Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 117

Migration Related Abstracts

117 Socio-Cultural Economic and Demographic Profile of Return Migration: A Case Study of Mahaboobnagar District in ‘Andhra Pradesh’

Authors: Ramanamurthi Botlagunta

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Return migrate on is a process; it’s not a new phenomenal. People are migrating since civilization started. In the case of Indian Diaspora, peoples migrated before the Independence of India. Even after the independence. There are various reasons for the migration. According to the characteristics of the migrants, geographical, political, and economic factors there are many changes occur in the mode of migration. In India currently almost 25 million peoples are outside of the country. But all of them not able to get the immigrants status in their respective host society due to the nature of individual perception and the immigration policies of the host countries. They came back to homeland after spending days/months/years. They are known as the return migrants. Returning migrants are 'persons returning to their country of citizenship after having been international migrants, whether short term or long-term'. Increasingly, migration is seen very differently from what was once believed to be a one-way phenomenon. The renewed interest of return migration can be seen through two aspects one is that growing importance of temporary migration programmers in other countries and other one is that potential role of migrants in developing their home countries. Conceptualized return migration in several ways: occasional return, seasonal return, temporary return, permanent return, and circular return. The reasons for the return migration are retirement, failure to assimilate in the host country, problems with acculturation in the destination country, being unsuccessful in the emigrating country, acquiring the desired wealth, innovate and to serve as change agents in the birth country. With the advent of globalization and the rapid development of transportation systems and communication technologies, this is a process by which immigrants forge and sustain simultaneous multi-stranded social relations that link together their societies of origin and settlement. We can find that Current theories of transnational migration are greatly focused on the economic impacts on the home countries, while social, cultural and political impacts have recently started gaining momentum. This, however, has been changing as globalization is radically transforming the way people move around the world. One of the reasons for the return migration is that lack of proportionate representation of Asian immigrants in positions of authority and decision-making can be a result of challenges confronted in cultural and structural assimilation. The present study mainly focuses socioeconomic and demographic profile of return migration of Indians from other countries in general and particularly on Andhra Pradesh the people who are returning from other countries. Migration is that lack of proportionate representation of Asian immigrants in positions of authority and decision-making can be a result of challenges confronted in cultural and structural assimilation. The present study mainly focuses socioeconomic and demographic profile of return migration of Indians from other countries in general and particularly on Andhra Pradesh the people who are returning from other countries.

Keywords: Migration, Development, Globalization, return migration, socio- economic, Asian immigrants, Andhra Pradesh

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116 Investigation on Polymer Based Nano-Silver as Food Packaging Materials

Authors: Amal Metak, A. M. Metak, T. T. Ajaal, Tawfik Ajaal

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Commercial nanocomposite food packaging type nano-silver containers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of nanoparticles consistent with the incorporation of 1% nano-silver (Ag) and 0.1% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle into polymeric materials formed into food containers was confirmed. Both nanomaterials used in this type of packaging appear to be embedded in a layered configuration within the bulk polymer. The dimensions of the incorporated nanoparticles were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and determined by calculation using the Scherrer Formula; these were consistent with Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in the size range 20-70nm both were spherical shape nanoparticles. Antimicrobial assessment of the nanocomposite container has also been performed and the results confirm the antimicrobial activity of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in food packaging containers. Migration assessments were performed in a wide range of food matrices to determine the migration of nanoparticles from the packages. The analysis was based on the relevant European safety directives and involved the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify the range of migration risk. The data pertain to insignificance levels of migration of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles into the selected food matrices.

Keywords: Migration, nano-silver, antimicrobial food packaging, titanium dioxide

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115 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

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The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: Migration, determinants, Heckman Probit model, rural-urban

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114 Belonging in South Africa: Networks among African Immigrants and South African Natives

