effective solution of a complex inverse problem – the problem of identifying and determining the individual concentrations of inorganic salts in multicomponent aqueous solutions by the spectra of Raman scattering of light – is performed. It is shown that application of artificial neural networks provides the average accuracy of determination of concentration of each salt no worse than 0.025 M. The results of comparative analysis of input data compression methods are presented. It is demonstrated that use of uniform aggregation of input features allows decreasing the error of determination of individual concentrations of components by 16-18% on the average.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Inverse Problems, Raman spectroscopy, multi-component solutions

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65 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi


In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Rehabilitation Engineering, kinemic gait data, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty

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64 Exploiting Kinetic and Kinematic Data to Plot Cyclograms for Managing the Rehabilitation Process of BKAs by Applying Neural Networks

Authors: L. Parisi


Kinematic data wisely correlate vector quantities in space to scalar parameters in time to assess the degree of symmetry between the intact limb and the amputated limb with respect to a normal model derived from the gait of control group participants. Furthermore, these particular data allow a doctor to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a certain rehabilitation therapy. Kinetic curves allow the analysis of ground reaction forces (GRFs) to assess the appropriateness of human motion. Electromyography (EMG) allows the analysis of the fundamental lower limb force contributions to quantify the level of gait asymmetry. However, the use of this technological tool is expensive and requires patient’s hospitalization. This research work suggests overcoming the above limitations by applying artificial neural networks.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Kinetics, Kinematics, cyclograms, transtibial amputation

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63 Identification of Nonlinear Systems Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: C. Pislaru, A. Shebani


This paper uses the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for system identification of nonlinear systems. Five nonlinear systems are used to examine the activity of RBFNN in system modeling of nonlinear systems; the five nonlinear systems are dual tank system, single tank system, DC motor system, and two academic models. The feed forward method is considered in this work for modelling the non-linear dynamic models, where the K-Means clustering algorithm used in this paper to select the centers of radial basis function network, because it is reliable, offers fast convergence and can handle large data sets. The least mean square method is used to adjust the weights to the output layer, and Euclidean distance method used to measure the width of the Gaussian function.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Nonlinear Systems, System Identification, radial basis function, K-means clustering algorithm

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62 Mean Monthly Rainfall Prediction at Benina Station Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Hasan G. Elmazoghi, Aisha I. Alzayani, Lubna S. Bentaher


Rainfall is a highly non-linear phenomena, which requires application of powerful supervised data mining techniques for its accurate prediction. In this study the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique is used to predict the mean monthly historical rainfall data collected from BENINA station in Benghazi for 31 years, the period of “1977-2006” and the results are compared against the observed values. The specific objective to achieve this goal was to determine the best combination of weather variables to be used as inputs for the ANN model. Several statistical parameters were calculated and an uncertainty analysis for the results is also presented. The best ANN model is then applied to the data of one year (2007) as a case study in order to evaluate the performance of the model. Simulation results reveal that application of ANN technique is promising and can provide reliable estimates of rainfall.

Keywords: Neural Networks, prediction, Rainfall, climatic variables

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61 A Cognitive Approach to the Optimization of Power Distribution across an Educational Campus

Authors: Mrinmoy Majumder, Apu Kumar Saha


The ever-increasing human population and its demand for energy is placing stress upon conventional energy sources; and as demand for power continues to outstrip supply, the need to optimize energy distribution and utilization is emerging as an important focus for various stakeholders. The distribution of available energy must be achieved in such a way that the needs of the consumer are satisfied. However, if the availability of resources is not sufficient to satisfy consumer demand, it is necessary to find a method to select consumers based on factors such as their socio-economic or environmental impacts. Weighting consumer types in this way can help separate them based on their relative importance, and cognitive optimization of the allocation process can then be carried out so that, even on days of particularly scarce supply, the socio-economic impacts of not satisfying the needs of consumers can be minimized. In this context, the present study utilized fuzzy logic to assign weightage to different types of consumers based at an educational campus in India, and then established optimal allocation by applying the non-linear mapping capability of neuro-genetic algorithms. The outputs of the algorithms were compared with similar outputs from particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithms. The results of the study demonstrate an option for the optimal utilization of available energy based on the socio-economic importance of consumers.

