Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3338

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Medical and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3338 Hemodialysis Technique in a Diabetic Population

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause end stage renal failure in Australia, responsible for 36% of cases. Patients who require dialysis may be suitable for haemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and preoperatively careful planning is required to select suitable vessels for a long-lasting fistula that provides suitable dialysis access. Due to high levels of vascular disease in diabetic patients, we sought to investigate whether there is a difference in the types of autologous AVFs created for diabetic patients in renal failure compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. Method: Data was collected from the Australasian Vascular Audit, for all vascular surgery completed at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne between 2011-2020. Patients were selected by operative type, creation of AVF, and compared in two groups, diabetic patients and patients without diabetes. Chi-squared test was utilised to determine significance. Results: Data analysis is ongoing and will be complete with updated abstract in time for the conference. Discussion: Diabetic nephropathy is the cause for roughly a third of end stage renal failure in Australia. Diabetic patients present with a unique set of challenges when it comes to dialysis access due to increased risk of peripheral vascular disease and arterial calcification. Care must be taken in the creation of fistulas to minimise complications and increase the chance of long-lasting access. Our study investigates the difference in autologous AVFs between diabetics and non-diabetics, and results may be used to influence location of fistula creation. Further research may be used to investigate patency rates of fistulas in diabetics vs non-diabetics which would further influence treatment decisions.

Keywords: Diabetes, Dialysis, fistula, renal access

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3337 Implementation of A Treatment Escalation Plan During The Covid 19 Outbreak in Aneurin Bevan University Health Board

Authors: Peter Collett, Mike Pynn, Haseeb Ur Rahman

Abstract:

For the last few years across the UK there has been a push towards implementing treatment escalation plans (TEP) for every patient admitted to hospital. This is a paper form which is completed by a junior doctor then countersigned by the consultant responsible for the patient's care. It is designed to address what level of care is appropriate for the patient in question at point of entry to hospital. It helps decide whether the patient would benefit for ward based, high dependency or intensive care. They are completed to ensure the patient's best interests are maintained and aim to facilitate difficult decisions which may be required at a later date. For example, a frail patient with significant co-morbidities, unlikely to survive a pathology requiring an intensive care admission is admitted to hospital the decision can be made early to state the patient would not benefit from an ICU admission. This decision can be reversed depending on the clinical course of the patient's admission. It promotes discussions with the patient regarding their wishes to receive certain levels of healthcare. This poster describes the steps taken in the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board (ABUHB) when implementing the TEP form. The team implementing the TEP form campaigned for it's use to the board of directors. The directors were eager to hear of experiences of other health boards who had implemented the TEP form. The team presented the data produced in a number of health boards and demonstrated the proposed form. Concern was raised regarding the legalities of the form and that it could upset patients and relatives if the form was not explained properly. This delayed the effectuation of the TEP form and further research and discussion would be required. When COVID 19 reached the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence issued guidance stating every patient admitted to hospital should be issued a TEP form. The TEP form was accelerated through the vetting process and was approved with immediate effect. The TEP form in ABUHB has now been in circulation for a month. An audit investigating it's uptake and a survey gathering opinions have been conducted.

Keywords: Intensive Care, Clinical governance, acute medicine, patient centered decision making

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3336 The Origin, Diffusion and the Comparison of Ode Numerical Solutions Used by SIR Model in Order to Predict SARS-COV-2 in Nordic Countries

Authors: Gleda Kutrolli, Maksi Kutrolli, Etjon Meco

Abstract:

SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently one of the most virulent pathogens for humans. It started in China at the end of 2019 and now it is spread in all over the world. The origin and diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, is analysed based on the discussion of viral phylogeny presented in Cristianini \& Hahn (2006). With the aim of understanding the spread of infection in the affected countries, it is crucial to modelize the spread of virus and simulate his activity. In this paper, the prediction of coronavirus outbreak is done by using SIR model without vital dynamics, applying different numerical technique solving ODEs. We find out that ABM and MRT methods perform better than other techniques and that the activity of the virus will decrease on April but it never cease (for some time the activity will remain low) and the next cycle will start around middle July 2020 for Norway and Denmark, October 2020 for Sweden, and September for Finland.

Keywords: Forecasting, Ordinary differential equations, SIR model, SARS-COV-2 epidemic

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3335 Environmental Risk Assessment of Ebola Vaccine ERVEBO

Authors: Jenal Ursula, Tell Joan

Abstract:

