Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Mental Health Related Abstracts

109 The Relation between Coping Strategies with Stress and Mental Health Situation in Flying Addicted Family of Self Introducer and Private

Authors: Farnoush Haghanipour

Abstract:

Recent research studies relation between coping strategies with stress and mental health situation in flying addicted family of self-introducer and private, Units of Guilan province. For this purpose 251 family (parent, spouse), that referred to private and self-introducer centers to break out of drug are selected in random sampling form. Research method was cross sectional-descriptive and purpose of research was fixing of between kinds of coping strategies with stress and mental health condition with attention to demographic variables. Therefore to collection of information, coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) and mental health questionnaire (GHQ) was used and finally data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods (average, standard deviation) and inferential statistical correlation coefficient and regression. Study of correlation coefficient between mental healths with problem focused emotional focused and detachment strategies in level more than %99 is confirmed. Also mental health with avoidant focused hasn't correlation in other words relation is between mental health with problem focused strategies (r= 0/34) and emotional focused with mental health (r=0.52) and detachment with mental health (r= 0.18) in meaningful level 0.05. And also relation is between emotional focused strategies and mental health (r= 0.034) that is meaningless in Alpha 0.05. Also relation between problem processed coping strategies and mental health situation with attention to demographic variable is meaningful and relation level verified in confidence level more than 0.99. And result of anticipation equation regression statistical test has most a have in problem focused coping strategy, mental health, but relation of the avoidant emotional, detachment strategy with mental health was meaningless with attention to demographic variables.

Keywords: Mental Health, stress, coping strategy with stress, self introducer and private

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108 Resilience, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Saba Harati, Nasrin Arian Parsa

Abstract:

The current research was an attempt to investigate the effect of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction. In one Cross Sectional research, 287 (173 females and 114 males) students of Tehran University were participated their average age was 23.17 years old (SD=4.9). The instruments used for assessing the research variables included: Cutter and Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), the short form of the depression-anxiety-stress scale, and life satisfaction scale. The data analysis was done in the form of structural equation model. The results of Simultaneous Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that there was a significant mediating role of the negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and stress), in the relationship between the family resilience (p < 0.001) and satisfaction with life (p < 0.001). Resilience results in life satisfaction by reducing the emotional problems (or increasing the mental health level). The effect of the resilience variable on life satisfaction was indirect.

Keywords: Mental Health, Resilience, Life Satisfaction, negative emotion

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107 A Comparative Study of Mental Health and Well-Being between Qugong Practitioners and Non-Practitioners

Authors: Masoumeh Khosravi

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Introduction: The complementary therapies and Qigong exercises is important in order to maintain physical and mental health. Objective: This study was done to compare and investigate well-being and mental health's state between practitioners of a Qigong practice (Falun Dafa) and non-practitioners. Method: It was a comparative study with 60 samples (30 practitioners of Falun Dafa, and 30 non-practitioners), who were selected by random sampling from Tehran city of Iran. Data were collected by mental health inventory (SCL90) and well-being questionnaire. Multivariate variance analyzing and t-test were used for analyzing data. Results: Results showed significant differences in most components of mental health including anxiety, aggressiveness, obsessive-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization disorder, depression, phobia between practitioners and non-practitioners. Well-being was significantly higher in practitioners than non-practitioners. Conclusion: Accordingly, we concluded Falun Gong exercises have high impact on mental health and well-being in people.

Keywords: Mental Health, Well-being, Qigong, Falun Dafa

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106 The Impact of Plants on Relaxation of Patients in Hospitals, Case Study: District 6th, Tehran

Authors: Hashem Hashemnejad, Abbas Yazdanfar, Mahzad Mohandes Tarighi, Denial Sadighi

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One of the factors that can have a positive influence on the mental health is the presence of trees and flowers. Research shows that even a glance at nature can evoke positive feelings in the person and reduce his tension and stress. According to the historical, cultural, religious, and individual background in each geographical district, the relaxing or spiritual impact of certain kinds of flowers can be evaluated. In this paper, using a questionnaire, the amount of relaxing impact of prevalent trees and flowers of the district on the patients was examined. The results showed that cedar and pomegranate trees and jasmine and rose in flowers, respectively, relax the patients.

Keywords: Plants, Mental Health, patients, relaxing

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105 Evil Eye's Effects on Individual's Mental Health

Authors: Nikolaos Souvlakis

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One of the prominent phenomena that have survived even in the 21st century, when science is gaining more and more space in the scientific world, is the evil eye within non-Westernized societies and more specifically in Greek culture. The presentation is based on the Christian Orthodox beliefs and folklore about the evil eye. Evil eye occupies an important role in individuals' everyday life and it is fuelled by Satanic powers. Satanic powers and the belief on them have an immense effect on individual's well-being and mental health causing spiritual suffering. The present paper examines the psychological manifestations of the belief of evil eye in individuals' mental health and the ways to protect from it according to the Greek Orthodox tradition.