Authors: Efe Mary Isike

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The variety of relationships between migrants and host communities is an enduring theme of migration studies. On one extreme, there are numerous examples of hostility towards ‘strangers’ who are either ejected from society or denied access to jobs, housing, education, healthcare and other aspects of normal life. More moderate treatments of those identified as different include expectations of assimilation in which host communities expect socially marginalized groups to conform to norms that they define. Both exclusion and assimilation attempt to manage the problem of difference by removing it. South Africa experienced great influx of African immigrants who worked in mines and farms under harsh and exploitative conditions before and after the institutionalization of apartheid. Although these labour migrants contributed a great deal to the economic development of South Africa, they were not given citizenship status. The formal democratization in 1994 came with dreams and expectations of a more inclusive South Africa, where black South Africans hoped to maximize their potential in a more free, fair and equal society. In the same vein, it also opened spaces for an influx of especially African immigrants into the country which set the stage for a new form of contest for belonging between South African citizens and African migrant settlers. One major manifestation of this contest was the violent xenophobic attacks against African immigrants which predate that of May 2008 and has continued with lower intensity across the country since then. While it is doubtless possible to find abundant evidence of antagonism in the relations between South Africans and African immigrants, the purpose of this study is to investigate the everyday realities of migrants in ordinary places who interact with a variety of people through their livelihood activities, marriages and social relationships, moving around towns and cities, in their residential areas, in faith-based organizations and other elements of everyday life. Rather than assuming all relations are hostile, this study intends to look at the breadth of everyday relationships within a specific context. Based on the foregoing, the main task of this study is to holistically examine and explain the nature of interactions between African migrants and South African citizens by analysing the social network ties that connect them in the specific case of Umhlathuze municipality. It will also investigate the variety of networks that exists between African migrants and South Africans and examine the nature of the linkages in the various networks identified between these two groups in Umhlathuze Municipality. Apart from a review of relevant literature, policies and other official documents, this paper will employ a purposive sample survey and in-depth interview of African immigrants and South Africans within their networks in selected suburbs in KwaZulu-Natal.

Keywords: Migration, Development, Networks, host communities

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113 Sacred Spaces, Scarred Bodies: Understanding Forms of and Meanings Associated with Female Circumcision amongst Somali Women in Johannesburg

Authors: Z. Jinnah

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International migration is associated with a disruption of social environments and social control. At the same time, the reproduction of cultural and social norms in the Diaspora provides a space for the (re)negotiation of gender roles, rights, and practices. This paper explores the relationship between mobility and the practice of female circumcision amongst Somalis in Johannesburg. Based on 4 years of ethnographic fieldwork, this paper explores the social determinants of cultural norms and practices, the linkages between class and tradition, and argues that the new social environment in South Africa conditions the ways in which Somali women relate to their bodies, and therefore understand the meanings associated with and practices of female circumcision.

Keywords: Migration, Gender, Female Circumcision, Somali women, Johannesburg

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112 Impact of Foreign Migration on Innovation in Thailand

Authors: Siriwan Saksiriruthai

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This paper reviews and analyzes impact of foreign migration on innovation for Thailand. With the analysis of decades of industrial and economic development, Thailand has attracted investment by providing cheap labor and low cost of production. Foreign migrant substantially contribute to the development by supplying lower wages with low-skilled workers. However, it is revealed that foreign low-skilled labor influx has a negative effect on innovation. Firms concentrate on benefits from low cost of production and are not motivated to invest for innovation. Therefore, with the emerging of new economies where lower wage laborers are offered, Thailand has to promote innovation to maintain economic development sustainability.

Keywords: Migration, Innovation, Foreign, Thailand

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111 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

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The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: Migration, Displacement, India, North-East

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110 On the Effect of Immigration on Destination: Country Corruption

Authors: Eugen Dimant, Tim Krieger, Margarete Redlin

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This paper analyzes the impact of migration on destination-country corruption levels. Capitalizing on a comprehensive dataset consisting of annual immigration stocks of OECD coun-tries from 207 countries of origin for the period 1984-2008, we explore different channels through which corruption might migrate. We employ different estimation methods using fixed effects and Tobit regressions in order to validate our findings. What is more, we also address the issue of endogeneity by using the Difference-Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. Independent of the econometric methodology we consistently find that while general migration has an insignificant effect on the destination country’s corruption level, immigration from corruption-ridden origin countries boosts corruption in the destination country. Our findings provide a more profound understanding of the economic implications associated with migration flows.

Keywords: Migration, Corruption, impact of migration, destination-country corruption

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109 Kidnapping of Migrants by Drug Cartels in Mexico as a New Trend in Contemporary Slavery