The first vaccine against Ebola virus disease (EVD) to be approved in the United States and the European Union in 2019 was ERVEBOTM by Merck & Co. This live attenuated, recombinant vaccine has been used widely and successfully in ring vaccinations in Africa in Expanded Access/Compassionate Use protocols, as recommended by the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization. An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was required as part of the marketing authorization applications for this recombinant vaccine both by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA). The goal of an ERA is to assess the potential risk to people, animals and the environment at large from administration of a genetically modified vaccine. The most important questions to be addressed are: can the vaccine propagate and be released by vaccinated individuals and could such a release result in direct transmission to people and host animals or indirect transmission through insect vectors and subsequent unintentional propagation of the vaccine virus in the environment. This presentation addresses these questions, drawing from the actual experience with the marketing authorization application for ERVEBOTM. ERVEBOTM is based on an attenuated Indiana strain of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV Indiana) expressing the Zaire strain Ebolavirus Glycoprotein antigen. The wild type strain of the VSV Indiana virus is not indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Where it occurs, it can cause disease that primarily affects cattle, horses, swine and occasionally sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. Demonstration of safety was drawn from a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies with the investigational recombinant vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, now termed ERVEBOTM. Overall, the ERA of ERVEBOTM resulted in the conclusion that the risk of this recombinant Ebola vaccine for people and the environment is negligible.

Keywords: Environmental Risk Assessment, Ebola vaccine, life attenuated recombinant vaccine, market authorization application

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3334 Dialysis Access Surgery for Patients in Renal Failure: A 10-Year Institutional Experience

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti

Abstract:

Introduction: Dialysis access is a key component of the care of patients with end stage renal failure. In our institution, a combined service of vascular surgeons and nephrologists are responsible for the creation and maintenance of arteriovenous fisultas (AVF), tenckhoff cathethers and Hickman/permcath lines. This poster investigates the last 10 years of dialysis access surgery conducted at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne. Method: A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was conducted of patients of St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) utilising data collection from the Australasian Vascular Audit (Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery). Descriptive demographic analysis was carried out as well as operation type, length of hospital stays, postoperative deaths and need for reoperation. Results: 2085 patients with renal failure were operated on between the years of 2011 and 2020. 1315 were male (63.1%) and 770 were female (36.9%). The mean age was 58 (SD 13.8). 92% of patients scored three or greater on the American Society of Anesthiologiests classification system. Almost half had a history of ischaemic heart disease (48.4%), more than half had a history of diabetes (64%), and a majority had hypertension (88.4%). 1784 patients had a creatinine over 150mmol/L (85.6%), the rest were on dialysis (14.4%). The most common access procedure was AVF creation, with 474 autologous AVFs and 64 prosthetic AVFs. There were 263 Tenckhoff insertions. We performed 160 cadeveric renal transplants. The most common location for AVF formation was brachiocephalic (43.88%) followed by radiocephalic (36.7%) and brachiobasilic (16.67%). Fistulas that required re-intervention were most commonly angioplastied (n=163), followed by thrombectomy (n=136). There were 107 local fistula repairs. Average length of stay was 7.6 days, (SD 12). There were 106 unplanned returns to theatre, most commonly for fistula creation, insertion of tenckhoff or permacath removal (71.7%). There were 8 deaths in the immediately postoperative period. Discussion: Access to dialysis is vital for patients with end stage kidney disease, and requires a multidisciplinary approach from both nephrologists, vascular surgeons, and allied health practitioners. Our service provides a variety of dialysis access methods, predominately fistula creation and tenckhoff insertion. Patients with renal failure are heavily comorbid, and prolonged hospital admission following surgery is a source of significant healthcare expenditure. AVFs require careful monitoring and maintenance for ongoing utility, and our data reflects a multitude of operations required to maintain usable access. The requirement for dialysis is growing worldwide and our data demonstrates a local experience in access, with preferred methods, common complications and the associated surgical interventions.

Keywords: Nephrology, Dialysis, Vascular Surgery, fistula

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3333 High-Throughput Mechanized Microfluidic Test Groundwork for Precise Microbial Genomics

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Gasemi Shayan, Parsa Sheykhzade

Abstract:

Ease shotgun DNA sequencing is changing the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are compelling to the point that example planning is currently the key constraining element. Here, we present a microfluidic test readiness stage that incorporates the key strides in cells to grouping library test groundwork for up to 96 examples and decreases DNA input prerequisites 100-overlay while keeping up or improving information quality. The universally useful microarchitecture we show bolsters work processes with subjective quantities of response and tidy up or catch steps. By decreasing the example amount necessities, we empowered low-input (∼10,000 cells) entire genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil miniaturized scale settlements with prevalent outcomes. We additionally utilized the upgraded throughput to succession ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and exhibit magnificent single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery execution that clarified phenotypically watched anti-toxin opposition. Completely coordinated lab-on-chip test arrangement beats specialized boundaries to empower more extensive organization of genomics across numerous fundamental research and translational applications.

