Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Morphology Related Abstracts

79 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Fateh Chand Oad, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani


The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: Morphology, Growth, stress, Heat, temperature, Rice, Yield

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78 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus Spp.)

Authors: Chung-Ruey Yen, Dinh Ha, Tran


This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in four red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August, the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0-90.5 %) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6 g) in hand self- and (403.4 g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2 %) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3 g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona, and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influenced by pollination methods.

Keywords: Morphology, Hylocereus spp, floral phenology, pollination requirement

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77 Morphology and Risk Factors for Blunt Aortic Trauma in Car Accidents: An Autopsy Study

Authors: Ticijana Prijon, Branko Ermenc


Background: Blunt aortic trauma (BAT) includes various morphological changes that occur during deceleration, acceleration and/or body compression in traffic accidents. The various forms of BAT, from limited laceration of the intima to complete transection of the aorta, depends on the force acting on the vessel wall and the tolerance of the aorta to injury. The force depends on the change in velocity, the dynamics of the accident and of the seating position in the car. Tolerance to aortic injury depends on the anatomy, histological structure and pathomorphological alterations due to aging or disease of the aortic wall.An overview of the literature and medical documentation reveals that different terms are used to describe certain forms of BAT, which can lead to misinterpretation of findings or diagnoses. We therefore, propose a classification that would enable uniform systematic screening of all forms of BAT. We have classified BAT into three morphologycal types: TYPE I (intramural), TYPE II (transmural) and TYPE III (multiple) aortic ruptures with appropriate subtypes. Methods: All car accident casualties examined at the Institute of Forensic Medicine from 2001 to 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Autopsy reports were used to determine the occurrence of each morphological type of BAT in deceased drivers, front seat passengers and other passengers in cars and to define the morphology of BAT in relation to the accident dynamics and the age of the fatalities. Results: A total of 391 fatalities in car accidents were included in the study. TYPE I, TYPE II and TYPE III BAT were observed in 10,9%, 55,6% and 33,5%, respectively. The incidence of BAT in drivers, front seat and other passengers was 36,7%, 43,1% and 28,6%, respectively. In frontal collisions, the incidence of BAT was 32,7%, in lateral collisions 54,2%, and in other traffic accidents 29,3%. The average age of fatalities with BAT was 42,8 years and of those without BAT 39,1 years. Conclusion: Identification and early recognition of the risk factors of BAT following a traffic accident is crucial for successful treatment of patients with BAT. Front seat passengers over 50 years of age who have been injured in a lateral collision are the most at risk of BAT.

Keywords: Morphology, Risk Factors, aorta, blunt trauma, car accidents

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76 Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles

Authors: Vesna Ocelić Bulatović, Miroslav Slouf, Ana Šitum, Emi Govorčin Bajsića


Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.

Keywords: Morphology, Thermal Properties, titanium dioxide, polycaprolactone

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75 Development, Characterization and Properties of Novel Quaternary Rubber Nanocomposites

Authors: Kumar Sankaran, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Golok Behari Nando, Sujith Nair, Sreejesh Arayambath, Unnikrishnan Govindan


Rubber nanocomposites based on Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), Polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), Carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC) were prepared via melt compounding technique. The developed quaternary nanocomposites were characterized analytically and their properties were compared against the standard BIIR compound. BIIR-CO nanocomposites showed improved physico-mechanical properties as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound. Hybrid microstructure (NC-CB) development, clay exfoliation and better filler dispersion in the quaternary nanocomposite significantly contributed to the overall enhancement of properties. Introduction of CO in the system increased the specific gravity and hardness of the compound as compared to that of the standard compound. XRD analysis, AFM imaging and HR-TEM measurements confirmed exfoliation and a good level of dispersion of the NC in the composites. Permeability of developed BIIR-CO nanocomposites decreases significantly as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound.