Authors: Itze Coronel Salomon

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The rise of organized crime and violence related to drug cartels in Mexico has created serious challenges for the authorities to provide security to those who live within its borders. However, to achieve a significant improvement in security is absolute respect for fundamental human rights by the authorities. Irregular migrants in Mexico are at serious risk of abuse. Research by Amnesty International as well as reports of the NHRC (National Human Rights) in Mexico, have indicated the major humanitarian crisis faced by thousands of migrants traveling in the shadows. However, the true extent of the problem remains invisible to the general population. The fact that federal and state governments leave no proper record of abuse and do not publish reliable data contributes to ignorance and misinformation, often spread by the media that portray migrants as the source of crime rather than their victims. Discrimination and intolerance against irregular migrants can generate greater hostility and exclusion. According to the modus operandi that has been recorded criminal organizations and criminal groups linked to drug trafficking structures deprive migrants of their liberty for forced labor and illegal activities related to drug trafficking, even some have been kidnapped for be trained as murderers . If the victim or their family cannot pay the ransom, the kidnapped person may suffer torture, mutilation and amputation of limbs or death. Migrant women are victims of sexual abuse during her abduction as well. In 2011, at least 177 bodies were identified in the largest mass grave found in Mexico, located in the town of San Fernando, in the border state of Tamaulipas, most of the victims were killed by blunt instruments, and most seemed to be immigrants and travelers passing through the country. With dozens of small graves discovered in northern Mexico, this may suggest a change in tactics between organized crime groups to the different means of obtaining revenue and reduce murder profile methods. Competition and conflict over territorial control drug trafficking can provide strong incentives for organized crime groups send signals of violence to the authorities and rival groups. However, as some Mexican organized crime groups are increasingly looking to take advantage of income and vulnerable groups, such as Central American migrants seem less interested in advertising his work to authorities and others, and more interested in evading detection and confrontation. This paper pretends to analyze the introduction of this new trend of kidnapping migrants for forced labors by drug cartels in Mexico into the forms of contemporary slavery and its implications.

Keywords: Migration, International Law, transnational organized crime

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108 Fatherhood and Migration among Chinese Returnees in Hong Kong: A Literature Review

Authors: Lucille Lok-Sun Ngan

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There are significant gaps in both the migration and family literatures regarding the gendered parenting of Chinese migrants. Evidence from the literature informs us that the child-focused parenting style of the West has altered, with positive consequences, parent–child relationships in migrant families. In particular, second-generation migrants have developed hybrid identities distinct from those of their overseas-born parents and the locals. On returning to their place of origin, they may undergo yet another process of change in values, and in behaviour, in order to adapt to the local culture. As migration changes values, personality and practice at personal, interpersonal and familial levels, the cross-cultural experiences of returnees inevitably affect their own fatherhood journeys in their country of origin. This paper reviews current literature on fatherhood and migration and identifies the gaps and limitations that pertain to understanding the paternal experiences of Chinese return migrants.

Keywords: Migration, Chinese returnees, cross-cultural experiences, fatherhood, hybridity

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
107 Migration and Mobility of South African Teachers: A Case Study

Authors: Rian de Villiers

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Human mobility is one of the most significant development, foreign policy and domestic issues in the world today. Teacher loss due to migration is a global phenomenon that is impacting both developed and developing nations the world over. The purpose of this study was to find out how many newly qualified South African teachers were planning to teach in a foreign country; what were the prospective migrant teachers’ motives for migration; what destination countries were the most popular and why; and what were the prospective migrant teachers’ information needs before leaving South Africa. A group of final-year Bachelor of Education student teachers from a single university responded to a questionnaire on intra-and intercontinental migration. The responses were analysed quantitatively and/or qualitatively. The findings showed that 79% of the students indicated that they would be teaching in South Africa, 9% were planning to teach in another country, while 8% were undecided. More than a third of the students (38%) said that they would like to teach in another country in five years time. Just more than a quarter of the students (27%) preferred Australia as a destination, followed by the United Kingdom (16%), Korea (16%) and the USA (14%). The student teachers’ most important motive to teach in a foreign country was the opportunity to travel (27%), followed by earning a higher salary (26%) and professional development (23%). The student teachers indicated that their most important migration needs before leaving South Africa were information about health care, accommodation and banking assistance. Huge loss of teachers to host countries has a serious, negative impact upon the education system of most developing and/or source countries, including South Africa. Several steps and strategies to resolve teacher loss in South Africa are discussed.

Keywords: Migration, Academic Mobility, Teachers, South Africa, teacher students

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106 Population Change and Migration in Istanbul Metropolitan Area: Tarlabaşı Case

Authors: Gülsen Yilmaz

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Istanbul’s population has jumped by over 1 million in the past four years, to a level surpassing the overall population of 64 provinces in the country, according to data from the Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK). In this paper, Istanbul's population change and migration effects can be examined in detail Tarlabasi neighborhood cultural center of the city of Istanbul, Istiklal Street, which is located a few hundred meters away. Tarlabasi the end of the nineteenth century in the historic district with built in the early twentieth century, there are four or five storey historic buildings. Tarlabasi, here come from southeastern Turkey and the illegal African immigrants living in Roma origin by the Kurds as a residential area is used. In this area to improve the quality of life for urban renewal projects have been initiated. The aim of this paper is to explore the spatial effects of demographic change and migration with Tarlabasi example.