Keywords: Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology, Microbial Genomics, Dna

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3332 Benefits of Occupational Therapy for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Aspects of Vocational Activities and Instrumental Activities of Daily Life

Authors: Shakhawath Hossain, Tazkia Tahsin

Abstract:

Introduction/Background: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. Vocational education is a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living activities to support daily life within the home and community. Like as community mobility, financial management, meal preparation, and clean-up, shopping. Material and Method: Electronic searches of Medline, PubMed, Google scholar, OT Seeker literature using the key terms of intellectual disability, vocational rehabilitation, instrumental activities of daily living and Occupational Therapy, as well as a thorough manual search for relevant literature. Results: There were 13 articles, all qualitative and quantitative, which are included in this review. All studies were mixed methods in design. To take the Occupational Therapy services, there is a significant improvement in their children's various areas like as sensory issues, cognitive abilities, perceptual skills, visual, motor planning, and group therapy. After taking the vocational and instrumental activities of daily living training children with intellectual disabilities to participate in their daily activities and work as an employee different company or organizations. Conclusion: The persons with intellectual disability are an integral part of our society who deserves social support and opportunities like other human beings. From the result section of the project papers, it is found that the significant benefits of Occupational Therapy services in the aspects of vocational and instrumental activities of daily living.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Intellectual Disabilities, daily living activities, instrumental ADL

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3331 Comparison of Titanium and Aluminum Functions as Spoilers for Dose Uniformity Achievement in Abutting Oblique Electron Fields: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

Authors: Faranak Felfeliyan, Parvaneh Shokrani, Maryam Atarod

Abstract:

Introduction Using electron beam is widespread in radiotherapy. The main criteria in radiation therapy is to irradiate the tumor volume with maximum prescribed dose and minimum dose to vital organs around it. Using abutting fields is common in radiotherapy. The main problem in using abutting fields is dose inhomogeneity in the junction region. Electron beam divergence and lateral scattering may lead to hot and cold spots in the junction region. One solution for this problem is using of a spoiler to broaden the penumbra and uniform dose in the junction region. The goal of this research was to compare titanium and aluminum effects as a spoiler for dose uniformity achievement in the junction region of oblique electron fields with Monte Carlo simulation. Dose uniformity in the junction region depends on density, scattering power, thickness of the spoiler and the angle between two fields. Materials and Methods In this study, Monte Carlo model of Siemens Primus linear accelerator was simulated for a 5 MeV nominal energy electron beam using manufacture provided specifications. BEAMnrc and EGSnrc user code were used to simulate the treatment head in electron mode (simulation of beam model). The resulting phase space file was used as a source for dose calculations for 10×10 cm2 field size at SSD=100 cm in a 30×30×45 cm3 water phantom using DOSXYZnrc user code (dose calculations). An automatic MP3-M water phantom tank, MEPHYSTO mc2 software platform and a Semi-Flex Chamber-31010 with sensitive vol­ume of 0.125 cm3 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used for dose distribution measurements. Moreover, the electron field size was 10×10 cm2 and SSD=100 cm. Validation of devel­oped beam model was done by comparing the measured and calculated depth and lateral dose distributions (verification of electron beam model). Simulation of spoilers (using SLAB compo­nent module) placed at the end of the electron applicator, was done using previously vali­dated phase space file for a 5 MeV nominal energy and 10×10 cm2 field size (simulation of spoiler). An in-house routine was developed in order to calculate the combined isodose curves re­sulting from the two simulated abutting fields (calculation of dose distribution in abutting electron fields). Results Verification of the developed 5.9 MeV elec­tron beam model was done by comparing the calculated and measured dose distributions. The maximum percentage difference between calculated and measured PDD was 1%, except for the build-up region in which the difference was 2%. The difference between calculated and measured profile was 2% at the edges of the field and less than 1% in other regions. The effect of PMMA, aluminum, titanium and chromium in dose uniformity achievement in abutting normal electron fields with equivalent thicknesses to 5mm PMMA was evaluated. Comparing R90 and uniformity index of different materials, aluminum was chosen as the optimum spoiler. Titanium has the maximum surface dose. Thus, aluminum and titanium had been chosen to use for dose uniformity achievement in oblique electron fields. Using the optimum beam spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 110% for 15 degrees, from 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, from 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and from 180% to 100% for 60 degrees oblique abutting fields. Using Titanium spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 120% for 15 degrees, 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and 180% to 110% for 60 degrees. In addition, penumbra width for 15 degrees, without spoiler in the surface was 10 mm and was increased to 15.5 mm with titanium spoiler. For 30 degrees, from 9 mm to 15 mm, for 45 degrees from 4 mm to 6 mm and for 60 degrees, from 5 mm to 8 mm. Conclusion Using spoilers, penumbra width at the surface increased, size and depth of hot spots was decreased and dose homogeneity improved at the junc­tion of abutting electron fields. Dose at the junction region of abutting oblique fields was improved significantly by using spoiler. Maximum dose at the junction region for 15⁰, 30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰ was decreased about 40%, 60%, 40% and 70% respectively for Titanium and about 50%, 60%, 40% and 80% for Aluminum. Considering significantly decrease in maximum dose using titanium spoiler, unfortunately, dose distribution in the junction region was not decreased less than 110%.

Keywords: Radiation therapy, electron beam, abutting fields, spoilers

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3330 Detection of Cardiac Arrhythmia Using Principal Component Analysis and Xgboost Model

Authors: Sujay Kotwale, Ramasubba Reddy M.

