Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 162

Nanoparticles Related Abstracts

162 Preparation and Evaluation of Zidovudine Nanoparticles

Authors: D. R. Rama Brahma Reddy, A. Vijaya Sarada Reddy


Nanoparticles represent a promising drug delivery system of controlled and targeted drug release. They are specially designed to release the drug in the vicinity of target tissue. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate polymethacrylic acid nanoparticles containing Zidovudine in different drug to polymer ratio by nanoprecipitation method. SEM indicated that nanoparticles have a discrete spherical structure without aggregation. The average particle size was found to be 120 ± 0.02 - 420 ± 0.05 nm. The particle size of the nanoparticles was gradually increased with increase in the proportion of polymethacrylic acid polymer. The drug content of the nanoparticles was increasing on increasing polymer concentration up to a particular concentration. No appreciable difference was observed in the extent of degradation of product during 60 days in which, nanoparticles were stored at various temperatures. FT-IR studies indicated that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer and stability of drug. The in-vitro release behavior from all the drug loaded batches was found to be zero order and provided sustained release over a period of 24 h. The developed formulation overcome and alleviates the drawbacks and limitations of Zidovudine sustained release formulations and could possibility be advantageous in terms of increased bio availability of Zidovudine.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, biodegradable, zidovudine, polymethacrylic acid

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161 Development of Mucoadhesive Multiparticulate System for Nasal Drug Delivery

Authors: K. S. Hemant Yadav, H. G. Shivakumar


The present study investigation was to prepare and evaluate the mucoadhesive multi-particulate system for nasal drug delivery of anti-histaminic drug. Ebastine was chosen as the model drug. Drug loaded nanoparticles of Ebastine were prepared by ionic gelation method using chitosan as polymer using the drug-polymer weight ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was used as the cross-linking agent in the range of 0.5 and 0.7% w/v. FTIR and DSC studies indicated that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. Particle size ranged from 169 to 500 nm. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency was found to increase with increase in chitosan concentration and decreased with increase in poloxamer 407 concentration. The results of in vitro mucoadhesion carried out showed that all the prepared formulation had good mucoadhesive property and mucoadhesion increases with increase in the concentration of chitosan. The in vitro release pattern of all the formulations was observed to be in a biphasic manner characterized by slight burst effect followed by a slow release. By the end of 8 hrs, formulation F6 showed a release of only 86.9% which explains its sustained behaviour. The ex-vivo permeation of the pure drug ebastine was rapid than the optimized formulation(F6) indicating the capability of the chitosan polymer to control drug permeation rate through the sheep nasal mucosa. The results indicated that the mucoadhesive nanoparticulate system can be used for the nasal delivery of antihistaminic drugs in an effective manner.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nasal, ebastine, anti-histaminic drug, mucoadhesive multi-particulate system

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160 Doxorubicin and Cyclosporine Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles to Combat Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Shamala Nadaraju, Srinivasan Ramamurthy


Doxorubicin is the most widely used anticancer drugs in chemotherapy treatment. However, problems related to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and acute cardiotoxicity have led researchers to investigate alternative forms of administering doxorubicin for cancer therapy. Several methods have been attempted to overcome MDR, including the co-administration of a chemosensitizer inhibiting the efflux caused by ATP binding cassette transporters with anticancer drugs, and the bypass of the efflux mechanism. Co encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclosporine A (CSA) into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was emulsification-solvent evaporation method using polyvinyl alcohol as emulsion stabilizers. The Dox-CSA loaded nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential and PDI by light scattering analysis and thermal characterizations by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Loading efficiency (LE %) and in-vitro dissolution samples were evaluated by developed and validated HPLC method. The optimum particle size obtained is 298.6.8±39.4 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) is 0.098±0.092. Zeta potential is found to be -29.9±4.23. Optimum pH to increase Dox LE% was found 7.1 which gave 42.5% and 58.9% increase of LE% for pH 6.6 and pH 8.6 compared respectively. LE% achieved for Dox is 0.07±0.01 % and CSA is 0.09±0.03%. Increased volume of PVA and weight of PLGA shows increase in size of nanoparticles. DSC thermograms showed shift in the melting peak for the nanoparticles compared to Dox and CSA indicating encapsulation of drugs. In conclusion, these preliminary studies showed the feasibility of PLGA nanoparticles to entrap Dox and CSA and require future in-vivo studies to be performed to establish its potential.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, PLGA