Keywords: Migration, Immigration, Urban Transformation, Tarlabaşı

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105 Gilgel Gibe III: Dam-Induced Displacement in Ethiopia and Kenya

Authors: Jonny Beirne

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Hydropower developments have come to assume an important role within the Ethiopian government's overall development strategy for the country during the last ten years. The Gilgel Gibe III on the Omo river, due to become operational in September 2014, represents the most ambitious, and controversial, of these projects to date. Further aspects of the government's national development strategy include leasing vast areas of designated 'unused' land for large-scale commercial agricultural projects and 'voluntarily' villagizing scattered, semi-nomadic agro-pastoralist groups to centralized settlements so as to use land and water more efficiently and to better provide essential social services such as education and healthcare. The Lower Omo valley, along the Omo River, is one of the sites of this villagization programme as well as of these large-scale commercial agricultural projects which are made possible owing to the regulation of the river's flow by Gibe III. Though the Ethiopian government cite many positive aspects of these agricultural and hydropower developments there are still expected to be serious regional and transnational effects, including on migration flows, in an area already characterized by increasing climatic vulnerability with attendant population movements and conflicts over scarce resources. The following paper is an attempt to track actual and anticipated migration flows resulting from the construction of Gibe III in the immediate vicinity of the dam, downstream in the Lower Omo Valley and across the border in Kenya around Lake Turkana. In the case of those displaced in the Lower Omo Valley, this will be considered in view of the distinction between voluntary villagization and forced resettlement. The research presented is not primary-source material. Instead, it is drawn from the reports and assessments of the Ethiopian government, rights-based groups, and academic researchers as well as media articles. It is hoped that this will serve to draw greater attention to the issue and encourage further methodological research on the dynamics of dam constructions (and associated large-scale irrigation schemes) on migration flows and on the ultimate experience of displacement and resettlement for environmental migrants in the region.

Keywords: Migration, Development, human security, Human Rights, Dams, livelihoods, pastoralism, forced displacement, voluntary resettlement, land grabs, commercial agriculture, ecosystem modification, natural resource conflict

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104 Judicial Trendsetting: European Courts as Pacemakers for Defining, Redefining, and Potentially Expanding Protection for People Fleeing Armed Conflict and Natural Disasters

Authors: Charlotte Lülf

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Migration flows cannot be tackled by single states but need to be addressed as a transnational and international responsibility. However, the current international framework staggers. Widely excluded from legal protection are people that flee from the indiscriminate effects of an armed conflict as well as people fleeing natural disasters. This paper as part of an on-going PhD Project deals with the current and partly contradicting approaches to the protection of so-called war- and climate refugees in the European Union. The analysis will emphasize and evaluate the role of the European judiciary to define, redefine and potentially expand legal protection. Changing jurisprudential practice of national and regional courts will be assessed, as will be their dialogue to interpret the international obligations of human rights law, migration laws and asylum laws in an interacting world.

Keywords: Migration, Human rights law, Refugee Protection, asylum law

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103 The Judiciary as Pacemaker? Considering the Role of Courts in an Expansion of Protection for War Refugees and People Fleeing Natural Disasters

Authors: Charlotte Lülf

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Migration flows, resulting from war, climate change or economic crisis cannot be tackled by single states but need to be addressed as a transnational and international responsibility. The traditional architecture surrounding the work of the UNHCR and the 1951 Convention, however, is not equipped to deal with these challenges. Widely excluded from legal protection are people not individually persecuted for the statutory criteria, people that flee from the indiscriminate effects of an armed conflict as well as people fleeing natural disasters. With the lack of explicit legal protection and the political reluctance of nation states worldwide to extend their commitment in new asylum laws, the judiciary must be put in focus: it plays a unique role in interpreting and potentially expanding the application of existing regulations. This paper as part of an ongoing Ph.D. Project deals with the current and partly contradicting approaches to the protection of war- and climate refugees. Changing jurisprudential practice of national and regional courts will be assessed, as will be their dialogue to interpret the international obligations of human rights law, migration laws, and asylum laws in an interacting world. In recent judgments refoulment to an armed conflict as well as countries without adequate disaster relief or health care was argued as violating fundamental human and asylum law rights and therefore prohibited – even for applicants without refugee status: The first step towards access to subsidiary protection could herewith be established. Can one observe similar developments in other parts of the world? This paper will evaluate the role of the judiciary to define, redefine and potentially expand protection for people seeking refuge from armed conflicts and natural disasters.