Keywords: Mental Health, Well-being, Spirituality, belief, Healing, evil eye

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104 Ideation, Plans, and Attempts for Suicide among Adolescents with Disability

Authors: Nyla Anjum, Humaira Bano

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Disability, regardless of its type and nature limits one or two significant life activities. These limitations constitute risk factors for suicide. Rate and intensity of problem upsurges in critical age of adolescence. Researches in the field of mental health over look problem of suicide among persons with disability. Aim of the study was to investigate prevalence and risk factors for suicide among adolescents with disability. The study constitutes purposive sample of 106 elements of both gender with four major categories of disability: hearing impairment, physical impairment, visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. Face to face interview technique was opted for data collection. Other variable are: socio-economic status, social and family support, provision of services for persons with disability, education and employment opportunities. For data analysis independent sample t-test was applied to find out significant differences in gender and One Way Analysis of variance was run to find out differences among four types of disability. Major predictors of suicide were identified with multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that ideation, plans and attempts of suicide among adolescents with disability is a multifaceted and imperative concern in the area of mental health. Urgent research recommendations contains valid measurement of suicide rate and identification of more risk factors for suicide among persons with disability. Study will also guide towards prevention of this pressing problem and will bring message of happy and healthy life not only for persons with disability but also for their families. It will also help to reduce suicide rate in society.

Keywords: Disability, Mental Health, Adolescent, Suicide, Risk Factors

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103 Stress and Coping among Adolescents in Selected Schools in the Capital City of India

Authors: N. Mathew, A. Qureshi, D. C. Khakha, R. Sagar

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Adolescents in India, account for one-fifth of the total population and are a significant human resource. Present study was conducted to find out various life stressors of adolescents, coping strategies adopted by them and the impact of stress on adolescent mental health. A descriptive, cross sectional study conducted on schools in the south zone of Delhi, capital city of the country. Data was collected on 360 adolescents between the age group of 13-17 years on socio-demographic profile, Adolescent life event stress scale, brief cope and youth self report for ages 11-18. Adolescents had significantly higher stress on uncontrollable events such as family events, relocation events, accident events and ambiguous events as compared to controllable events such as sexual events, deviance events and autonomy events (p<0.01).Adolescent stress was significantly correlated with various demographic variables in the study. The most frequently used coping strategies by the adolescents were positive reframing, planning, active coping, and instrumental support. It has also been found that the stress has a significant impact on adolescent mental health in the form of either internalizing problems such as anxious, withdrawn and somatic problems or externalizing problems such as rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. Out of the total sample of 360 adolescents 150 were identified as having psycho-social morbidity, including 59 borderline cases and 91 high-risk cases Study pointed out the need for mental health screening among the adolescents and also indicated the need for mental health inputs in educational institutions.

Keywords: Mental Health, stress, Coping, adolecents

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102 Mental Health Status among the Transgender Community: A Study of Mumbai

Authors: Mithlesh Chourase

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Health of the transgender is as important as any other population sub-groups. However, little is known about the issues of mental health problems and health seeking behaviour of transgender in India. This paper examines the depression, stigma problem and suicidality (risk of suicide) among the transgender people in Mumbai city. The study used the primary survey data conducted in Mumbai city among the transgender community with a total sample of 120 among the transgender. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected on demographic and socio-economic characteristic, general health and sexual health problems, mental health and health seeking behaviour among transgender. The quantitative results revealed that among the transgender, the prevalence of depression was very high. In this community 58.3% and 45.8 % of the transgender were suffered from depression and stigma problem respectively. On the other hand 42% and 48% of the transgender attempted suicide and experienced discrimination in the society. The qualitative results also revealed that the transgender were suffered from physical violence especially due to being a transgender, stressed due to being a transgender, experienced discrimination everywhere, experienced sexual health problems especially HIV, partner problem etc. As a result the prevalence of depression, self-harm attempt and suicidal attempt was common among this community.

Keywords: Mental Health, Depression, Transgender, Mumbai

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101 The Effectiveness of Group Spiritual Therapy on Increasing the Life Expectancy and Mental Health in Elderlies

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirmahdi, Seyedeh Maryam Hashemi Jabali

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This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of group spiritual therapy on increasing the life expectancy and mental health among the elderlies. This was a quasi-experimental research using a pretest-posttest design with a control group conducted over a population including all the elderly people of Tehran in 2012-13. A randomized sampling method was used to select 30 elderly people living in Parham nursing home that were then randomly assigned into two control and experimental groups of 15 people each. The instruments used were Miller’s life expectancy and mental health test (SCL.90.R) standard questionnaires. Individuals in experimental group received 12 sessions of group spiritual therapy while those in control group did not receive any kind of therapy. The tests were performed again for all the subjects (30 individuals) at the end of the experiment. To test the hypotheses, the data collected by questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive methods through relevant tables and charts and also inferential methods through the analysis of covariance using the SPSS software. Results showed that group spiritual therapy leads to a significant increase in both mental health and life expectancy in the experimental group of elderlies living in Parham nursing home compared to those in the control group.