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a non-invasive technique used to study and analyze various heart diseases. Cardiac arrhythmia is a serious heart disease which leads to death of the patients, when left untreated. An early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia would help the doctors to do proper treatment of the heart. In the past, various algorithms and machine learning (ML) models were used to early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia, but few of them have achieved better results. In order to improve the performance, this paper implements principal component analysis (PCA) along with XGBoost model. The PCA was implemented to the raw ECG signals which suppress redundancy information and extracted significant features. The obtained significant ECG features were fed into XGBoost model and the performance of the model was evaluated. In order to valid the proposed technique, raw ECG signals obtained from standard MIT-BIH database were employed for the analysis. The result shows that the performance of proposed method is superior to the several state-of-the-arts techniques.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, electrocardiogram, cardiac arrhythmia, XGboost

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3329 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

Abstract:

Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, coronary angiography, clinical manifestations, myocardial bridging, stable angina

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3328 Nurse-Led Codes: Practical Application in the Emergency Department during a Global Pandemic

Authors: F. DelGaudio, H. Gill

Abstract:

Resuscitation during cardiopulmonary (CPA) arrest is dynamic, high stress, high acuity situation, which can easily lead to communication breakdown, and errors. The care of these high acuity patients has also been shown to increase physiologic stress and task saturation of providers, which can negatively impact the care being provided. These difficulties are further complicated during a global pandemic and pose a significant safety risk to bedside providers. Nurse-led codes are a relatively new concept that may be a potential solution for alleviating some of these difficulties. An experienced nurse who has completed advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and additional training, assumed the responsibility of directing the mechanics of the appropriate ACLS algorithm. This was done in conjunction with a physician who also acted as a physician leader. The additional nurse-led code training included a multi-disciplinary in situ simulation of a CPA on a suspected COVID-19 patient. During the CPA, the nurse leader’s responsibilities include: ensuring adequate compression depth and rate, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions, the timing of rhythm/pulse checks, and appropriate medication administration. In addition, the nurse leader also functions as a last line safety check for appropriate personal protective equipment and limiting exposure of staff. The use of nurse-led codes for CPA has shown to decrease the cognitive overload and task saturation for the physician, as well as limiting the number of staff being exposed to a potentially infectious patient. The real-world application has allowed physicians to perform and oversee high-risk procedures such as intubation, line placement, and point of care ultrasound, without sacrificing the integrity of the resuscitation. Nurse-led codes have also given the physician the bandwidth to review pertinent medical history, advanced directives, determine reversible causes, and have the end of life conversations with family. While there is a paucity of research on the effectiveness of nurse-led codes, there are many potentially significant benefits. In addition to its value during a pandemic, it may also be beneficial during complex circumstances such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Keywords: COVID-19, cardiopulmonary arrest, nurse-led code, task saturation

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3327 The Risk of Deaths from Viral Hepatitis among the Female Workers in the Beauty Service Industry

Authors: Byeongju Choi, Sanggil Lee, Kyung-Eun Lee

Abstract:

Introduction: In the republic of Korea, the number of workers in the beauty industry has been increasing. Because the prevalence of hepatitis B carriers in Korea is higher than in other countries, the risk of blood-borne infection including viral hepatitis B and C, among the workers by using the sharp and contaminated instruments during procedure can be expected among beauty salon workers. However, the health care policies for the workers to prevent the blood-borne infection are not established due to the lack of evidences. Moreover, the workers in hair and nail salon were mostly employed at small businesses, where national mandatory systems or policies for workers’ health management are not applied. In this study, the risk of the viral hepatitis B and C from the job experiencing the hair and nail procedures in the mortality was assessed. Method: We conducted a retrospective review of the job histories and causes of death in the female deaths from 2006-2016. 132,744 of female deaths who had one more job experiences during their lifetime were included in this study. Job histories were assessed using the employment insurance database in Korea Employment Information Service (KEIS) and the causes of death were in death statistics produced by Statistics Korea. Case group (n= 666) who died from viral hepatitis was classified the death having record involved in ‘B15-B19’ as a cause of deaths based on Korean Standard Classification of Diseases(KCD) with the deaths from other causes, control group (n=132,078). The group of the workers in the beauty service industry were defined as the employees who had ever worked in the industry coded as ‘9611’ based on Korea Standard Industry Classification (KSIC) and others were others. Other than job histories, birth year, marital status, education level were investigated from the death statistics. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the risk of deaths from viral hepatitis in the case and control group. Result: The number of the deaths having ever job experiences at the hair and nail salon was 255. After adjusting confounders of age, marital status and education, the odds ratio(OR) for deaths from viral hepatitis was quite high in the group having experiences with working in the beauty service industry with 3.14(95% confidence interval(CI) 1.00-9.87). Other associated factors with increasing the risk of deaths from viral hepatitis were low education level(OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.73), married women (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.02-1.97). Conclusion: The risk of deaths from viral hepatitis were high in the workers in the beauty service industry but not statistically significant, which might attributed from the small number of workers in beauty service industry. It was likely that the number of workers in beauty service industry could be underestimated due to their temporary job position. Further studies evaluating the status and the incidence of viral infection among the workers with consideration of the vertical transmission would be required.