Keywords: Migration, Human rights law, Displacement, asylum-seekers

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
102 Migratory Diaspora: The Media and the Human Element

Authors: Peter R. Alfieri

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The principal aim of this research and presentation is to give global and personal perspective of the migratory diaspora and how it is perceived by a substantial majority that relies on the media’s portrayal of migratory movements. Since its Greek origins the word “diaspora” has taken on several connotations, but none has surpassed its use in regard to the human element; because since before the dawn of history, man has had to struggle for survival. That survival was a struggle against the elements and other natural enemies, but none as tenacious and relentless as other men. Many have used the term diaspora to describe the spread of certain ethnic groups resulting in new generations in new places; but has the human diaspora been as haphazard as that of spores? The quest for survival has spawned migrations that are not quite that simple, even though it has several similarities to plant spores or dandelion seeds flying throughout the atmosphere. Man kind has constantly migrated in search of food, shelter, and safety. When they were able to find food and shelter, they would inform others who would venture to the new place. Information, whether through word of mouth, written material, or visual communications, has been a moving force in man’s life; and it spurred migrants in their quest for better environments. Today we pride ourselves in being able to communicate instantly with anyone anywhere in the world, and we are privileged to see most of what is happening in the world thanks to the highly developed modern media. Is Media a “wind/force” instrumental in propelling the diaspora throughout the world? The media has been the tool that has incentive many migratory, but unfortunately it is also the means responsible for many misconceptions regarding migrants and their hosts. Has the Media presented an unbiased view of the migrant or has it been the means that generated negative or prejudiced views of the migrant and, perhaps, the host environment? Some examples were easily seen in 19th century the United States where they advertised the following, “Help needed, Irish need not apply”. How do immigrants circumvent latent barriers that are not as obvious as the ones just mentioned? Some immigrants return home and have children that decide to emigrate. It is a perpetual cycle in the search for self-improvement. The stories that are brought back might be inspiration for the new generation of emigrants. Poverty, hunger, and political turmoil spur most migrations. The majority learn from others or through the media about certain destinations that will provide one or several opportunities to improve their existence. Many of those migrants suffer untold hardships to succeed. When they succeed, they provide a great incentive for their children to obtain an education or skill that will insure them a better life. Although the new environment may contribute greatly to a successful career, most immigrants do not forget their own struggle. They see the media’s portrayal of other migrants from all over the globe. Some try to communicate to others the true feelings of despair felt by immigrants, because they are all brothers and sisters in the perennial struggle for a better life. “HOPE” for a better life drives the immigrant toward the unknown and it has helped overcome the obstacles that present themselves challenging every newcomer. Hope and perseverance strengthen the resolve of the migrant in his struggle to survive.

Keywords: Education, Migration, Media, heath, obstacles

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101 Migratory Trajectory of Transnational Street Beggars in South Western, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Adekunle Ojedokun, Adeyinka Abideen Aderinto

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Migration remains an important course of action often resort-to by human and some other classes of animal for survival in the face of life-threatening conditions. However, the activity of certain group of immigrants, who are exploiting the socio-economic and environmental challenges in their home countries to conduct street begging across different countries in Africa, is fast becoming a major cause for concern. This paper examined the migratory trajectory of transnational street beggars in South Western, Nigeria. Strain and Migration Network Theories were adopted for the study. The methods of data collection were survey questionnaire, in-depth interview, and key informant interview. Convenience and purposive sampling techniques were employed for the selection of 395 transnational street beggars and 4 key informants were purposively chosen. Findings revealed that transnational street beggars immigrated into Nigeria all year round and all of them came by road. Also, while some of them entered the country officially, others gained entry illegally. The majority (29.3%) arrived through Sokoto, a border State to some neighbouring countries. This study calls for more security measures at the Nigerian borders as a way of controlling the influx of this category of beggars into the country.