Keywords: Morphology, Permeability, rubber nanocomposites, BIIR

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74 The Effects of Alkalization to the Mechanical Properties of Biocomposite PLA reinforced the Ijuk Fibers

Authors: Mochamad Chalid, Imam Prabowo


The pollution due to non-degradable material such as plastics, has led to studies about the development of environmental-friendly material. Because of biodegradability obtained from natural sources, polylactid acid (PLA) and ijuk fiber are interesting to modify into a composite. This material is also expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. Surface modification of ijuk fiber through alkalinization with 0.25 M NaOH solution for 30 minutes, was aimed to enhance it’s compatibility to PLA, in order to improve properties of the composite such as the mechanical properties. Alkalinization of the ijuk fibers annihilates some surface components such as lignin, wax and hemicelloluse, so the pore on the surface clearly appeared, decreasing of the density and diameter of the ijuk fibers. The change of the ijuk fiber properties leads to increase the mechanical properties of PLA composites reinforced the ijuk fibers through strengthening of the mechanical interlocking with the PLA matrix. An addition to enhance the distribution of the fibers in the PLA matrix, the stirring during DCM solvent evaporation from the mixture of the ijuk fibers and the dissolved-PLA can reduce amount of the trapped-voids and fibers pull-out phenomena, which can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite.

Keywords: Morphology, Adhesion, Compatibility, Mechanical Properties, Arenga Pinnata, polylactic acid, alkalinization, volume fraction, distributiom

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73 Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Fiber

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Rosli M. Yunus, Mohammad Dalour Beg, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were produced by using the ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp with different hydrolysis time then were analyzed by using FESEM and TGA as in comparison with EFB fiber and EFB pulp. Based on the FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a rod like shaped under the acid hydrolysis with an assistant of ultrasound. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained show remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to EFB fiber and EFB pulp. However, as the hydrolysis time increase, the thermal stability of NCC was deceased. As in conclusion, the NCC can be prepared by using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The NCC obtained have good thermal stability and have a great potential as the reinforcement in composite materials.

Keywords: Morphology, Thermal Stability, empty fruit bunch (EFB), Nanocrystalline cellulose, ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis

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72 Wear and Fraction Behavior of Porcelain Coated with Polyurethane/SiO2 Coating Layer

Authors: Ching Yern Chee


Various loading of nano silica is added into polyurethane (PU) and then coated on porcelain substrate. The wear and friction properties of the porcelain substrates coated with polyurethane/nano silica nano composite coatings were investigated using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The friction and wear test of polyurethane/nano silica coated porcelain substrate was studied at different sliding speed and applied load. It was found that the optimum composition of nano silica is 3 wt% which gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate in all applied load ranges and sliding speeds. For 3 wt% nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate, the increment of sliding speed caused higher wear rates but lower frictions coefficient. Besides, the friction coefficient of nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate decreased but the wear rate increased with the applied load.

Keywords: Morphology, friction, porcelain, wear behavior, nanocomposite coating

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71 Surface-Quenching Induced Cell Opening Technique in Extrusion of Thermoplastic Foamed Sheets

Authors: Abhishek Gandhi, Naresh Bhatnagar


In this article, a new technique has been developed to manufacture open cell extruded thermoplastic foamed sheets with the aid of extrudate surface-quenching phenomenon. As the extrudate foam exits the die, its surface is rapidly quenched which results in freezing of cells on the surface, while the cells at the core continue to grow and leads to development of open-cellular microstructure at the core. Influence of chill roll temperature was found to be extremely significant in developing porous morphological attributes. Subsequently, synergistic effect of blowing agent content and chill roll temperature was examined for their expansion ratio and open-cell microstructure. Further, chill roll rotating speed was found extremely significant in obtaining open-cellular foam structures. This study intends to enhance the understanding of researchers working in the area of open-cell foam processing.

Keywords: Morphology, Microscopy, Composite, foams, Porous Materials, open-cell foams

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70 Concepts in the Design of Lateral-Load Systems in High Rise Buildings to Reduce Operational Energy Consumption

Authors: Mohamed Ali MiladKrem Salem, Sergio F.Breña, Sanjay R. Arwade, Simi T. Hoque


The location of the main lateral‐load resisting system in high-rise buildings may have positive impacts on sustainability through a reduction in operational energy consumption, and this paper describes an assessment of the accompanying effects on structural performance. It is found that there is a strong influence of design for environmental performance on the structural performance the building, and that systems selected primarily with an eye towards energy use reduction may require substantial additional structural stiffening to meet safety and serviceability limits under lateral load cases. We present a framework for incorporating the environmental costs of meeting structural design requirements through the embodied energy of the core structural materials and also address the issue of economic cost brought on by incorporation of environmental concerns into the selection of the structural system. We address these issues through four case study high-rise buildings with differing structural morphologies (floor plan and core arrangement) and assess each of these building models for cost and embodied energy when the base structural system, which has been suggested by architect Kenneth Yeang based on environmental concerns, is augmented to meet lateral drift requirements under the wind loads prescribed by ASCE 7-10.