Keywords: Viral Hepatitis, Viral Infection, beauty service, blood-borne infection

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3326 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

Abstract:

Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: Stroke, dysphagia, transcranial direct current stimulation, cortical stimulation

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3325 Perception of Health Care Providers: A Need to Introduce Screening of Maternal Mental Health at Primary Health Care in Nepal

Authors: Manisha Singh, Padam Simkhada

Abstract:

Background: Although mental health policy has been adapted in Nepal since 1997, the implementation of the policy framework is yet to happen. The fact that mental health services are largely concentrated in urban areas more specific to treatment only provides a clear picture of the scarcity of mental health services in the country. The pieces of evidence from around the world, along with WHO’s (World Health Organization) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP), suggest that effective mental health services can be provided from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers through community-based programs without having to place a specialized health worker. However, the country is still facing the same challenges to date with very few psychiatrists and psychologists, but they are largely based in cities. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are; (a) to understand the perception of health workers at PHC on maternal mental health, and (b) to assess the availability of the mental health services at PHC to address maternal mental health. Methods: This study used a qualitative approach where an in-depth interview was conducted with the health workers at the primary level. 'Mayadevi' rural municipality in Rupendehi District that comprised of 13 small villages, was chosen as the study site. A total of 13 health workers, either the health post in charge or health worker working in maternal and child health care was interviewed for the study. All the health posts in the study area were included in the study. The interviews were conducted in Nepali; later, they were translated in English, transcribed, and triangulated. NViVO was used for the analysis. Results: The findings show that most of the health workers understood what maternal mental health was and deemed it as a public health issue. They could explain the symptoms and knew what medication to prescribe if need be. However, the majority of them failed to name the screening tools in place for maternal mental health. Moreover, they hadn’t even seen one. None of the health care centres had any provision for screening mental health status. However, one of the centres prescribed medication when the patients displayed symptoms of depression. But they believed there was a significant number of hidden cases in the community due to the stigma around mental health, and being a woman with a mental health problem makes the situation even difficult. Nonetheless, the health workers understood the importance of having screening tools and acknowledged the need for training and support in order to provide the services from PHC. Conclusion: Community health workers can identify the cases with mental health problems and prevent them from deteriorating further. But there is a need for robust training and support to build the capacity of the health workers. The screening tools on mental health needs to be encouraged to be used in the PHC levels. Furthermore, community-based culture-sensitive programs need to be initiated and implemented to mitigate the stigma related issues around mental health.

Keywords: Screening, Nepal, health care providers, maternal mental health

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3324 Redesigning Clinical and Nursing Informatics Capstones

Authors: Sue S. Feldman

Abstract:

As clinical and nursing informatics mature, an area that has gotten a lot of attention is the value capstone projects. Capstones are meant to address authentic and complex domain-specific problems. While capstone projects have not always been essential in graduate clinical and nursing informatics education, employers are wanting to see evidence of the prospective employee's knowledge and skills as an indication of employability. Capstones can be organized in many ways: a single course over a single semester, multiple courses over multiple semesters, as a targeted demonstration of skills, as a synthesis of prior knowledge and skills, mentored by one single person or mentored by various people, submitted as an assignment or presented in front of a panel. Because of the potential for capstones to enhance the educational experience, and as a mechanism for application of knowledge and demonstration of skills, a rigorous capstone can accelerate a graduate's potential in the workforce. In 2016, the capstone at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) could feel the external forces of a maturing Clinical and Nursing Informatics discipline. While the program had a capstone course for many years, it was lacking the depth of knowledge and demonstration of skills being asked for by those hiring in a maturing Informatics field. Since the program is online, all capstones were always in the online environment. While this modality did not change, other contributors to instruction modality changed. Pre-2016, the instruction modality was self-guided. Students checked in with a single instructor, and that instructor monitored progress across all capstones toward a PowerPoint and written paper deliverable. At the time, the enrollment was few, and the maturity had not yet pushed hard enough. By 2017, doubling enrollment and the increased demand of a more rigorously trained workforce led to restructuring the capstone so that graduates would have and retain the skills learned in the capstone process. There were three major changes: the capstone was broken up into a 3-course sequence (meaning it lasted about 10 months instead of 14 weeks), there were many chunks of deliverables, and each faculty had a cadre of about 5 students to advise through the capstone process. Literature suggests that the chunking, breaking up complex projects (i.e., the capstone in one summer) into smaller, more manageable chunks (i.e., chunks of the capstone across 3 semesters), can increase and sustain learning while allowing for increased rigor. By doing this, the teaching responsibility was shared across faculty with each semester course being taught by a different faculty member. This change facilitated delving much deeper in instruction and produced a significantly more rigorous final deliverable. Having students advised across the faculty seemed like the right thing to do. It not only shared the load, but also shared the success of students. Furthermore, it meant that students could be placed with an academic advisor who had expertise in their capstone area, further increasing the rigor of the entire capstone process and project and increasing student knowledge and skills.