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159 Polyacrylate Modified Copper Nanoparticles with Controlled Size

Authors: Robert Prucek, Ales Panacek, Jan Filip, Libor Kvítek, Radek Zbořil


The preparation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) through the reduction of copper ions by sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium polyacrylate with a molecular weight of 1200 is reported. Cu NPs were synthesized at a concentration of copper salt equal to 2.5, 5, and 10 mM, and at a molar ratio of copper ions and monomeric unit of polyacrylate equal to 1:2. The as-prepared Cu NPs have diameters of about 2.5–3 nm for copper concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mM, and 6 nm for copper concentration of 10 mM. Depending on the copper salt concentration and concentration of additionally added polyacrylate to Cu particle dispersion, primarily formed NPs grow through the process of aggregation and/or coalescence into clusters and/or particles with a diameter between 20–100 nm. The amount of additionally added sodium polyacrylate influences the stability of Cu particles against air oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the prepared Cu particles for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol is discussed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Catalyst, Copper, sodium polyacrylate

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158 Preparation of Chromium Nanoparticles on Carbon Substrate from Tannery Waste Solution by Chemical Method Compared to Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah, Said El Sheikh


This work shows the preparation of chromium nanoparticles from tannery waste solution on glassy carbon by chemical method compared to electrokinetic process. The waste solution contains free and soluble fats, calcium, iron, magnesium and high sodium in addition to the chromium ions. Filtration helps removal of insoluble matters. Diethyl ether successfully extracted soluble fats. The method started by removing calcium as insoluble oxalate salts at hot conditions in a faint acidic medium. The filtrate contains iron, magnesium, chromium ions and sodium chloride in excess. Chromium was separated selectively as insoluble hydroxide sol-gel at pH 6.5, filtered and washed with distilled water. Part of the gel reacted with sulfuric acid to produce chromium sulfate solution having 15-25 g/L concentration. Electrokinetic deposition of chromium nanoparticles on a carbon cathode was carried out using platinum anode under different galvanostatic conditions. The chemical method involved impregnating the carbon specimens with chromium hydroxide gel followed by reduction using hydrazine hydrate or by thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 1250°C. Chromium grain size was characterized by TEM, FT-IR and SEM. Properties of the Cr grains were correlated to the conditions of the preparation process. Electrodeposition was found to control chromium particles to be more identical in size and shape as compared to the chemical method.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Chromium, electrodeposition, tannery waste solution

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157 Development of pH Responsive Nanoparticles for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

Authors: V. Balamuralidhara


The aim of the present work was to develop Paclitaxel loaded polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles as pH responsive nanoparticle systems for targeting colon. The pH sensitive nanoparticles were prepared by modified ionotropic gelation technique. The prepared nanoparticles showed mean diameters in the range of 264±0.676 nm to 726±0.671nm, and a negative net charge 10.8 mV to 35.4mV. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies suggested that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymers. The encapsulation efficiency of the drug was found to be 40.92% to 48.14%. The suitability of the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum ERN’s for the release of Paclitaxel was studied by in vitro release at pH 1.2 and 7.4. It was observed that, there was no significant amount of drug release at gastric pH and 97.63% of drug release at pH 7.4 was obtained for optimized formulation F3 at the end of 12 hrs. In vivo drug targeting performance for the prepared optimized formulation (F3) and pure drug Paclitaxel was evaluated by HPLC. It was observed that the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum can be used to prepare nanoparticles for targeting the drug to the colon. The release performance was greatly affected by the materials used in ERN’s preparation, which allows maximum release at colon’s pH. It may be concluded that polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel have desirable release responsive to specific pH. Hence it is a unique approach for colonic delivery of drug having appropriate site specificity and feasibility and controlled release of drug.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, colon targeting, polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles, paclitaxel

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156 Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Performance by Use of Porous Baffles and Nanofluids