Keywords: Sustainable, Morphology, Efficiency, Embodied, outrigger, skyscraper

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69 Morphological and Molecular Analysis of Selected Fast-Growing Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus) in South of Sulawesi

Authors: Yushinta Fujaya, Andi Ivo Asphama, Andi Parenrengi, Andi Tenriulo


Blue Swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is an important commercial species throughout the subtropical waters and as such constitutes part of the fisheries resources. Data are lacking on the morphological variations of selected fast-growing crabs reared in a pond. This study aimed to analyze the morphological and molecular character of a selected fast-growing crab reared in ponds in South of Sulawesi. The crab seeds were obtained from local fish-trap and hatchery. A study on the growth was carried out in the population of crabs. The dimensions analyzed were carapace width (CW) measured after 3 months of grow out. Morphological character states were examined based on the pattern of spots on the carapace. Molecular analysis was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Genetic distance was analysed using TFPGA (Tools for Population Genetic Analyses) version 1.3. The results showed that there were variations in the growth of crabs. These crabs clustered morphologically into three quite distinct groups. The crab with white spots irregularly spread over its carapace was the largest size while the crab with large white spots scattered over the carapace was the smaller size (3%). The crab with small white spots scattered over the carapace was the smallest size found in this study. Molecular analysis showed that there are morphologically and genetically different between groups of crabs. Genetic distances among crabs ranged from 0.1527 to 0.5856. Thus, this study provides information the use of white spots pattern over carapace as indicators to identify the type of blue swimming crabs.

Keywords: Morphology, RAPD, crab, portunus pelagicus, Carapace

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68 Formation of Blends in Hausa Language

Authors: Maryam Maimota Shehu


Words are the basic building blocks of a language. In everyday usage of a language, words are used, and new words are formed and reformed to contain and accommodate all entities, phenomena, qualities and every aspect of the entire life. Despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on morphological processes in The Hausa language. Most of the works concentrated on borrowing, affixation, reduplication and derivation, but blending has been neglected to the extent that some of the Hausa linguists claim that, blending does not exist in the language. Therefore, the current study investigates and examines blending as one of the word formation processes' in the language. The study focuses its main attention on blending as a word-formation process and how this process is used adequately in the formation of words in The Hausa language. To achieve the aims, the research answered these questions: 1) is blending used as a process of word formation in Hausa? 2) What are the words formed using this process? This study utilizes the Natural Morphology Theory proposed by Dressler, (1985) which was adopted by Belly (2007). The data of this study have been collected from newspaper articles, novels, and written literature of Hausa language. Based on the findings, this study found out that, there exist new kind of words formed in The Hausa language under blending, which previous findings did not either reveal or explain in detail. Another part of the finding shows that some of the words change their grammatical classes and meaning while blended.

Keywords: Morphology, Language, word formation, blending in hausa language

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67 Spherical Organic Particle (SOP) Emissions from Fixed-Bed Residential Coal-Burning Devices

Authors: Tafadzwa Makonese, Harold Annegarn, Patricia Forbes


Residential coal combustion is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the Highveld region of South Africa, significantly affecting the local and regional climate. In this study, we investigated single coal burning particles emitted when using different fire-ignition techniques (top-lit up-draft vs bottom-lit up-draft) and air ventilation rates (defined by the number of air holes above and below the fire grate) in selected informal braziers. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the SeTAR Centre Laboratory, University of Johannesburg. Individual particles (~700) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two distinct forms of spherical organic particles (SOPs) were identified, one less oxidized than the other. The particles were further classified into "electronically" dark and bright, according to China et al. [2014]. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark spherical organic particles balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright SOPs. We quantify the morphology of spherical organic particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are bare single particles; ~35% particles are aggregated and form diffusion accretion chains; 10% have inclusions; and 5% are deformed due to impaction on filter material during sampling. We conclude that there are two distinct kinds of coal burning spherical organic particles and that dark SOPs are less volatile than bright SOPs. We also show that these spherical organic particles are similar in nature and characteristics to tar balls observed in biomass combustion, and that they have the potential to absorb sunlight thereby affecting the earth’s radiative budget and climate. This study provides insights on the mixing states, morphology, and possible formation mechanisms of these organic particles from residential coal combustion in informal stoves.