Keywords: Health Informatics, Informatics, Clinical Informatics, capstones

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3323 Evaluation of a Driver Training Intervention for People on the Autism Spectrum: A Multi-Site Randomized Control Trial

Authors: H. Lee, P. Vindin, R. Cordier, N. J. Wilson

Abstract:

Engagement in community-based activities such as education, employment, and social relationships can improve the quality of life for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Community mobility is vital to attaining independence for individuals with ASD. Learning to drive and gaining a driver’s license is a critical link to community mobility; however, for individuals with ASD acquiring safe driving skills can be a challenging process. Issues related to anxiety, executive function, and social communication may affect driving behaviours. Driving training and education aimed at addressing barriers faced by learner drivers with ASD can help them improve their driving performance. A multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an autism-specific driving training intervention for improving the on-road driving performance of learner drivers with ASD. The intervention was delivered via a training manual and interactive website consisting of five modules covering varying driving environments starting with a focus on off-road preparations and progressing through basic to complex driving skill mastery. Seventy-two learner drivers with ASD aged 16 to 35 were randomized using a blinded group allocation procedure into either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received 10 driving lessons with the instructors trained in the use of an autism-specific driving training protocol, whereas the control group received 10 driving lessons as usual. Learner drivers completed a pre- and post-observation drive using a standardized driving route to measure driving performance using the Driving Performance Checklist (DPC). They also completed anxiety, executive function, and social responsiveness measures. The findings showed that there were significant improvements in driving performance for both the intervention (d = 1.02) and the control group (d = 1.15). However, the differences were not significant between groups (p = 0.614) or study sites (p = 0.842). None of the potential moderator variables (anxiety, cognition, social responsiveness, and driving instructor experience) influenced driving performance. This study is an important step toward improving community mobility for individuals with ASD showing that an autism-specific driving training intervention can improve the driving performance of leaner drivers with ASD. It also highlighted the complexity of conducting a multi-site design even when sites were matched according to geography and traffic conditions. Driving instructors also need more and clearer information on how to communicate with learner drivers with restricted verbal expression.

Keywords: Transportation, Autism spectrum disorder, community mobility, driving training

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3322 Factors Associated with Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Prospective Single Centre Study

Authors: Marko Jankovic, Aleksandra Knezevic, Maja Cupic, Dragana Vujic, Zeljko Zecevic, Borko Gobeljic, Marija Simic, Tanja Jovanovic

Abstract:

The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a notorious pathogen in the pediatric transplant setting. Although studies on factors in complicity with CMV infection abound, the role of age, gender, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) modality, and underlying disease as regards CMV infection and viral load in children are poorly explored. We examined the significance of various factors related to the risk of CMV infection and viral load in Serbian children and adolescents undergoing alloHSCT. This was a prospective single centre study of thirty two pediatric patients in receipt of alloHSCT for various malignant and non-malignant disorders. Screening for active viral infection was performed by regular weekly monitoring. The Real-Time PCR method was used for CMV DNA detection and quantitation. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics v20 software. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical variables. Comparison between scalar and nominal data was done by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Pearson correlation was applied for studying the association between patient age and viral load. CMV was detected in 23 (71.9%) patients. Infection occurred significantly more often (p=0.015) in patients with haploidentical donors. The opposite was noted for matched sibling grafts (p=0.006). The viral load was higher in females (p=0.041) and children in the aftermath of alloHSCT with malignant diseases (p=0.019). There was no significant relationship between the viral infection dynamics and overt medical consequences. This is the first study of risk factors for CMV infection in Serbian pediatric alloHSCT patients. Transplanted patients presented with a high incidence of CMV viremia. The HLA compatibility of donated graft is associated with the frequency of CMV positive events. Age, gender, underlying disease, and medically relevant events were not conducive to occurrences of viremia. Notably, substantial viral burdens were evidenced in females and patients with neoplastic diseases. Studies comprising larger populations are clearly needed to scrutinize current results.