Keywords: Neural Networks, optimization problem, power allocation, environmental and ecological engineering

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60 Construction Unit Rate Factor Modelling Using Neural Networks

Authors: Balimu Mwiya, Mundia Muya, Chabota Kaliba, Peter Mukalula


Factors affecting construction unit cost vary depending on a country’s political, economic, social and technological inclinations. Factors affecting construction costs have been studied from various perspectives. Analysis of cost factors requires an appreciation of a country’s practices. Identified cost factors provide an indication of a country’s construction economic strata. The purpose of this paper is to identify the essential factors that affect unit cost estimation and their breakdown using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five (25) identified cost factors in road construction were subjected to a questionnaire survey and employing SPSS factor analysis the factors were reduced to eight. The 8 factors were analysed using the neural network (NN) to determine the proportionate breakdown of the cost factors in a given construction unit rate. NN predicted that political environment accounted 44% of the unit rate followed by contractor capacity at 22% and financial delays, project feasibility, overhead and profit each at 11%. Project location, material availability and corruption perception index had minimal impact on the unit cost from the training data provided. Quantified cost factors can be incorporated in unit cost estimation models (UCEM) to produce more accurate estimates. This can create improvements in the cost estimation of infrastructure projects and establish a benchmark standard to assist the process of alignment of work practises and training of new staff, permitting the on-going development of best practises in cost estimation to become more effective.

Keywords: Neural Networks, construction cost factors, roadworks, Zambian construction industry

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59 Climate Variability on Hydro-Energy Potential: An MCDM and Neural Network Approach

Authors: Mrinmoy Majumder, Apu Kumar Saha


The increase in the concentration of Green House gases all over the World has induced global warming phenomena whereby the average temperature of the world has aggravated to impact the pattern of climate in different regions. The frequency of extreme event has increased, early onset of season and change in an average amount of rainfall all are engrossing the conclusion that normal pattern of climate is changing. Sophisticated and complex models are prepared to estimate the future situation of the climate in different zones of the Earth. As hydro-energy is directly related to climatic parameters like rainfall and evaporation such energy resources will have to sustain the onset of the climatic abnormalities. The present investigation has tried to assess the impact of climatic abnormalities upon hydropower potential of different regions of the World. In this regard multi-criteria, decision making, and the neural network is used to predict the impact of the change cognitively by an index. The results from the study show that hydro-energy potential of Asian region is mostly vulnerable with respect to other regions of the world. The model results also encourage further application of the index to analyze the impact of climate change on the potential of hydro-energy.

Keywords: Neural Networks, multi criteria decision analysis, environmental and ecological engineering, hydro-energy potential

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58 Training a Neural Network Using Input Dropout with Aggressive Reweighting (IDAR) on Datasets with Many Useless Features

Authors: Stylianos Kampakis


This paper presents a new algorithm for neural networks called “Input Dropout with Aggressive Re-weighting” (IDAR) aimed specifically at datasets with many useless features. IDAR combines two techniques (dropout of input neurons and aggressive re weighting) in order to eliminate the influence of noisy features. The technique can be seen as a generalization of dropout. The algorithm is tested on two different benchmark data sets: a noisy version of the iris dataset and the MADELON data set. Its performance is compared against three other popular techniques for dealing with useless features: L2 regularization, LASSO and random forests. The results demonstrate that IDAR can be an effective technique for handling data sets with many useless features.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Feature selection, regularization, aggressive reweighting

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57 Using Neural Networks for Click Prediction of Sponsored Search

Authors: Afroze Ibrahim Baqapuri, Ilya Trofimov


Sponsored search is a multi-billion dollar industry and makes up a major source of revenue for search engines (SE). Click-through-rate (CTR) estimation plays a crucial role for ads selection, and greatly affects the SE revenue, advertiser traffic and user experience. We propose a novel architecture of solving CTR prediction problem by combining artificial neural networks (ANN) with decision trees. First, we compare ANN with respect to other popular machine learning models being used for this task. Then we go on to combine ANN with MatrixNet (proprietary implementation of boosted trees) and evaluate the performance of the system as a whole. The results show that our approach provides a significant improvement over existing models.