Keywords: Morphology, Aerosols, spherical organic particles, residential coal combustion, fixed-bed, stoves

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66 Formation of Clipped Forms in Hausa Language

Authors: Maryam Maimota Shehu


Words are the basic building blocks of a language. In everyday usage of a language, words are used, and new words are formed and reformed in order to contain and accommodate all entities, phenomena, qualities and every aspect of the entire life. Despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on morphological processes in Hausa language. Most of the works concentrated on borrowing, affixation, reduplication and derivation, but clipping has been neglected to the extent that only a few scholars sited some examples in the language. Therefore, the current study investigates and examines clipping as one of the word formation processes fully found in the language. The study focuses its main attention on clipping as a word-formation process and how this process is used adequately in the formation of words and their occurrence in Hausa sentences. In order to achieve the aims, the research answered these questions: 1) is clipping used as process of word formation in Hausa? 2) What are the words formed using this process? This study utilizes the Natural Morphology Theory proposed by Dressler, (1985) which was adopted by belly (2007). The data of this study have been collected from newspaper articles, novels, and written literature of Hausa language. Based on the findings, this study found out that, there exist many kinds of words formed in Hausa language using clipping in sentence and discuss, which previous findings did not either reveals, or explain in detail. Other part of the finding shows that clipping in Hausa language occurs on nouns, verbs, adjectives, reduplicated words and compounds while retains their meanings and grammatical classes.

Keywords: Morphology, Hausa Language, clipping, word formation processes

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65 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina

Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan


A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.

Keywords: Morphology, oil contamination, protein content, Avicennia marina

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64 A Study on Soil Micro-Arthropods Assemblage in Selected Plantations in The Nilgiris, Tamilnadu

Authors: C. Gunasekaran, J. Dharmaraj


Invertebrates are the reliable ecological indicators of disturbance of the forest ecosystems and they respond to environment changes more quickly than other fauna. Among these the terrestrial invertebrates are vital to functioning ecosystems, contributing to processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and soil fertility. The natural ecosystems of the forests have been subject to various types of disturbances, which lead to decline of flora and fauna. The comparative diversity of micro-arthropods in natural forest, wattle plantation and eucalyptus plantations were studied in Nilgiris. The study area was divided in to five major sites (Emerald (Site-I), Thalaikundha (Site-II), Kodapmund (Site-III), Aravankad (Site-IV), Kattabettu (Site-V). The research was conducted during period from March 2014 to August 2014. The leaf and soil samples were collected and isolated by using Berlese funnel extraction methods. Specimens were isolated and identified according to their morphology (Balogh 1972). In the present study results clearly showed the variation in soil pH, NPK (Major Nutrients) and organic carbon among the study sites. The chemical components of the leaf litters of the plantation decreased the diversity of micro-arthropods and decomposition rate leads to low amount of carbon and other nutrients present in the soil. Moreover eucalyptus and wattle plantations decreases the availability of the ground water source to other plantations and micro-arthropods and hences affects the soil fertility. Hence, the present study suggests to minimize the growth of wattle and eucalyptus tree plantations in the natural areas which may help to reduce the decline of forests.

Keywords: Morphology, micro-arthropods, assemblage, berlese funnel, NPK, nilgiris

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63 Morphology of the Acetabular Cartilage Surface in Elderly Cadavers Analyzing the Contact between the Acetabulum and Femoral Head

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Hideki Yoshikawa, Keisuke Akiyama, Junichiro Koyanagi, Kazuomi Sugamoto