Keywords: Mental Health, Life Expectancy, spiritual therapy, elderlies

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100 The Effect of Exercise on the Mental Health of Elderly People

Authors: Vivek Kumar

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The effects of physical activity on the human body have been well understood. It just not only keeps us healthy and away from many diseases but also helpful in delay ageing. Those who exercise every day are physically as well as mentally strong. As the age advance, we often see that there is a loss of memory in the elderly people and their retention power weaken with time. The association between physical health and mental health of elderly people nowadays is an important topic of research. Many people at their old age who all were suffering from Alzheimer or Parkinson disease or were at the stage of dementia have been benefited significantly on exercise at daily basis. We would conduct a randomized control trial, where we will select a number of old age people (65 years old or above). These selected old age people will have some sorts of mental illness and currently receiving treatment for the same. We will divide them into 3 groups. The first group of people will receive their normal treatment i.e. taking medicines. The second group of people will receive medicine as well as will do exercise for 45 minutes every day in the early morning, the 3rd group of people will do exercise everyday for 45 minutes but will be given placebo instead of medicine. All the member of these groups will be monitored carefully for 6 months of time and making this sure that all the members of the group are taking medicines or doing exercise according to the group they belong to. The mental status of all the participants will be measured; the data will be analyzed accordingly. Expected results- This research will be helpful in establishing the effect of exercise on the mental health of the old age people. Also, it will be examined that whether the medicines along with regular exercise for can months can cure the mental illness significantly.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Mental Health, elderly people, randomized control trial

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99 Hierarchically Modeling Cognition and Behavioral Problems of an Under-Represented Group

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

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This study examines adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. The Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) were used as the instrument. The problem framework consists of internal, external and social behavioral problems which are theoretically developed based on about 113 items plus relevant background variables. In this study, the sample consist of 1,975 sixth and seventh grade students in Northeast China. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect the data, meaning that samples were from different school districts, schools, and classes. The researchers looked at both macro and micro effect. Therefore, multilevel analysis techniques were used in the data analysis. The parts of the research results indicated that the background variables such as extracurricular activities were directly related to students’ internal problems.

Keywords: Mental Health, Hierarchical Modeling, Behavioral Problems, anxious/depressed problems, internalizing problems, under-represented groups, empirically-based assessment, ASEBA, multilevel analysis

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98 Validation of the Arabic Version of the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) among the Arab Population in Qatar

Authors: S. Hammoudeh, S. Ghuloum, A. Abdelhakam, A. AlMujalli, M. Opler, Y. Hani, A. Yehya, S. Mari, R. Elsherbiny, Z. Mahfoud, H. Al-Amin

Abstract:

Introduction: Suicidal ideation and attempts are very common in patients with schizophrenia and still contributes to the high mortality in this population. The InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) is a validated tool used to assess suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia. This research aims to validate the Arabic version of the ISST among the Arabs residing in Qatar. Methods: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited from the department of Psychiatry, Rumailah Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Healthy controls were recruited from the primary health care centers in Doha, Qatar. The validation procedures including professional and expert translation, pilot survey and back translation of the ISST were implemented. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed using the validated Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6, module K) for schizophrenia. The gold standard was the module B on suicidality from MINI 6 also. This module was administered by a rater who was blinded to the results of ISST. Results: Our sample (n=199) was composed of 98 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (age 36.03 ± 9.88 years; M/F is 2/1) and 101 healthy participants (age 35.01 ± 8.23 years; M/F is 1/2). Among patients with schizophrenia: 26.5% were married, 17.3% had a college degree, 28.6% were employed, 9% had committed suicide once, and 4.4% had more than 4 suicide attempts. Among the control group: 77.2% were married, 57.4% had a college degree, and 99% were employed. The mean score on the ISST was 2.36 ± 3.97 vs. 0.47 ± 1.44 for the schizophrenia and control groups, respectively. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91. Conclusions: This is the first study in the Arab world to validate the ISST in an Arabic-based population. The psychometric properties indicate that the Arabic version of the ISST is a valid tool to assess the severity of suicidal ideation in Arabic speaking patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Mental Health, Suicide, Qatar

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97 A Study of Mental Health of Higher Secondary School Going Children in Rural Area

Authors: Tanmay L. Joshi

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The Mental health allows children and young people to develop the resilience to cope with whatever life throws at them and grow into well-rounded, healthy adults. In urban area, many health professionals are working for the well being for younger population. There is so much of potential in rural area. However, the rural population is somehow neglected. Apart from lack of availability of basic needs like transport, electricity, telecommunication etc; the Psychological health is also overlooked in such area. There are no mental health professionals like Psychologists, counselors etc. So the researcher tries to throw some light on the mental health of Higher Secondary School going children in rural area. The current research tries to study the Mental Health (Confidence, Sociability and Neurotic Tendency) of Higher Secondary School going children. Researchers have used the tool Vyaktitva Shodhika (a personality inventory) by Dr. U. Khire (JPIP,Pune). The Sample size is 45 (N= 40, 24 boys/21 girls). The present study may provide a good support to inculcate emotional-management programs for higher secondary school going children in rural areas.