Keywords: Migration, Nigeria, transnational street beggars, street begging

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100 Labour Standards and Bilateral Migration Flows in ASEAN

Authors: Rusmawati Said, N. Kar Yee, Asmaddy Haris

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This study employs a panel data set of ASEAN member states, 17 European Union (EU) countries, 7 American countries and 11 other Asia Pacific countries (China Mainland and Hong Kong SAR are treated as two separated countries) to investigate the role of labour standards in explaining the pattern of bilateral migration flows in ASEAN. Using pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) this study found mixed results. The result varies on how indicators were used to measure the level of labour standards in the empirical analysis. In one side, better labour standards (represented by number of strikes and weekly average working hours) promote bilateral migration among the selected countries. On the other side, increase in cases of occupational injuries lead to an increase in bilateral migration, reflecting that worsen in working conditions do not influence the workers’ decision from moving. The finding from this study become important to policy maker as the issues of massive low skilled workers have a significant impact to the role of labour standard in shaping the migration flows.

Keywords: Migration, ASEAN, economics and financial engineering, labour standard

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99 Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany

Authors: C. Asarkaya, S. Z. Siretioglu Girgin

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Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for their social and economic integration to the German society. This paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men, and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands, fathers and/or brothers, and natives.

Keywords: Migration, Women, Turkish, Labor Market, Empowerment, Germany

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98 Climate Change and Migration from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs, North-Eastern Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: Adam Modu Abbas

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Nigeria, due to its location, size and population is very vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Little effort is however made to address most of the problems, despite the fact that sufficient understanding is made on the impact of climate change and problems emanating from it are also always being propagated. Migration, one of the resultant effects of climate change is however given less attention. This paper focuses on the climate change impact and one of resulting effects, migration and its associated problems. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in sampling 250 respondents who were mainly family members of out-migrants from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs of North-eastern Borno State, Nigeria. Available literatures were consulted for the types of climate change impacts. The results revealed that, climate change leads to climatic variation over the space with numerous effects on the environment such as intermittent droughts, desertification/deforestation, low water table and establishment of dams across the courses of the main sources of water supply to the Lake Chad. Many people in the study area either migrated to Cameroon’s Darrak, Lake Doi and Mayo Mbund, Lagos, Nigeria, leaving some members of their families at home. More than half of respondents indicated that the heads of the households migrated as a result of poor harvest due to diminishing or fluctuating rains/drought and/or drying of river Surbewel. It is recommended that; inter-basin water transfers should be embarked upon.

Keywords: Migration, Climate, Change, dam, intermittent

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97 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

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Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: Migration, Social Sciences, Middle East, Sri Lanka

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96 Socio Economy of Migrant Women Domestic Workers in India: A Study in Context of Mumbai City

Authors: Sunita Kumari, Abhishek Thakur

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Focusing on female migrant domestic workers from Jharkhand, this study looks at their life before and after migration in Mumbai city. Girls coming from the marginalised communities migrate through different means and organizations like placement agencies, religious institutions such as church, with the help of group of friends or relatives and so forth. Most of them due to low educational attainment get into the unorganized sector jobs such as domestic work. In this backdrop, the paper tries to understand the socio-economic condition of tribal migrant women engaged as the domestic workers in the M ward of Mumbai city. The paper tries to investigate the early life of migrant women domestic workers, explores the reasons behind their migration and also examines the changes in their status after their engagement as domestic workers. The paper argues that though the economic and political reasons are quite explicit but the role of social institutions is also significant in the process of migration of women domestic workers. The study was qualitative in nature where fifteen in depth interviews were conducted and to develop a profound understanding one Focus Group Discussion was carried out at M ward of Mumbai Municipal Corporation (Chembur East). To substantiate the findings, the secondary data was taken from the available resources. The findings of the study shows that situation in the family, lack of education, non availability of better economic opportunities and other factors forced them to migrate. The factors such as income in form of cash rather than in kind, attraction towards the Mumbai city and so on was also the reason behind migration. Finally, this study gives the ample opportunity to look at the lives of the women who are the part of the unorganised sector of our country. It further unbolts exploration in terms of social security legislation at the national level.