The geometry of acetabular cartilage surface plays an important role in hip joint biomechanics. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology of acetabular articular cartilage surface in elderly subjects using a 3D-digitizer. Twenty hemipelves from 12 subjects (mean ages 85 years) were scanned with 3D-digitizer. Each acetabular surface model was divided into four regions: anterosuperior (AS), anteroinferior (AI), posterosuperior (PS), and posteroinferior (PI). In the global acetabulum and each region, the acetabular sphere radius and the standard deviation (SD) of the distance from the acetabular sphere center to the acetabular cartilage surface were calculated. In the global acetabulum, the distance between the acetabular surface model and the maximum sphere which did not penetrate over the acetabular surface model was calculated as the inferred femoral head, and then the distribution was mapped at intervals of 0.5 mm. The SD in AS was significantly larger than that in AI (p = 0.006) and PI (p = 0.001). The SD in PS was significantly larger than that in PI (p = 0.005). The closest region (0-0.5 mm) tended to be distributed at anterior or posterosuperior acetabular edge. The contact between the femoral head and acetabulum might start at the periphery of the lunate surface, especially in the anterior or posterosuperior region. From viewpoint of acetabular morphology, the acetabular articular cartilage in the anterior or posterosuperior edge could be more vulnerable due to direct contact mechanism.

Keywords: Morphology, Cartilage, acetabulum

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62 Vascular Foramina of the Capitate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai


Background: The capitate is the largest among the carpal bones. There exists no literature about the vascular foramina of the capitate bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried capitate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 59 capitate bones (25 right sided and 34 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular and articular surfaces. The foramina were observed at the medial, lateral, palmar and dorsal surfaces of the capitate bones. The foramina were ranged from 6 to 23 in each capitate bone. In the medial surface, the foramina ranged from 1 to 6, lateral surface from 0 to 7, the foramina ranged between 0 and 5 in the palmar surface. However most of the foramina were located at the dorsal surface which ranged from 3 to 11. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the capitate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The knowledge about the foramina is also important to the radiologists to prevent the misinterpretation of the findings in the x ray and computed tomogram scan films. The foramina may mimick like erosions and ossicles. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the capitate.

Keywords: Morphology, capitate, avascular necrosis, nutrient foramen

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61 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, P. J. Jiji, Vandana Blossom


Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: Morphology, morphometry, axis, articular facet

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60 Electroactive Fluorene-Based Polymer Films Obtained by Electropolymerization

Authors: Mariana-Dana Damaceanu


Electrochemical oxidation is one of the most convenient ways to obtain conjugated polymer films as polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene or polycarbazole. The research in the field has been mainly directed to the study of electrical conduction properties of the materials obtained by electropolymerization, often the main reason being their use as electroconducting electrodes, and very little attention has been paid to the morphological and optical quality of the films electrodeposited on flat surfaces. Electropolymerization of the monomer solution was scarcely used in the past to manufacture polymer-based light-emitting diodes (PLED), most probably due to the difficulty of obtaining defectless polymer films with good mechanical and optical properties, or conductive polymers with well controlled molecular weights. Here we report our attempts in using electrochemical deposition as appropriate method for preparing ultrathin films of fluorene-based polymers for PLED applications. The properties of these films were evaluated in terms of structural morphology, optical properties, and electrochemical conduction. Thus, electropolymerization of 4,4'-(9-fluorenylidene)-dianiline was performed in dichloromethane solution, at a concentration of 10-2 M, using 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate as electrolyte salt. The potential was scanned between 0 and 1.3 V on the one hand, and 0 - 2 V on the other hand, when polymer films with different structures and properties were obtained. Indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate of different size was used as working electrode, platinum wire as counter electrode and calomel electrode as reference. For each potential range 100 cycles were recorded at a scan rate of 100 mV/s. The film obtained in the potential range from 0 to 1.3 V, namely poly(FDA-NH), is visible to the naked eye, being light brown, transparent and fluorescent, and displays an amorphous morphology. Instead, the electrogrowth poly(FDA) film in the potential range of 0 - 2 V is yellowish-brown and opaque, presenting a self-assembled structure in aggregates of irregular shape and size. The polymers structure was identified by FTIR spectroscopy, which shows the presence of broad bands specific to a polymer, the band centered at approx. 3443 cm-1 being ascribed to the secondary amine. The two polymer films display two absorption maxima, at 434-436 nm assigned to π-π* transitions of polymers, and another at 832 and 880 nm assigned to polaron transitions. The fluorescence spectra indicated the presence of emission bands in the blue domain, with two peaks at 422 and 488 nm for poly (FDA-NH), and four narrow peaks at 422, 447, 460 and 484 nm for poly(FDA), peaks originating from fluorene-containing segments of varying degrees of conjugation. Poly(FDA-NH) exhibited two oxidation peaks in the anodic region and the HOMO energy value of 5.41 eV, whereas poly(FDA) showed only one oxidation peak and the HOMO level localized at 5.29 eV. The electrochemical data are discussed in close correlation with the proposed chemical structure of the electrogrowth films. Further research will be carried out to study their use and performance in light-emitting devices.