Keywords: Mental Health, rural area, neurotic tendency, school going children

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96 Mental Health Problems in College Students of India

Authors: Swati Naruka

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"Looking after one’s mind is as important as looking after one’s body". As part of one’s overall health, mental and emotional health or well being is a necessary condition to enable one to manage one’s life successfully. Mental health is the capacity of an individual to form harmonious adjustments to one’s social and physical environments. Universities and colleges are dealing with substantial challenges posed by the changing mental health needs of today’s college students. It is important for administrators, faculty, and staff to understand the profound impact that mental health problems can have on all aspects of campus life, and to treat mental health issues as an institutional responsibility and priority. Counselling centres can respond effectively to the current challenges if they have the support and commitment of the administration; and if they take steps to balance the demand for services with existing resources by reviewing priorities, establishing appropriate limits, employing innovative strategies, and practicing good self-care to minimize stress and burnout. The need for counselling centres has never been greater. They will continue to play an important role in supporting the mission of higher education institutions by providing counselling for students who are experiencing problems and assisting them in achieving their educational and personal goals.

Keywords: Mental Health, India, Well Being, college students

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95 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

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This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: Mental Health, demographic variables, parenting stress, mentally disabled children, familial functioning

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94 Working Without a Safety Net: Exploring Struggles and Dilemmas Faced by Greek Orthodox Married Clergy Through a Mental Health Lens, in the Australian Context

Authors: Catherine Constantinidis (Nee Tsacalos)

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This paper presents one aspect of the larger Masters qualitative study exploring the roles of married Greek Orthodox clergy, the Priest and Presbytera, under the wing of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia. This ground breaking research necessitated the creation of primary data within a phenomenological paradigm drawing from lived experiences of the Priests and Presbyteres in contemporary society. As a Social Worker, a bilingual (Greek/English) Mental Health practitioner and a Presbytera, the questions constantly raised and pondered are: Who do the Priest and Presbytera turn to when they experience difficulties or problems? Where do they go for support? What is in place for their emotional and psychological health and well-being? Who cares for the spiritual carer? Who is there to catch our falling clergy and their wives? What is their 'safety net'? Identified phenomena of angst, stress, frustration and confusion experienced by the Priest and (by extension) the Presbytera, within their position, coupled with basic assumptions, perceptions and expectations about their roles, the role of the organisation (the Church), and their role as spouse often caused confusion and in some cases conflict. Unpacking this complex and multi-dimensional relationship highlighted not only the roller coaster of emotions, potentially affecting their physical and mental health, but also the impact on the interwoven relationships of marriage and ministry. The author considers these phenomena in the light of bilingual cultural and religious organisational practice frameworks, specifically the Greek Orthodox Church, whilst filtering these findings through a mental health lens. One could argue that it is an expectation that clergy (and by default their wives) take on the responsibility to be kind, nurturing and supportive to others. However, when it comes to taking care of self, they are not nearly as kind. This research looks at a recurrent theme throughout the interviews where all participants talked about limited support systems and poor self care strategies and the impact this has on their ministry, mental, emotional, and physical health and ultimately on their relationships with self and others. The struggle all participants encountered at some point in their ministry was physical, spiritual and psychological burn out. The overall aim of the researcher is to provide a voice for the Priest and the Presbytera painting a clearer picture of these roles and facilitating an awareness of struggles and dilemmas faced in their ministry. It is hoped these identified gaps in self care strategies and support systems will provide solid foundations for building a culturally sensitive, empathetic and effective support system framework, incorporating the spiritual and psychological well-being of the Priest and Presbytera, a ‘safety net’. A supplementary aim is to inform and guide ministry practice frameworks for clergy, spouses, the church hierarchy and religious organisations on a local and global platform incorporating some sort of self-care system.

Keywords: Mental Health, Religion, care for the carer, Priest, Presbytera, support system

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93 Taking the Good with the Bad: Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration in Russian-Speaking Immigrants in Montreal

Authors: Momoka Sunohara, Ashley J. Lemieux, Esther Yakobov, Andrew G. Ryder, Tomas Jurcik