Keywords: Children, Risk Factors, cytomegalovirus, viral load, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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3321 Transcranial Colour Duplex Reveals Haemodynamically Significant Venous Flow Alterations Following Resection of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Brain

Authors: K. Busch, A. Davidson, M. Butlin, A. Avolio, H. Kiat

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Following removal of a brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM), the redistribution of blood can impose several post-operative clinical challenges, including intracranial haemorrhage and/or venous infarction. The mechanism of such complications remains controversial, although blood pressure control has been recognised as an integral component in haemorrhage prevention. Serial daily non-invasive monitoring of haemodynamic indices for patients would be ideal. Transcranial color duplex (TCCD) and central aortic pressures (CAP) can both be derived non-invasively, providing pressure measurements and real-time, dynamic, hemodynamic spectra. These techniques may provide valuable insight into the process of vessel remodeling following bAVM resection. This prospective study evaluated fifteen patients with bAVMs. CAP and TCCD were studied pre- and then daily for up to 14 days post-operatively. Intracranial hemodynamic indices were obtained. The haemodynamic parameters were compared with a group of normal volunteers and a control group of participants having craniotomies for tumour or aneurysm resection. In the bAVM series, there was a post-operative reduction in velocity and increase in pulsatility of the feeding arteries as per previous publications. The venous changes post-operatively were dramatic and have not been previously studied. In the early post-operative period there was a marked prominence of venous flow signals adjacent to the middle cerebral artery. The venous signals demonstrated significantly increased velocities and pulsatility. Furthermore, two of the patients with sustained increased venous prominence, velocity and pulsatility suffered a haemorrhage. These veins were either difficult to detect pre-operatively or not readily apparent and gradually diminished over the post-operative period returning to normal values. The findings, though preliminary, provide insight into vessel remodeling and elucidate a time frame when vessels, particularly the veins may have impaired autoregulation. If confirmed in future validation studies, the period of increased venous velocity, pulsatility and prominence may correlate to the time at which patients are at risk of post-operative haemorrhage.

Keywords: Brain, venous, arteriovenous malformation, transcranial colour duplex

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3320 Hospital Acquired Bloodstream Infections Among Patients With Hematological and Solid Malignancies: Epidemiology, Causative Pathogens and Mortality

Authors: Marah El-Beeli, Abdullah Balkhair, Zakaryia Al Muharmi, Samir Al Adawi, Mansoor Al-Jabri, Abdullah Al Rawahi, Hazaa Al Yahyae, Eman Al Balushi, Yahya M. Al-Farsi

Abstract:

The health care service and the anticancer chemotherapeutics has changed the natural history of cancer into manageable chronic disease and improve the cancer patient’s lifestyle and increase the survival time. Despite that, still, infection is the major dilemma opposing the cancer patient either because of the clinical presentation of the cancer type and impaired immune system or as a consequence of anticancer therapy. This study has been conducted to1) track changes in the epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections among patients with malignancies in the last five years. 2) To explore the causative pathogens and 3) the outcome of HA-BSIs in patients with a different types of malignancies. An ampi-directional study (retrospective and prospective follow up) of patients with malignancies admitted at Sultan Qaboos University hospital (570-bed tertiary hospital) during the study period (from January 2015 to December 2019). The cumulative frequency and prevalence rates of HA-BSIs by patients and isolates were calculated. In addition, the cumulative frequency of participants with single versus mixed infections and types of causative micro-organisms of HA-BSIs were obtained. A total of 1246 event of HA-BSIs has occurred during the study period. Nearly the third (30.25%) of the HA-BSI events was identified among 288 patients with malignancies. About 20% of cases were mixed infections (more than one isolate). Staphylococcus spp were the predominant isolated pathogen (24.7%), followed by Klebsiella spp (15.8%), Escherichia spp (13%), and Pseudomonas spp (9.3%). About half (51%) of cases died in the same year, and (64%) of the deaths occur within two weeks after the infection. According to the observations, no changes in the trends of epidemiology, causative pathogens, morbidity, and mortality rates in the last five years.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Haematological malignancies, hospital acquired bloodstream infections, solid malignancies

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3319 Mother's Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Childhood Immunization in District Nankana Sahib

Authors: Farina Maqbool

Abstract:

Background: It is well said that children are considered the future masons of the country and a healthy brain is found in a healthy body. Therefore, a healthy generation can be produced by giving knowledge of immunization to mothers. Immunization is the most lucrative public health intrusion that has placed the greatest effect on the health of the people. The main objective of the present study was to find out the mother’s knowledge, attitude, and practices towards childhood immunization. Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used. One hundred and sixty mothers were selected conveniently who have at least one child up to two years. Data were collected through the face to face interview. The chi-square test was used to test the significance of the association between independent and dependent variables. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. Results: A higher percentage of mothers (85.0%) knew vaccine-preventable diseases. Major proportion (82.5%) of the mothers had thought that immunization is important for their child’s health. A majority (66.3%) of the respondents’ children were fully immunized, whereas 26.3 percent of them were replied negatively. Remaining 7.5 percent of the respondents’ child un-immunized Chi-square value (39.14) shows a highly significant association between the education of the respondents and receiving of all recommended vaccines for children. Gamma value shows a strong positive relationship between the variables.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, Immunization, Childhood, attitude

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3318 Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin Status in Nepalese Postmenopausal Women