Keywords: Morphology, Optical Properties, fluorene, electrogrowth polymer films

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59 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent


Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Diabetes, Morphology, Wound Healing, body weight, piper betel

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58 Study on the Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of HIPS/Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: Mehdi Sharif, Amirhosein Rostampour


In this article, a series of high impact polystyrene/graphene (HIPS/Gr) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing method and their morphology and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated as a function of graphene content. SEM images and X-Ray diffraction data confirm that the graphene platelets are well dispersed in HIPS matrix for the nanocomposites with Gr contents up to 5.0 wt%. Mechanical properties analysis demonstrates that yielding strength and initial modulus of HIPS/Gr nanocomposites are highly improved with the increment of Gr content compared to pure HIPS.

Keywords: Morphology, Graphene, nanocomposite, dynamic mechanical properties

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57 Cytotoxic and Biocompatible Evaluation of Silica Coated Silver Nanoparticle Against Nih-3t3 Cells

Authors: Chen-En Lin, Lih-Rou Rau, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai


The unique optical properties of plasmon resonance metallic particles have attracted considerable applications in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect is one of the useful applications. MEF effect stated that fluorescence intensity can be quenched or be enhanced depending on the distance between fluorophores and the metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have used widely in antibacterial studies. However, the major limitation for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in biomedical application is well-known cytotoxicity on cells. There were numerous literatures have been devoted to overcome the disadvantage. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of silica coated AgNPs against NIH-3T3 cells. The results were shown that NIH-3T3 cells started to detach, shrink, become rounded and finally be irregular in shape after 24 h of exposure at 10 µg/ml AgNPs. Besides, compared with untreated cells, the cell viability significantly decreased to 60% and 40% which were exposed to 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml AgNPs respectively. The result was consistent with previously reported findings that AgNPs induced cytotoxicity was concentration dependent. However, the morphology and cell viability of cells appeared similar to the control group when exposed to 20 µg/ml of silica coated AgNPs. We further utilized the dark-field hyperspectral imaging system to analysis the optical properties of the intracellular nanoparticles. The image displayed that the red shift of the surface plasmonic resonances band of the enclosed AgNPs further confirms the agglomerate of the AgNPs rather than their distribution in cytoplasm. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the silica coated of AgNPs showed well biocompatibility and significant lower cytotoxicity compared with bare AgNPs.

Keywords: Morphology, Silver Nanoparticles, cell viability, silica

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56 Configuration of Water-Based Features in Islamic Heritage Complexes and Vernacular Architecture: An Analysis into Interactions of Morphology, Form, and Climatic Performance

Authors: Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Mustaffa Kamal Bashar Mohd Fauzi, Nurul Syala Abdul Latip