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Immigration brings changes in many aspects of an individual's life, from social support dynamics, to housing and language, as well as difficulties with regards to discrimination, trauma, and loss. Past research has mostly emphasized individual differences in mental health and has neglected the impact of social-ecological context, such as acculturation and ethnic density. Purpose: The present study aimed to assess the relationship between variables associated with social integration such as perceived ethnic density and ways of coping, as well as psychological adjustment in a rapidly growing non-visible minority group of immigrants in Canada. Data: A small subset of an archival data from our previously published study was reanalyzed with additional variables. Data included information from 269 Russian-Speaking immigrants in Montreal, Canada. Method: Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) investigated the relationship between two sets of variables. SAS PROC CANCORR was used to conduct CCA on a set of social integration variables, including ethnic density, discrimination, social support, family functioning, and acculturation, and a set of psychological well-being variables, including distress, depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. In addition, canonical redundancy analysis was performed to calculate the proportion of variances of original variables explained by their own canonical variates. Results: Significance tests using Rao’s F statistics indicated that the first two canonical correlations (i.e., r1 = 0.64, r2 = 0.40) were statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001). Additionally, canonical redundancy analysis showed that the first two well-being canonical variates explained separately 62.9% and 12.8% variances of the standardized well-being variables, whereas the first two social integration canonical variates explained separately 14.7% and 16.7% variances of the standardized social integration variables. These results support the selection of the first two canonical correlations. Then, we interpreted the derived canonical variates based on their canonical structure (i.e., correlations with original variables). Two observations can be concluded. First, individuals who have adequate social support, and who, as a family, cope by acquiring social support, mobilizing others and reframing are more likely to have better self-esteem, greater life satisfaction and experience less feelings of depression or distress. Second, individuals who feel discriminated yet rate higher on a mainstream acculturation scale, and who, as a family, cope by acquiring social support, mobilizing others and using spirituality, while using less passive strategies are more likely to have better life satisfaction but also higher degree of depression. Implications: This model may serve to explain the complex interactions that exist between social and emotional adjustment and aid in facilitating the integration of individuals immigrating into new communities. The same group may experience greater depression but paradoxically improved life satisfaction associated with their coping process. Such findings need to be placed in the context of Russian cultural values. For instance, some Russian-speakers may value the expression of negative emotions with significant others during the integration process; this in turn may make negative emotions more salient, but also facilitate a greater sense of family and community connection, as well as life satisfaction.

Keywords: Mental Health, Acculturation, ethnic density, Russian-speaking

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92 Psychical Impacts of Episiotomy: First Results

Authors: Clesse C., Lighezzolo-Alnot J., De Lavergne S.

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Considered as the most common surgical procedure worldwide, episiotomy can be defined as an incision around the vulva performed to enlarge it, in the aim of preventing the traumatic rupture of the perineum during childbirth. Rather mediatized, this practice raises many questions in the field of mental health, relayed by different users and health professionals. Today, is topicality is moderately hectic since many queries about the prophylactic exercise of episiotomy are subject to a relative consensus, particularly since WHO advocated in 1996 that only 10% of childbirths should involve an episiotomy. This indicator appeared after the publication of numerous results from randomized clinical trials. Unfortunately, these papers seem mostly centered about somatic impacts of episiotomy. From the side of psychological studies, they mostly integrate a major clinical methodological bias, especially considering that every primiparous woman is identical to the others face to the experience of parturition. In the aim to fill this lack of knowledge, we developed a longitudinal research starting in the 7th month of pregnancy and ending one year after delivery. We are studying in a comparative way different possible psychological consequences inherent to the use of episiotomy. To do this, we use a standardized methodology which combines semi-structured clinical interviews (IRMAG, IRMAN ...), free clinical interviews, a projective test (Rorschach) and five questionnaires (QIC, EPDS, CPQ WOMBLSQ4, SF36). Therefore, we can comprehend with shrewdness the question of psychic impacts of episiotomy in a qualitative and quantitative way by comparing it to other obstetric interventions. In this paper, we will present the first results obtained about a population of twenty-two primiparous women by focusing on body image, sexuality, quality of life, depressive affects, post-traumatic stress disorder and investment of the maternal role. Finally, we will consider the different implications and perspectives of this research which could improve the public health policies in the field of perinatal care.

Keywords: Mental Health, Assessment, episiotomy, psychical impacts

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91 How Social Support, Interaction with Clients and Work-Family Conflict Contribute to Mental Well-Being for Employees in the Human Service System

Authors: Uwe C. Fischer

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Mental health and well-being for employees working in the human service system are getting more and more important given the increasing rate of absenteeism at work. Besides individual capacities, social and community factors seem to be important in the working setting. Starting from a demand resource framework including the classical demand control aspects, social support systems, specific demands and resources of the client work, and work-family conflict were considered in the present study. We state hypothetically, that these factors have a meaningful association with the mental quality of life of employees working in the field of social, educational and health sectors. 1140 employees, working in human service organizations (education, youth care, nursing etc.) were asked for strains and resources at work (selected scales from Salutogenetic Subjective Work Assessment SALSA and own new scales for client work), work-family conflict, and mental quality of life from the German Short Form Health Survey. Considering the complex influences of the variables, we conducted a multiple hierarchical regression analysis. One third of the whole variance of the mental quality of life can be declared by the different variables of the model. When the variables concerning social influences were included in the hierarchical regression, the influence of work related control resource decreased. Excessive workload, work-family conflict, social support by supervisors, co-workers and other persons outside work, as well as strains and resources associated with client work had significant regression coefficients. Conclusions: Social support systems are crucial in the social, educational and health related service sector, regarding the influence on mental well-being. Especially the work-family conflict focuses on the importance of the work-life balance. Also the specific strains and resources of the client work, measured with new constructed scales, showed great impact on mental health. Therefore occupational health promotion should focus more on the social factors within and outside the working place.