Keywords: Migration, Women, paid domestic work, Mumbai city

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95 Impact of Nurses' Migration to Nursing Management in Selected Health Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

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The global need for qualified nurses to take care of the clients with various health needs is an incessant occurrence that persistently cause migration of nurses from developing to developed countries. The pull-push theory of migration greatly affects health care delivery systems of sending countries which is the same way affects nursing management. The exodus of nurses prepared to provide the much needed leadership at the bedside leaves the country in clusters giving health care institutions limited time to develop the next front-line managers that will assure quality patient care. This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of the massive recurring migration phenomena that is felt ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINE health care arena. It deals with the causes, problems, and effects of the cyclical loss of competent Filipina nurses in terms of emigration. Also, it will highlights the difficulties confronted by nursing service departments and health care teams when more experienced nurses set out for the “greener pastures” and patients are placed under the care of novice nurses. Fundamentally, it will emphasize the impact of suffering the loss of competent nurse managers in the Philippine health care institutions and provide contemporary recommendations on how to responsd accordingly to this very timely issue.

Keywords: Migration, Philippines, Nurse Manager

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94 Coping Resource Triad, Experiences of Filipina Wives in Japan

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina migrants married to Japanese and to discuss coping strategies that facilitates positive migration events. It utilizes a qualitative study design with focus group discussion which allows clear details on insights and perspectives based on migration process. The grounding of the coping resource triad is the unique finding of this study. It defines coping resource triad as a set of complex factors that relieves Filipina migrants of the stresses associated in migration and cross-cultural marriage. The results of the stress-coping experiences of Filipina migrants in Japan serves as basis for future studies on cross-cultural marriages and other deeper concerns associated with migration as well as in the formulation of relevant programs on acculturation.

Keywords: Migration, coping resource triad, Filipina, cross-cultural marriage

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93 A Review on Various Approaches for Energy Conservation in Green Cloud Computing

Authors: Sumati Manchanda

Abstract:

Cloud computing is one of the most recent developing engineering and is consistently utilized as a part of different IT firms so as to make benefits like expense sparing or financial minimization, it must be eco cordial also. In this manner, Green Cloud Computing is the need of the today's current situation. It is an innovation that is rising as data correspondence engineering. This paper surveys the unequivocal endeavors made by different specialists to make Cloud Computing more vitality preserving, to break down its vitality utilization focused around sorts of administrations gave furthermore to diminish the carbon foot shaped impression rate by colossal methodologies furthermore edify virtualization idea alongside different diverse methodologies which utilize virtual machines scheduling and migration. The summary of the proposed work by various authors that we have reviewed is also presented in the paper.

Keywords: Migration, Cloud Computing, Scheduling, Energy Efficiency, Virtualization, Green Cloud Computing

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92 Living in the Edge: Crisis in Indian Tea Industry and Social Deprivation of Tea Garden Workers in Dooars Region of India

Authors: Saraswati Kerketta

Abstract:

Tea industry is one of the oldest organised sector of India. It employs roughly 1.5 million people directly. Since the last decade Indian tea industry, especially in the northern region is experiencing worst crisis in the post-independence period. Due to many reason the prices of tea show steady decline. The workers are paid one of the lowest wage in tea industry in the world (1.5$ a day) below the UN's $2 a day for extreme poverty. The workers rely on addition benefits from plantation which includes food, housing and medical facilities. These have been effective means of enslavement of generations of labourers by the owners. There is hardly any change in the tea estates where the owners determine the fate of workers. When the tea garden is abandoned or is closed all the facilities disappear immediately. The workers are the descendants of tribes from central India also known as 'tea tribes'. Alienated from their native place, the geographical and social isolation compounded their vulnerability of these people. The economy of the region being totally dependent on tea has resulted in absolute unemployment for the workers of these tea gardens. With no other livelihood and no land to grow food, thousands of workers faced hunger and starvation. The Plantation Labour Act which ensures the decent working and living condition is violated continuously. The labours are forced to migrate and are also exposed to the risk of human trafficking. Those who are left behind suffers from starvation, malnutrition and disease. The condition in the sick tea plantation is no better. Wage are not paid regularly, subsidised food, fuel are also not supplied properly. Health care facilities are in very bad shape. Objectives: • To study the socio-cultural and demographic characteristics of the tea garden labourers in the study area. • To examine the social situation of workers in sick estates in dooars region. • To assess the magnitude of deprivation the impact of economic crisis on abandoned and closed tea estates in the region. Data Base: The study is based on data collected from field survey. Methods: Quantative: Cross-Tabulation, Regression analysis. Qualitative: Household Survey, Focussed Group Discussion, In-depth interview of key informants. Findings: Purchasing power parity has declined since in last three decades. There has been many fold increase in migration. Males migrates long distance towards central and west and south India. Females and children migrates both long and short distance. No one has reported to migrate back to the place of origin of their ancestors. Migrant males work mostly as construction labourers and as factory workers whereas females and children work as domestic help and construction labourers. In about 37 cases either they haven't contacted their families in last six months or are not traceable. The families with single earning members are more likely to migrate. Burden of disease and the duration of sickness, abandonment and closure of plantation are closely related. Death tolls are likely to rise 1.5 times in sick tea gardens and three times in closed tea estates. Sixty percent of the people are malnourished in the sick tea gardens and more than eighty five per cent in abandoned and sick tea gardens.