It is increasingly realized that sustainability includes both a response to the climatic and cultural context of a place. To assess the cultural context, a morphological analysis of urban patterns from heritage legacies is necessary. While the climatic form is derived from an analysis of meteorological data, cultural patterns and forms must be abstracted from a typological and morphological study. This current study aims to analyzes morphological and formal elements of water-based architectural and urban design of past Islamic vernacular complexes in the hot arid regions and how a vast utilization of water was shaped and sited to act as cooling devices for an entire complex. Apart from its pleasant coolness, water can be used in an aesthetically way such as emphasizing visual axes, vividly enhancing the visual of the surrounding environment and symbolically portraying the act of purity in the design. By comparing 2 case studies based on the analysis of interactions of water features into the form, planning and morphology of 2 Islamic heritage complexes, Fatehpur Sikri (India) and Lahore Fort (Pakistan) with a focus on Shish Mahal of Lahore Fort in terms of their mass, architecture and urban planning, it is agreeable that water plays an integral role in their climatic amelioration via different methods of water conveyance system. Both sites are known for their substantial historical values and prominent for their sustainable vernacular buildings for example; the courtyard of Shish Mahal in Lahore fort are designed to provide continuous coolness by constructing various miniatures water channels that run underneath the paved courtyard. One of the most remarkable features of this system that all water is made dregs-free before it was inducted into these underneath channels. In Fatehpur Sikri, the method of conveyance seems differed from Lahore Fort as the need to supply water to the ridge where Fatehpur Sikri situated is become the major challenges. Thus, the achievement of supplying water to the palatial complexes is solved by placing inhabitable water buildings within the two supply system for raising water. The process of raising the water can be either mechanical or laborious inside the enclosed well and water rising houses. The studies analyzes and abstract the water supply forms, patterns and flows in 3-dimensional shapes through the actions of evaporative cooling and wind-induced ventilation under arid climates. Through the abstraction analytical and descriptive relational morphology of the spatial configurations, the studies can suggest the idealized spatial system that can be used in urban design and complexes which later became a methodological and abstraction tool of sustainability to suit the modern contemporary world.

Keywords: urban Design, Morphology, heritage site, Islamic vernacular architecture, water features

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55 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi


Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: Morphology, Bioplastics, biodegradable, poly(lactic acid), solution casting

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54 Influence of Hydrolytic Degradation on Properties of Moisture Membranes Used in Fire-Protective Clothing

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh


This study intends to show the influence of the hydrolytic degradation on the properties of the e-PTFE/NOMEX® membranes used in fire-protective clothing. The modification of water vapour permeability, morphology and chemical structure was examined by MOCON Permatran, electron microscopy scanning (SEM), and ATR-FTIR, respectively. A decrease in permeability to water vapour of the aged samples was observed following closure of transpiration pores. Analysis of fiber morphology indicates the appearance of defects at the fibers surface with the presence of micro cavities as well as the of fibrils. ATR-FTIR analysis reveals the presence of a new absorption band attributed to carboxylic acid terminal groups generated during the amide bond hydrolysis.

Keywords: Morphology, hydrolytic ageing, moisture membrane, water vapor permeability

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53 The Morphological and Morphometrical Evaluation of the Bores That Transmit Emissary Veins in Terms of Surgery

Authors: Fikri Turk, Sahika Pinar Akyer, Mevci Ozdemir, Mehmet Bulent Ozdemir, Ilgaz Akdogan


The complications such as bleeding, thrombosis and air embolism depend on injuries emissary veins is often encountered in surgery. Detailed descriptions of the mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal and foramen vesalius are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the purpose of our study was to explore and represent the morphology and morphometry of these emissary foramina in order to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons. The present study was made on 60 dry human skull in the laboratories of Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine Department of Anatomy. After taken photograph of emissary foramens by Canon 650D professional camera, the evaluation and measurement’s these foramens made with Matlab program by computer. The overall prevalence of mastoid foramen was 90.52%, occipital foramen was 72.52%, parietal foramen was 42.85%, posterior condylar canal was 91.25% and foramen vesalius was 78.26%. The mean diameter of the mastoid foramen was 1.81±0.76 mm, occipital foramen was 1.20±0.25 mm, parietal foramen was 1.49±0.46 mm, posterior condylar canal was 2.83±1.33 mm and foramen vesalius was 1.74±0.60 mm. Distances between emissary foramina and fixed bony landmarks were measured. Emissary veins are important in clinic practice and surgical procedures because they act a route of spread of exracranial infection to the intracranial structures and these veins may be a significant bleeding during surgery of the skull and they can be source of thrombosis and air embolism. The detailed anatomical knowledge of these veins and foraminas may help to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons.