Authors: N. Targui, H. Kahalerras


The present work is a numerical simulation of nanofluids flow in a double pipe heat exchanger provided with porous baffles. The hot nanofluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas the cold nanofluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the porous regions, and the governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the finite volume method. The results reveal that the addition of metallic nanoparticles enhances the rate of heat transfer in comparison to conventional fluids but this augmentation is accompanied by an increase in pressure drop. The highest heat exchanger performances are obtained when nanoparticles are added only to the cold fluid.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nanofluids, double pipe heat exchanger, porous baffles

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155 Electrical Interactions and Patterning of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions

Authors: A. A. Vasin, N. V. Klassen, A. M. Likhter, K. A. Voronin, A. V. Mariasevskaya, I. M. Shmit’ko


Regular patterning in mixtures of bio-polymers (chitosan and collagen) and nanoparticles in water suspensions has been found by means of optical microscopy. The patterning was created either by external electrical field of moderate amplitude (200–1000 v/cm) or spontaneously. Simultaneously with the patterning pushing out of water drops mixed with nanoparticles to the external regions was observed. These phenomena are explained by interactions of charged bio-polymers and nanoparticles with external and internal electrical fields as well as with the regions of decreased dielectrical permittivity surrounding nano-objects in water which possesses anomalously high dielectrical permittivity. Electrical charges of opposite signs of the nano-objects induce their mutual attraction whereas dipole moments created around these nano-objects by the electrical fields are pushing these particles to the regions with lower fields. Due to this reason, non-homogeneities of dielectrical permittivity around nano-objects immersed into water suspension induces mutual repulsion of the objects. This spatial decrease of this repulsion with the inter-particle distances is more sharp than that of the Coulomb attraction. So, at longer distances, the attractions are stronger whereas at shorter distances the repulsion prevails. At a certain distance these two forces compensate each other creating the equilibrium state of the mixture of nano-objects with opposite charges. When the groups of positive and negative nano-objects consist from identical particles, quasi-periodical pattern of the suspension is observed like mesoscopic two-dimensional super-crystal. These results can clarify the mechanisms of healing of internal organs with direct or alternative electrical fields.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, chitosan, collagen, bio-polymers, Coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances

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154 Transformations of Spatial Distributions of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions Induced by Resonance-Like Low Frequency Electrical Fields

Authors: A. A. Vasin, N. V. Klassen, A. M. Likhter


Water suspensions of in-organic (metals and oxides) and organic nano-objects (chitozan and collagen) were subjected to the treatment of direct and alternative electrical fields. In addition to quasi-periodical spatial patterning resonance-like performance of spatial distributions of these suspensions has been found at low frequencies of alternating electrical field. These resonances are explained as the result of creation of equilibrium states of groups of charged nano-objects with opposite signs of charges at the interparticle distances where the forces of Coulomb attraction are compensated by the repulsion forces induced by relatively negative polarization of hydrated regions surrounding the nanoparticles with respect to pure water. The low frequencies of these resonances are explained by comparatively big distances between the particles and their big masses with t\respect to masses of atoms constituting molecules with high resonance frequencies. These new resonances open a new approach to detailed modeling and understanding of mechanisms of the influence of electrical fields on the functioning of internal organs of living organisms at the level of cells and neurons.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Transformations, chitosan, collagen, bio-polymers, Coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances

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153 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim


Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, numerical modeling, thermite reaction, combustion wave

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152 Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes

Authors: G. Wagner, R. Herrmann


Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cytotoxicity, platinum compounds, mesoporous silica

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151 Determination of the Structural Parameters of Calcium Phosphate for Biomedical Use

Authors: María Magdalena Méndez-González, Miguel García Rocha, Carlos Manuel Yermo De la Cruz