Keywords: Migration, trafficking, starvation death, tea garden workers

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91 Chamba Encroachment into Jukum Territory and Its Impact 1830-1900

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

Abstract:

The period between the late 18th and early 19th centuries was characterized by conflict of ethnic nationalities in the Benue valley region. This conflict was exacerbated by the introduction of the Fulani jihad that began in Hausa land into the Benue valley region. Fulani in this region launched the Jihad movement which pushed out some ethnic groups from their natural abode or ancestral home to live a nomad live until they could settle and established a stayed in a particular place. The Chamba were being displaced by the Fulani jihad that took place around Faro deo in about 1809. It was from there that most of the Chamba migrated out, some into the Cameroon republic, while others moved into the Benue valley region. Among those that entered into the Benue valley region are the Sama, Kola, Gayam etc, and could be found in Donga local Government area of Taraba state. Those Chamba clan that later on cameo into the Benue Valley are Pyeri, Kashimbila etc. The sudden movement of the Chamba or migrations into the Jukun territory co-in ceded with the period that the Jihad had already had a severe and consequential effect or impact on the Jukun territory cause by Yakubu Ibrahim of Bzuchi, and Buba Yero of Gombe, and Hamaruwa of Muri Emirate. This ne authorities in Kwararafa Kingdom cut the Jukun King out of contact with Borno and Hausa-land. This paper set to examine the chiefdom that the Chamba established right within the Jukun headquarters of Wukari. Sources to be used are published books, Journals, Archival materials, and M.A. Thesis to enable us know the impact of Chamba migrations on the Jukun territory and reactions of the Jukun’s to this new comers.

Keywords: Migration, Chamba people, encroachment, ethnic nationalities

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90 Urban and Rural Population Pyramids in Georgia Since 1950’s

Authors: Avtandil sulaberidze, Shorena Tsiklauri, Nino Gomelauri

Abstract:

In the years followed independence, an economic crisis and some conflicts led to the displacement of many people inside Georgia. The growing poverty, unemployment, low income and its unequal distribution limited access to basic social service have had a clear direct impact on Georgian population dynamics and its age-sex structure. Factors influencing the changing population age structure and urbanization include mortality, fertility, migration and expansion of urban. In this paper presents the main factors of changing the distribution by urban and rural areas. How different are the urban and rural age and sex structures? Does Georgia have the same age-sex structure among their urban and rural populations since 1950s?

Keywords: Migration, Georgia, age and sex structure of population, urban-rural population

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89 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: Migration, Methodology, Data Quality, Georgia

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88 Citizenship Redefined? The Wider Exclusionary Dynamics of Migration Policy in the UK

Authors: Clive Sealey

Abstract:

This article will analyse the impact that the increasingly multicultural nature of the UK has had on the nature and direction of social policy. The increasingly multicultural nature of the UK is being driven by a variety of demographic changes, particularly increased net migration from EU10 and the EU 2 enlargement. This has become an increasingly political issue, as exemplified by the specific rise of the United Kingdom Independence Party as a political force with the primary intention of restricting such migration. Perhaps not surprisingly, this has also had a significant impact on the nature and direction of social policies, as evident in the prominence given to efforts to reducing immigration and to restrict welfare benefits paid to such migrants. These policies have largely reflected the retreat away from the emphasis in UK policy on multiculturalism towards assimilation for all migrants, both prior and newly domiciled. Linking these two main policy emphases of reducing immigration and limiting entitlement to benefits is the concept of citizenship. An important point that this article will highlight, is that this changed citizenship does not just relate to new migrants, but also to existing domiciled migrants, such as in relation to specifying the assimilation of ‘Britishness’ and ‘British values’ in their daily life. Additionally, the article also analyses how the changes in welfare entitlements for new migrants is also impacting in an exclusionary way on the living standards of the native population, and therefore also their social rights as citizens. The article discusses the implication that this change presents for social work practice, particularly in terms of both migrants and native population changed citizenship.

Keywords: Migration, Social Policy, Citizenship, Exclusion, migrant welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 241