Keywords: Mental Health, Social Support, work-family conflict, client interaction, human service system

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90 The Relationship between Selfesteem, Social Support, and Mental Health among High School Students in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Shahbakhti

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, social support and mental health in a sample of government high school students in Eshtehard city in Alborz Province in Iran. Three hundred and eleven students (boys) were included in this study. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS -12), and Self-Esteem Scale (SS-10). The results revealed that self-esteem was positively associated with social support. Self-esteem and social support negatively associated with psychological distress. Self-esteem and social support to influence on mental health.

Keywords: Mental Health, Social Support, high school students, self-esteem

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89 Caring for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Malawi: Parental Psychological Experiences and Needs

Authors: Charles Masulani Mwale

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Background: It is argued that 85% of children with the disability live in resource-poor countries where there are few available disability services. A majority of these children, including their parents, suffer a lot as a result of the disability and its associated stigmatization, leading to a marginalized life. These parents also experience more stress and mental health problems such as depression, compared with families of normal developing children. There is little research from Africa addressing these issues especially among parents of intellectually disabled children. WHO encourages research on the impact that child with a disability have on their family and appropriate training and support to the families so that they can promote the child’s development and well-being. This study investigated the parenting experiences, mechanisms of coping with these challenges and psychosocial needs while caring for children with intellectual disabilities in both rural and urban settings of Lilongwe and Mzuzu. Methods: This is part of a larger Mixed-methods study aimed at developing a contextualized psychosocial intervention for parents of intellectually disabled children. 16 focus group discussions and four in-depth interviews were conducted with parents in catchments areas for St John of God and Children of Blessings in Mzuzu and Lilongwe cities respectively. Ethical clearance was obtained from COMREC. Data were stored in NVivo software for easy retrieval and management. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Note-taking was performed during all the observations. Data triangulation from the interviews, note taking and the observations were done for validation and reliability. Results: Caring for intellectually disabled children comes with a number of challenges. Parents experience stigma and discrimination; fear for the child’s future; have self-blame and guilt; get coerced by neighbors to kill the disabled child; and fear violence by and to the child. Their needs include respite relief, improved access to disability services, education on disability management and financial support. For their emotional stability, parents cope by sharing with others and turning to God while other use poor coping mechanisms like alcohol use. Discussion and Recommendation: Apart from neighbors’ coercion to eliminate the child life, the findings of this study are similar to those done in other countries like Kenya and Pakistan. It is recommended that parents get educated on disability, its causes, and management to array fears of unknown. Community education is also crucial to promote community inclusiveness and correct prevailing myths associated with disability. Disability institutions ought to intensify individual as well as group counseling services to these parents. Further studies need to be done to design culturally appropriate and specific psychosocial interventions for the parents to promote their psychological resilience.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, Psychological distress, Intellectual Disability, psychosocial interventions, psychological resilience

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88 Food Insecurity and Mental Health among Adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia: Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

Authors: David Lindström, Tefera Belachew, Mulusew G. Jebena, Craig Hadley, Carl Lachat, Patrick Kolsteren

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Background: The biological and psychosocial consequence of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status has been reported. But, its effect on mental health during adolescence remains unexplored. Thus, the main aim of this analysis is to examine the mechanism by which food insecurity is linked to mental health among adolescents living in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: We used data from third round observation of Jimma Longitudinal Family and Youth Survey (JLFSY). A total of 1,521 adolescents included for the main analysis. Food insecurity was measured using 5-items scale and The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to measure mental distress. Structural equation modeling analysis was done using maximum likelihood estimation method. Model diagnostics test was reported. All p values were two tailed and P value ≤ 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of mental distress was 20.8%, 95% CI: (18.8, 22.9). After adjusted for covariates, the final model depicts food insecurity was associated with adolescent mental distress (β=.324). This analysis showed 94.1% of the effect of food insecurity on mental distress is direct. By contrast, 5.9% of the food insecurity effect is mediated by physical health. In addition, Self-rated health (β=.356), socioeconomic status (β=-.078) parental educational (β= .170), living in urban (β= .193) and female headed household (β=.205) were associated with adolescent mental distress. Conclusions: This finding highlights the direct effect of food insecurity on adolescent mental distress. Therefore, any intervention aimed to improve mental distress of adolescents should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. Beside this, prevention of underlying factors such as psychosomatic health illness and improving socio economic status is also very critical. Furthermore longitudinal relationship of the long term effect of food insecurity on mental health should be investigated.

Keywords: Mental Health, Adolescent, food insecurity, Ethiopia

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87 The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on Mental Health in Metropolitans

Authors: Farrin Nayebzadeh, Mohammadreza Eslami Amirabadi

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According to technological progress and urban development, the cities of the world are growing to become metropolitans, living in which can be enthusiastic, entertaining and accessibility to the facilities like education, economic factors, hygiene and welfare is high. On the other hand, there are some problems that have been ignored in planning for such high quality of life, most important of which, is human health. Two aspects of human health are physical health and mental health, that are closely associated. Human mental health depends on two important factors: Biological factor and environmental factor. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental risk factors that affects mental health. Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior, depression and also children's mental disorders like hyperactivity, aggression and agitation. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. These factors can cause resonance of psychiatric disorders. So, in cities of developing countries, people challenge with mental health problems due to environmental factors especially air pollution that have not been forecasted in urban planning.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Mental Health, Environmental Factors, Psychiatric Disorder