Calcium phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3(X)) is widely used in orthopedic applications and is widely used as powder and granules. However, their presence in bone is in the form of nanometric needles 60 nm in length with a non-stoichiometric phase of apatite contains CO3-2, Na+, OH-, F-, and other ions in a matrix of collagen fibers. The crystal size, morphology control and interaction with cells are essential for the development of nanotechnology. The structural results of calcium phosphate, synthesized by chemical precipitation with crystal size of 22.85 nm are presented in this paper. The calcium phosphate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy and FT-IR transmission electron microscopy. Network parameters, atomic positions, the indexing of the planes and the calculation of FWHM (full width at half maximum) were obtained. The crystal size was also calculated using the Scherer equation d (hkl) = cλ/βcosѲ. Where c is a constant related to the shape of the crystal, the wavelength of the radiation used for a copper anode is 1.54060Å, Ѳ is the Bragg diffraction angle, and β is the width average peak height of greater intensity. Diffraction pattern corresponding to the calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite phase of a hexagonal crystal system was obtained. It belongs to the space group P63m with lattice parameters a = 9.4394 Å and c = 6.8861 Å. The most intense peak is obtained 2Ѳ = 31.55 (FWHM = 0.4798), with a preferred orientation in 121. The intensity difference between the experimental data and the calculated values is attributable to the temperature at which the sintering was performed. The intensity of the highest peak is at angle 2Ѳ = 32.11. The structure of calcium phosphate obtained was a hexagonal configuration. The intensity changes in the peaks of the diffraction pattern, in the lattice parameters at the corners, indicating the possible presence of a dopant. That each calcium atom is surrounded by a tetrahedron of oxygen and hydrogen was observed by infrared spectra. The unit cell pattern corresponds to hydroxyapatite and transmission electron microscopic crystal morphology corresponding to the hexagonal phase with a preferential growth along the c-plane was obtained.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Structure, calcium phosphate, metallurgical and materials engineering

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150 Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex

Authors: Tahereh Tohidi Moghadam, Shahnaz Ashrafpour, Bijan Ranjbar


Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 µM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Surface Plasmon Resonance, nanocarrier, quenching fluorescence

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149 Design of RF Generator and Its Testing in Heating of Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: D. Suman, M. Venkateshwara Rao


Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body, which is affecting millions of people leading to death. Even though there have been tremendous developments taken place over the last few decades the effective therapy for cancer is still not a reality. The existing techniques of cancer therapy are chemotherapy and radio therapy which are having their limitations in terms of the side effects, patient discomfort, radiation hazards and the localization of treatment. This paper describes a novel method for cancer therapy by using RF-hyperthermia application of nanoparticles. We have synthesized ferromagnetic nanoparticles and characterized by using XRD and TEM. These nanoparticles after the biocompatibility studies will be injected in to the body with a suitable tracer element having affinity to the specific tumor site. When RF energy is applied to the nanoparticles at the tumor site it produces heat of excess room temperature and nearly 41-45°C is sufficient to kill the tumor cells. We have designed a RF source generator provided with a temperature feedback controller to control the radiation induced temperature of the tumor site. The temperature control is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism of the thermocouple and a relay connected to the power source of the RF generator. This method has advantages in terms of its effect like localized therapy, less radiation, and no side effects. It has several challenges in designing the RF source provided with coils suitable for the tumour site, biocompatibility of the nanomaterials, cooling system design for the RF coil. If we can overcome these challenges this method will be a huge benefit for the society.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia, RF source generator

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148 Design and Characterization of Aromatase Inhibitor Loaded Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Breast Cancer

Authors: Harish K. Chandrawanshi, Mithun S. Rajput, Neelima Choure, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Shailesh Jain


The present research study aimed to fabricate and evaluate biodegradable nanoparticles of aromatase inhibitor letrozole, intended for breast cancer therapy. Letrozole loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using dichlorometane as solvent (oil phase) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as aqueous phase. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, infrared spectra, drug loading efficiency, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro release and also evaluated for in vivo anticancer activity. The high speed homogenizer was used to produce stable nanoparticles of mean size range 198.35 ± 0.04 nm with high entrapment efficiency (69.86 ± 2.78%). Percentage of drug and homogenization speed significantly influenced the particle size, entrapment efficiency and release (p<0.05). The nanoparticles show significant in vivo anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. The significant system sustained the release of letrozole drug effectively and further investigation could exhibit its potential usefulness in breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, PLGA, breast cancer/therapy, letrozole

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147 Nano-Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Active Schistosomal Infection