Keywords: Neural Networks, sponsored search, web advertisement, click prediction, click-through rate

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56 A Pattern Recognition Neural Network Model for Detection and Classification of SQL Injection Attacks

Authors: Naghmeh Moradpoor Sheykhkanloo


Structured Query Language Injection (SQLI) attack is a code injection technique in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into a given SQL database by simply using a web browser. Losing data, disclosing confidential information or even changing the value of data are the severe damages that SQLI attack can cause on a given database. SQLI attack has also been rated as the number-one attack among top ten web application threats on Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). OWASP is an open community dedicated to enabling organisations to consider, develop, obtain, function, and preserve applications that can be trusted. In this paper, we propose an effective pattern recognition neural network model for detection and classification of SQLI attacks. The proposed model is built from three main elements of: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) generator in order to generate thousands of malicious and benign URLs, a URL classifier in order to: 1) classify each generated URL to either a benign URL or a malicious URL and 2) classify the malicious URLs into different SQLI attack categories, and an NN model in order to: 1) detect either a given URL is a malicious URL or a benign URL and 2) identify the type of SQLI attack for each malicious URL. The model is first trained and then evaluated by employing thousands of benign and malicious URLs. The results of the experiments are presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Pattern Recognition, SQL injection attacks, SQL injection attack classification, SQL injection attack detection

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55 Further Analysis of Global Robust Stability of Neural Networks with Multiple Time Delays

Authors: Sabri Arik


In this paper, we study the global asymptotic robust stability of delayed neural networks with norm-bounded uncertainties. By employing the Lyapunov stability theory and Homeomorphic mapping theorem, we derive some new types of sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with discrete time delays under parameter uncertainties and with respect to continuous and slopebounded activation functions. An important aspect of our results is their low computational complexity as the reported results can be verified by checking some properties symmetric matrices associated with the uncertainty sets of network parameters. The obtained results are shown to be generalization of some of the previously published corresponding results. Some comparative numerical examples are also constructed to compare our results with some closely related existing literature results.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Stability Analysis, delayed systems, lyapunov functionals

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54 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman, Wahab Ali


Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Breast Cancer, Mammography, intelligent classification

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53 Study on the Transition to Pacemaker of Two Coupled Neurons

Authors: Sun Zhe, Ruggero Micheletto


The research of neural network is very important for the development of advanced next generation intelligent devices and the medical treatment. The most important part of the neural network research is the learning. The process of learning in our brain is essentially several adjustment processes of connection strength between neurons. It is very difficult to figure out how this mechanism works in the complex network and how the connection strength influences brain functions. For this reason, we made a model with only two coupled neurons and studied the influence of connection strength between them. To emulate the neuronal activity of realistic neurons, we prefer to use the Izhikevich neuron model. This model can simulate the neuron variables accurately and it’s simplicity is very suitable to implement on computers. In this research, the parameter ρ is used to estimate the correlation coefficient between spike train of two coupling neurons.We think the results is very important for figuring out the mechanism between synchronization of coupling neurons and synaptic plasticity. The result also presented the importance of the spike frequency adaptation in complex systems.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Noise, Stochastic Processes, Synaptic plasticity, Synchronization, coupled neurons, correlation coefficient, pacemaker

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52 Peak Frequencies in the Collective Membrane Potential of a Hindmarsh-Rose Small-World Neural Network

Authors: Sun Zhe, Ruggero Micheletto


As discussed extensively in many studies, noise in neural networks have an important role in the functioning and time evolution of the system. The mechanism by which noise induce stochastic resonance enhancing and influencing certain operations is not clarified nor is the mechanism of information storage and coding. With the present research we want to study the role of noise, especially focusing on the frequency peaks in a three variable Hindmarsh−Rose Small−World network. We investigated the behaviour of the network to external noises. We demonstrate that a variation of signal to noise ratio of about 10 dB induces an increase in membrane potential signal of about 15%, averaged over the whole network. We also considered the integral of the whole membrane potential as a paradigm of internal noise, the one generated by the brain network. We showed that this internal noise is attenuated with the size of the network or with the number of random connections. By means of Fourier analysis we found that it has distinct peaks of frequencies, moreover, we showed that increasing the size of the network introducing more neurons, reduced the maximum frequencies generated by the network, whereas the increase in the number of random connections (determined by the small-world probability p) led to a trend toward higher frequencies. This study may give clues on how networks utilize noise to alter the collective behaviour of the system in their operations.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Stochastic Processes, small-world networks, discrete Fourier analysis

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