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86 An Exploratory Research on Childhood Sexual Victimization and Its Psychological Impacts

Authors: Urwah Ali

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The aim of this study is to carry out a meta-analysis in order to establish an overall international figure and to summarize the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child sexual abuse and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the HEC Digital Library, Pub Med, PsycINFO and SAHIL databases published after 2010 containing empirical data pertaining to CSA. Out of 124 articles assessed for eligibility, 32 studies provided evidence of a relationship between sexual child maltreatment and various health outcomes for use in subsequent meta-analyses. Statistical significance associations were observed between childhood sexual victimization and psychological problems in their adulthood [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95%Cl 3.07–4.43]. For most studies included for meta-analysis, the odds ratio falls above 1.00, indicating that patients having history of childhood sexual victimization were more likely to develop psychological disorders.

Keywords: Mental Health, Sexual Abuse, abuse, childhood sexual abuse

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85 Life Satisfaction of Non-Luxembourgish and Native Luxembourgish Postgraduate Students

Authors: Chrysoula Karathanasi, Senad Karavdic, Angela Odero, Michèle Baumann

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It is not only the economic determinants that impact on life conditions, but maintaining a good level of life satisfaction (LS) may also be an important challenge currently. In Luxembourg, university students receive financial aid from the government. They are then registered at the Centre for Documentation and Information on Higher Education (CEDIES). Luxembourg is built on migration with almost half its population consisting of foreigners. It is upon this basis that our research aims to analyze the associations with mental health factors (health satisfaction, psychological quality of life, worry), perceived financial situation, career attitudes (adaptability, optimism, knowledge, planning) and LS, for non-Luxembourgish and native postgraduate students. Between 2012 and 2013, postgraduates registered at CEDIES were contacted by post and asked to participate in an online survey with either the option of English or French. The study population comprised of 644 respondents. Our statistical analysis excluded: those born abroad who had Luxembourgish citizenship, or those born in Luxembourg who did not have citizenship. Two groups were formed one consisting 147 non-Luxembourgish and the other 284 natives. A single item measured LS (1=not at all satisfied to 10=very satisfied). Bivariate tests, correlations and multiple linear regression models were used in which only significant relationships (p<0.05) were integrated. Among the two groups no differences were found between LS indicators (7.8/10 non-Luxembourgish; 8.0/10 natives) as both were higher than the European indicator of 7.2/10 (for 25-34 years). In the case of non-Luxembourgish students, they were older than natives (29.3 years vs. 26.3 years) perceived their financial situation as more difficult, and a higher percentage of their parents had an education level higher than a Bachelor's degree (father 59.2% vs 44.6% for natives; mother 51.4% vs 33.7% for natives). In addition, the father’s education was related to the LS of postgraduates and the higher was the score, the greater was the contribution to LS. Whereas for native students, when their scores of health satisfaction and career optimism were higher, their LS’ score was higher. For both groups their LS was linked to mental health-related factors, perception of their financial situation, career optimism, adaptability and planning. The higher the psychological quality of life score was, the greater the LS of postgraduates’ was. Good health and positive attitudes related to the job market enhanced their LS indicator.

Keywords: Mental Health, Life Satisfaction, career attributes, father's education level

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84 Fathers and Daughters: Their Relationship and Its Impact on Body Image and Mental Health

Authors: John Toussaint

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Objective: Our society is suffering from an epidemic of body image dissatisfaction, and related disorders appear to be increasing globally for children. There is much to indicate that children's body image and eating attitudes are being affected negatively by socio-cultural factors such as parents, peers and media. Most studies and theories, however, have focused extensively on the daughter-mother relationship. Very few studies have investigated the role of attachment to the father as an important factor in the development of girls’ and women’s attitudes towards themselves and their bodies. Recently, data have shown that the father’s parenting style, as well as the quality of the relationship with him is crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of body image disorders. This presentation is based on samples of participants with self-defined body image dissatisfaction, and the self-reported measures of their fathers’ parental behaviours, emotional warmth, support, or protection. Attachment theory does offer support in exploring these relationships and it is used in this presentation to assist in understanding the relationship between the father and his daughter in relation to body image and mental health. Clinical implications are also offered in respect to work with body image, eating disorders and relational therapy. Methods: As awareness of the increasing frequency of body image concerns in children grows, so too does the need for a simple, valid and reliable measure of body image. The Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) designed in Australia, depicts seven male and females figures from which children are to choose their perceived body type and ideal body type. This was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. These measures together with individual one-on-one interviews were completed by 158 children aged 7-12 years. Results: A high frequency of body image dissatisfaction was indicated in the children's responses. 55% of girls and 41% of boys said they would like to be thinner, and wished for an ideal BMI figure below the 10th percentile. This is an unhealthy and unattainable level of body fatness for the majority of children when considered in relation to the reported secular trend of their increasing average body size. Thin children were generally ranked as best and perceived as kind, happy, academically skilled, and socially successful. Fat children were perceived as unintelligent, lazy, greedy, unpopular, and unable to play physical games. Conclusions: Body image ideals and fat stereotypes are well entrenched among children. There is much to indicate that children's body image and eating attitudes are being affected negatively by sociocultural factors such as parents, peers and media. Teachers and health professionals could promote intervention programs for children involving knowledge and acceptance of genetic influences on body type; the dangerous effects of weight loss dieting; the importance of physical activity and eating healthy; and scepticism and critical analysis of mass media messages.