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Hanan G. El-Baz, Zeinab A.Demerdash, Engy M. Abd El-Moneem, Mohamed A. Hendawy, Ibrahim R. Bayoumi


There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays of schistosomiasis as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. This study aims at increasing the diagnostic efficiency of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen detection assays through gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific anti-Schistosoma mansoni monoclonal antibodies. In this study, several hybidoma cell lines secreting MAbs against adult worm tegumental Schistosoma antigen (AWTA) were produced at Immunology Department of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute and preserved in liquid nitrogen. One MAb (6D/6F) was chosen for this study due to its high reactivity to schistosome antigens with highest optical density (OD) values. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were functionalized and conjugated with MAb (6D/6F). The study was conducted on serum samples of 116 subjects: 71 patients with S. mansoni eggs in their stool samples group (gp 1), 25 with other parasites (gp2) and 20 negative healthy controls (gp3). Patients in gp1 were further subdivided according to egg count in their stool samples into Light infection {≤ 50 egg per gram(epg) (n= 17)}, moderate {51-100 epg (n= 33)} and severe infection {>100 epg(n= 21)}. Sandwich ELISA was performed using (AuNPs -MAb) for detection of circulating schistosomal antigen (CSA) levels in serum samples of all groups and the results were compared with that after using MAb/ sandwich ELISA system. Results Gold- MAb/ ELISA system reached a lower detection limit of 10 ng/ml compared to 85 ng/ml on using MAb/ ELISA and the optimal concentrations of AuNPs -MAb were found to be 12 folds less than that of MAb/ ELISA system for detection of CSA. The sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA levels using AuNPs -MAb were 100% & 97.8 % respectively compared to 87.3% &93.38% respectively on using MAb/ ELISA system. It was found that CSA was detected in 9 out of 71 S.mansoni infected patients on using AuNPs - MAb/ ELISA system and was not detected by MAb/ ELISA system. All those patients (9) was found to have an egg count below 50 epg feces (patients with light infections). ROC curve analyses revealed that sandwich ELISA using gold-MAb was an excellent diagnostic investigator that could differentiate Schistosoma patients from healthy controls, on the other hand it revealed that sandwich ELISA using MAb was not accurate enough as it could not recognize nine out of 71 patients with light infections. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that: Loading gold nanoparticles with MAb (6D/6F) increases the sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected. Moreover this binding will decrease the amount of MAb consumed in the assay and lower the coast. The significant positive correlation that was detected between ova count (intensity of infection) and OD reading in sandwich ELISA using gold- MAb enables its use to detect the severity of infections and follow up patients after treatment for monitoring of cure.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Monoclonal Antibodies, Schistosomiasis, Gold, ELISA

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146 Development of Site-Specific Colonic Drug Delivery System (Nanoparticles) of Chitosan Coated with pH Sensitive Polymer for the Management of Colonic Inflammation

Authors: Pooja Mongia Raj, Rakesh Raj, Alpana Ram


Background: The use of multiparticulate drug delivery systems in preference to single unit dosage forms for colon targeting purposes dates back to 1985 when Hardy and co-workers showed that multiparticulate systems enabled the drug to reach the colon quickly and were retained in the ascending colon for a relatively long period of time. Methods: Site-specific colonic drug delivery system (nanoparticles) of 5-ASA were prepared and coated with pH sensitive polymer. Chitosan nanoparticles (CTNP) bearing 5-Amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) were prepared, by ionotropic gelation method. Nanoparticulate dosage form consisting of a hydrophobic core enteric coated with pH-dependent polymer Eudragit S-100 by solvent evaporation method, for the effective delivery of drug to the colon for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Results: The mean diameter of CTNP and ECTNP formulations were 159 and 661 nm, respectively. Also optimum value of polydispersity index was found to be 0.249 [count rate (kcps) was 251.2] and 0.170 [count rate (kcps) was 173.9] was obtained for both the formulations respectively. Conclusion: CTNP and Eudragit chitosan nanoparticles (ECTNP) was characterized for shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) appeared to be spherical in shape. The in vitro drug release was investigated using USP dissolution test apparatus in different simulated GIT fluids showed promising release. In vivo experiments are in further proceeding for fruitful results.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Polymer, colon targeting, edragit