Keywords: Morphology, morphometry, emissary foramina, mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal, foramen vesalius

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52 Soil with Carbonate Accumulation in Tensift Al Haouz Lowland (Morocco): Characterization, Genesis and the Environmental Significance

Authors: Lahcen Daoudi, Soukaina Elidrissi, Nathalie Fagel


The calcareous accumulations in the surface formations of the soil, are a very widespread phenomenon in the arid and semi-arid regions. Many aspects of physical and chemical evolution of these soils were debated for more than one century. The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable interest in the study of the calcrete. In Morocco, as in most Mediterranean countries, soils with carbonate accumulation cover large areas of the territory. The isohumic subtropical soils and red Mediterranean soils include always a horizon of calcrete accumulation. In the lowland of Tensift Al Haouz located in the central part of Morocco, the arable lands are underlain by indurate pedogenic calcrete of various thicknesses; this constitutes a serious handicap for agricultural development in the region. Our aims in this study is to analyze the characteristics of the crusts developed in this area in order to identify the various facies, their geographic distribution and the factors that played a significant role in the differentiation of these calcareous accumulations. The characterizations were based on various techniques including field observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) for both raw materials and clay fractions, SEM analysis, Calcimetry and Loss On Ignition (LOI). The analysis of encrusting calcrete in a rich and varied observation field as the region of Tensift Al Haouz enabled us to specify the important types of accumulations: diffuse, nodular and massive encrusting. The shape of encrusting as well as their consistency and hardness is clearly related to the contents of CaCO3 of the profiles. Among these facies, the hardpan which results from a complex succession of processes is certainly the most morphologically advanced form of encrusting. The vertical and lateral distribution of these forms in the Tensift Al Haouz area indicates that they do not appear randomly but seem related to well defined environmental conditions. The differentiation and evolution of encrusting is under the influence of two major factors: 1) the availability of carbonate rich solution which is controlled by the topography, the nature and texture of underlying host rock and the detrital processes; 2) the climate which is responsible for the evaporation and crystallization of carbonate.

Keywords: Characterization, Morphology, Morocco, soil calcrete, Tensift Al Haouz

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51 In Situ Production of Nano-Cu on a Cotton Fabric Surface by Ink-Jet Printing

Authors: Laleh Maleknia, N. Zoghi, M. E. Olya


The nano-Cu particles were produced on cotton fabric substrate by ink-jet printing technology with water-soluble ink, which was based on copper. The surface tension and viscosity of the prepared inks were evaluated. The ink-jet printing process was repeated 1, 3, and 5 times in order to evaluate variations in the optical properties by changing thickness of printed film. Following initial drying of the printed film, the samples were annealed at different temperatures (150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C) to determine the optimum temperature for the parameters set out in this experiment. The prepared nano-Cu particles were characterized by XRD and UV spectroscopy. The appearance of printed image and the nano-Cu particles morphology were observed by SEM. The results demonstrated that the ink-jet printing technology can be used to produce nano-particles on the cotton fabrics surface.

Keywords: Morphology, Ink-Jet Printing, cotton fabric, nano-cu, fabric ink, in situ production, water-soluble ink

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50 Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formation and Spectroscopic Analysis

Authors: Fredrick O. Okumu, Mangaka C. Matoetoe


Metal nanoparticles have attracted a great interest in scientific research and industrial applications, owing to their unique large surface area-to-volume ratios and quantum-size effects. Supported metal nanoparticles play a pivotal role in areas such as nanoelectronics, energy storage and as catalysts for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Monometallics (Ag, Pt) and Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) with a mole fraction (1:1) were prepared by reduction / co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The kinetics of the nanoparticles formation was monitored using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used for size, film morphology as well as elemental composition study. Fast reduction processes was noted in Ag NPs (0.079 s-1) and Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 (0.082 s-1) with exception of Pt NPs (0.006 s-1) formation. The UV-visible spectra showed characteristic peaks in Ag NPs while the Pt NPs and Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 had no observable absorption peaks. UV visible spectra confirmed chemical reduction resulting to formation of NPs while TEM images depicted core-shell arrangement in the Ag-Pt NPs 1:1 with particle size of 20 nm. Monometallic Ag and Pt NPs reported particle sizes of 60 nm and 2.5 nm respectively. The particle size distribution in the BM NPs was found to directly depend on the concentration of Pt NPs around the Ag core. EDX elemental composition analysis of the nanoparticle suspensions confirmed presence of the Ag and Pt in the Ag-Pt NPs 1:1. All the spectroscopic analysis confirmed the successful formation of the nanoparticles.

Keywords: Morphology, Nanoparticles, Kinetics, Silver, Platinum

Procedia PDF Downloads 282