Keywords: Mental Health, Body image, Eating Disorders, father attachment

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83 Coping Strategies for Stress Used by Adolescent Girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hafsa Raheel

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Objectives: Secondary school girls, ages 15–19 years old were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives, especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. Methods: A cross-sectional school-based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Conclusion: The majority of the adolescent girls in our survey rely on emotion-related coping mechanisms rather than problem-solving mechanisms. This can cause long-term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.

Keywords: Mental Health, Adolescents, stress, Saudi Arabia

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82 Community Based Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Maternal Depression and Infant Development in Bangladesh

Authors: S. Yesmin, N. F.Rahman, R. Akther, T. Begum, T. Tahmid, T. Chowdury, S. Afrin, J. D. Hamadani

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Abstract: Maternal depression is one of the risk factors of developmental delay in young children in low-income countries. Maternal depressions during pregnancy are rarely reported in Bangladesh. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a community based psychosocial intervention on women with mild to moderate depressive illness during the perinatal period and on their children from birth to 12 months on mothers’ mental status and their infants’ growth and development. Methodology: The study followed a prospective longitudinal approach with a randomized controlled design. Total 250 pregnant women aged between 15 and 40 years were enrolled in their third trimester of pregnancy of which 125 women were in the intervention group and 125 in the control group. Women in the intervention group received the “Thinking Healthy (CBT based) program” at their home setting, from their last month of pregnancy till 10 months after delivery. Their children received psychosocial stimulation from birth till 12 months. The following instruments were applied to get the outcome information- Bangla version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (BEPDS), Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI), Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Bayley Scale of Infant Development-Third version (Bayley–III) and Family Care Indicator (FCI). In addition, sever morbidity; breastfeeding, immunization, socio-economic and demographic information were collected. Data were collected at three time points viz. baseline, midline (6 months after delivery) and endline (12 months after delivery). Results: There was no significant difference between any of the socioeconomic and demographic variables at baseline. A very preliminary analysis of the data shows an intervention effect on Socioemotional behaviour of children at endline (p<0.001), motor development at midline (p=0.016) and at endline (p=0.065), language development at midline (p=0.004) and at endline (p=0.023), cognitive development at midline (p=0.008) and at endline (p=0.002), and quality of psychosocial stimulation at midline (p=0.023) and at endline (p=0.010). EPDS at baseline was not different between the groups (p=0.419), but there was a significant improvement at midline (p=0.027) and at endline (p=0.024) between the groups following the intervention. Conclusion: Psychosocial intervention is found effective in reducing women’s low and moderate depressive illness to cope with mental health problem and improving development of young children in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Mental Health, CBT, maternal depression, infant development, EPDS

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81 Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross‑Sectional Study

Authors: Hafsa Raheel

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Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross‑sectional, school‑based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory‑II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was inferior to 12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), had been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better‑coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.

Keywords: Mental Health, Depression, Adolescents, Saudi Arabia

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80 Pregnant Women and Mothers in Prison, Mother and Baby Units and Mental Health

Authors: Rachel Dolan

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Background: Over two thirds of women in prison in England are mothers, and estimates suggest between 100 and 200 women per year give birth during imprisonment. There are currently six mother and baby units (MBUs) in prisons in England which admit women and babies up to the age of 18 months. Although there are only 65 places available, and despite positive impacts, they are rarely full. Mental illness may influence the number of admissions, as may interpretation of admission criteria. They are the only current alternative to separation for imprisoned mothers and their babies. Aims: To identify the factors that affect the decision to apply for/be offered a place in a prison MBU; to measure the impact of a placement upon maternal mental health and wellbeing; To measure the Initial outcomes for mother and child. Methods: A mixed methods approach - 100 pregnant women in English prisons are currently being recruited from prisons in England. Quantitative measures will establish the prevalence of mental disorder, personality disorder, substance misuse and quality of life. Qualitative interviews will document the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood in prison. Results: Preliminary quantitative findings suggest the most prevalent mental disorders are anxiety and depression and approximately half the participants meet the criteria for one or more personality disorders. The majority of participants to date have been offered a place in a prison MBU, and those in a prison with an MBU prior to applying are more likely to be admitted. Those with a previous history of childcare issues, who are known to social services are less likely to be offered a place. Qualitative findings suggest that many women are often hungry and uncomfortable during pregnancy, many have feelings of guilt about having a child in prison and that feelings of anxiety and worry are exacerbated by lack of information.

Keywords: Mental Health, Mothers, prison, mother and baby units

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