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145 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Bi0.82La0.2Fe1-xCrxO3 Nanoparticles

Authors: H. Nematifar, D. Sanavi Khoshnoud, S. Feyz


Bi0.82La0.2Fe1-xCrxO3 (BLFCxO, x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.08) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the lattice parameters decrease for x ≤ 0.05, firstly, and then they increase for x > 0.05. A transformation from rhombohedral structure to orthorhombic structure occurs at x = 0.08. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that the average nanoparticle size is about 60-70 nm. The remnant magnetisation (Mr) increases gradually with x to 0.02, then decreases with further increasing x up to 0.05, and finally enchases abruptly in x = 0.08. The coercivity (HC) increases gradually with x to 0.05, and then significantly reduced with increasing Cr substitution. The magnetic ordering temperature (TN) decreases with Cr doping concentration. The M-H curves of all samples exhibit a wasp-waist hysteresis loop in low magnetic region. This property can play an important role for the applications of some multiferroic nano-device.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Nanoparticles, Thermal analysis, BiFeO3, sol-gel preparation

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144 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor


Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: Characterization, Nanoparticles, metronidazole, ball-milling, XRD diffraction

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143 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer


Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2, and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, bilirubin oxidase, enzymatic fuel cell, glucose oxidase

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142 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Nano-Structured Metal Hexacyanoferrates Using Sapindus mukorossi, a Natural Surfactant

Authors: Uma Shanker, Vidhisha Jassal


A novel green route was used to synthesize few metal hexacyanoferrates (FeHCF, NiHCF, CoHCF and CuHCF) nanoparticles using Sapindus mukorossias a natural surfactant and water as a solvent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo gravimetric techniques. Trasmission electron microscopic images showed that synthesized MHCF nanoparticles exhibited cubic and spherical shapes with exceptionally small sizes ranging from 3nm - 186 nm.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, metal hexacyanoferrates, natural surfactant, Sapindus mukorossias

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141 SEM Detection of Folate Receptor in a Murine Breast Cancer Model Using Secondary Antibody-Conjugated, Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasser A. Ahmed, Juleen M Dickson, Evan S. Krystofiak, Julie A. Oliver


Cancer cells urgently need folate to support their rapid division. Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. FR are distributed over the entire surface of cancer cells, but are polarized to the apical surface of normal cells. Targeting of cancer cells using specific surface molecules such as folate receptors may be one of the strategies used to kill cancer cells without hurting the neighing normal cells. The aim of the current study was to try a method of SEM detecting FR in a murine breast cancer cell model (4T1 cells) using secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles. 4T1 cells were suspended in RPMI medium witth FR antibody and incubated with secondary antibody for fluorescence microscopy. The cells were cultured on 30mm Thermanox coverslips for 18 hours, labeled with FR antibody then incubated with secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles and processed to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The fluorescence microscopy study showed strong punctate FR expression on 4T1 cell membrane. With SEM, the labeling with gold or gold-coated magnetite conjugates showed a similar pattern. Specific labeling occurred in nanoparticle clusters, which are clearly visualized in backscattered electron images. The 4T1 tumor cell model may be useful for the development of FR-targeted tumor therapy using gold-coated magnetite nano-particles.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cell Culture, Cancer Cell, SEM

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140 Comparison of Different in vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier for Study of Toxic Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles

Authors: Samir Dekali, David Crouzier


Due to their new physico-chemical properties engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly employed in numerous industrial sectors (such as electronics, textile, aerospace, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food industry, etc). These new physico-chemical properties can also represent a threat for the human health. Consumers can notably be exposed involuntarily by different routes such as inhalation, ingestion or through the skin. Several studies recently reported a possible biodistribution of these ENPs on the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Consequently, there is a great need for developing BBB in vitro models representative of the in vivo situation and capable of rapidly and accurately assessing ENPs toxic effects and their potential translocation through this barrier. In this study, several in vitro models established with micro-endothelial brain cell lines of different origins (bEnd.3 mouse cell line or a new human cell line) co-cultivated or not with astrocytic cells (C6 rat or C8-B4 mouse cell lines) on Transwells® were compared using different endpoints: trans-endothelial resistance, permeability of the Lucifer yellow and protein junction labeling. Impact of NIST diesel exhaust particles on BBB cell viability is also discussed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, toxicology, blood-brain barrier, diesel exhaust particles

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139 Embryotoxicity of Nano-Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) to Bio-Indicator of Pollution of Land Helix Aspersa

Authors: S. Saadi, S. Besnaci, S. Bensoltane, H. Locif


To validate an ecotoxicological approach to assessing toxicological effects caused by the oxide powder of nano-iron Fe2O3, we searched in the ecotoxicology laboratory cell bodies bio accumulators and bio-indicators of soil pollution the snail Helix aspersa. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of nano Fe2O3 during a very sensitive phase of development H.aspersa (embryonic stage). During embryonic development, we observed in treated with various concentrations of nano Fe2O3 (1.25 g/l, 1.5 g/l, and 2 g/l) compared to control, the deformation of the membrane of the egg and accumulation of this molecule at the rear of the egg proven by the photographs, as with the influence on the hatching percentage.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, helix aspersa, eggs, embryotoxicity, Fe2O3

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138 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Environmental Application

Authors: Shalini Rajput, Dinesh Mohan


Water is the most important and essential resources for existing of life on the earth. Water quality is gradually decreasing due to increasing urbanization and industrialization and various other developmental activities. It can pose a threat to the environment and public health therefore it is necessary to remove hazardous contaminants from wastewater prior to its discharge to the environment. Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been arise as significant materials due to its distinct properties. This article focuses on the synthesis method with a possible mechanism, structure and application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer are useful to describe the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles. Nanosized iron oxide particles utilized for remediation of contaminants from aqueous medium through adsorption process. Due to magnetic properties, nanoparticles can be easily separate from aqueous media. Considering the importance and emerging trend of nanotechnology, iron oxide nanoparticles as nano-adsorbent can be of great importance in the field of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, Adsorption, iron oxide

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137 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Sivakumar, R. Singh, S. Pál, D. Kunzru


AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Tungsten, Nickel, reverse micelles

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136 Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0.1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, I. Kuritka, J. Havlica, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer


In this work, the effect of particle size on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto combustion method was investigated. The different sized CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved after annealing at different temperature 500, 700 and 900 oC. The structural phases, crystallite size and lattice parameter of synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction studies. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated increase in particle size with increase of annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy study indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in Gd3+ ions doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two absorption bands in the frequency range around 580 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicated the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Vibrating Sample magnetometer study showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity changes with particle size of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic Properties, Sol-Gel Synthesis, spinel ferrite

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135 Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, I. Kuritka, J. Havlica, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer, L. Kalina


In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, copper ferrite, magnetic property, CuFe2O4

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134 Dioxomolybdenum (VI) Schiff Base Complex Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Green Nanocatalysis in Epoxidation of Olefins

Authors: Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Sahar Khatami


Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and silica was then coated on the magnetic nanoparticles followed by modification with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane. Then, dioxomolybdenum(VI) Schiff base complex of N,N′-bis(5-chloromethyl-salicylidine)-1,2-phenylenediamine) was immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in epoxidation of olefins using tert-butylhydroperoxide in 1,2-dichloroethane. In this report, the supported complex exhibited 100% selectivity for epoxidation with 100% conversion for cyclooctene. Nanocatalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for subsequent reactions for at least 5 times with less deterioration in catalytic activity.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nanocatalysis, Epoxidation, schiff base, dioxomolybdenum (VI)

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133 Catalytic Performance of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) in the Synthesis of Pyrazolines

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan


Different Pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by cyclization of substituted chalcone derivatives in presence of hydrazine hydrate. A series of novel 1,3,5-triaryl pyrazoline derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone and phenylhydrazine in the presence of the Fe3O4 NPs, in high yields. The structures of compounds obtained were determined by IR and 1H NMR spectra. Fe3O4 NPs was recycled and no appreciable change in activity was noticed after three cycles.

Keywords: Synthesis, Nanoparticles, Catalyst, Fe3O4, pyrazoline, chalcone

Procedia PDF Downloads 279