Authors: S. A. Khan, B. Mishra, O. Sherchan

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Thyroid disorder is the most common endocrine disorder after diabetes mellitus. Females are more vulnerable to this disease, and old age is an important risk factor. This study was undertaken to investigate the burden of thyroid disorder in Nepalese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, we included 271 post-menopausal women. Three ml of blood was collected following standard protocol after taking the written consent. Serum was separated and analyzed for free T3, free T4, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) by Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) method in Snibe Maglumi 1000 analyzer. Data obtained was analyzed in SPSS Version 21. P < 0.05 was set for statistical significant at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: Majority of the participants belong to Janjati (46.5%) ethnicity, followed by Brahmin/Chhetri (41.7%), residing either in urban or suburban locality. Most of them were non-vegetarian, non-smoker, and non-alcoholic. Subjects were divided into hyperthyroid (TSH < 0.3 uIU/ml), hypothyroid (TSH > 4.5 uIU/ml), and euthyroid (TSH=0.3-4.5 uIU/ml) based on TSH value. We reported 10.3% hyperthyroid and 29.2% hypothyroid cases. TSH was significantly correlated with T3 (r=-0.244; p < 0.001) T4 (r=-0.398; p < 0.001); age (r=-0.138; p=0.023) and BMI (r=0.123; p=0.043). Multiple linear regression model for TSH reveals only T3 and T4 were significantly associated with TSH (p < 0.001; p=0.001). Conclusion: To conclude, nearly 39.5% of the postmenopausal women had thyroid disorder. Postmenopausal women are vulnerable to thyroid disorder; therefore, requires regular thyroid monitoring.

Keywords: TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid disorder

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3317 Physiological Effects during Aerobatic Flights on Science Astronaut Candidates

Authors: Pedro Llanos, Diego Garcia

Abstract:

Introduction: Spaceflight is considered the last frontier in terms of science, technology, and engineering. But it is also the next frontier in terms of human physiology and performance. After more than 200,000 years, humans have evolved under earth's gravity and atmospheric conditions, spaceflight poses environmental stresses for which human physiology is not adapted. Hypoxia, accelerations, and radiation are among such stressors; current research involves suborbital flights aiming to develop effective countermeasures in order to assure sustainable human space presence. The physiologic baseline of spaceflight participants is subject to great variability driven by age, gender, fitness, and metabolic reserve. The objective of the present study is to characterize different physiologic variables in a population of STEM practitioners during an aerobatic flight. Methods: Cardiovascular and pulmonary responses were determined in Science Astronaut Candidates (SACs) during unusual attitude aerobatic flight indoctrination. Physiologic data recordings from 20 subjects participating in high-G flight training were analyzed and 9 subjects. These recordings were registered by wearable sensor-vest that monitored electrocardiographic tracings (ECGs), signs of dysrhythmias, or other electric disturbances during all the flight. The same cardiovascular parameters were also collected approximately 10 min pre-flight, during each high-G/unusual attitude maneuver and 10 min after the flights. The ratio (pre-flight/in-flight/post-flight) of the cardiovascular responses was calculated for comparison of inter-individual differences. The resulting tracings depicting the cardiovascular responses of the subjects were compared against the G-loads (Gs) during the aerobatic flights to analyze cardiovascular variability aspects and fluid/pressure shifts due to the high Gs. Results: In-flight ECG revealed cardiac variability patterns associated with rapid G-loads onset in terms of reduced heart rate (HR) and some scattered dysrhythmic patterns (15% premature ventricular contractions-type) that were considered as triggered physiological responses to high-G/unusual attitude training and some were considered as instrument artifact. Variations events were observed in subjects during the +Gz and –Gz maneuvers and these may be due to preload and afterload, sudden shift. Our data reveals that aerobatic flight influenced the breathing rate of the subject, due in part by the various levels of energy expenditure due to the increased use of muscle work during these aerobatic maneuvers, which translates into an increase expenditure of oxygen consumption. Noteworthy was the high heterogeneity in the different physiological responses among a relatively small group of SACs exposed to similar aerobatic flights with similar Gs exposures. Discussion: The cardiovascular responses clearly demonstrated that SACs were subjected to significant flight stress. Routine ECG monitoring during high-G/unusual attitude flight training is recommended to capture pathology underlying dangerous dysrhythmias in suborbital flight safety. More research is currently being conducted to further facilitate the development of robust medical screening, medical risk assessment approaches, and suborbital flight training in the context of the evolving commercial human suborbital spaceflight industry. A more mature and integrative medical assessment method is required to understand the physiology state and response variability among highly diverse populations of prospective suborbital flight participants.

Keywords: hypoxia, g force, aerobatic maneuvers, suborbital flight, commercial astronauts

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3316 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson

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Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

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3315 Surgical Treatment Tumors and Cysts of the Pancreas in Children

Authors: Trunov V.O., Ryabov A. B., Poddubny I.V

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Introduction: cystic and solid pancreatic tumors have a relevant and disruptive position in many positions. The results of the treatment of children with tumors and pancreatic cysts aged 3 to 17 years for the period from 2008 to 2019 on the basis of the Morozov State Children's Clinical Hospital in Moscow were analyzed. The total number of children with solid tumors was 17, and 31 with cysts. In all children, the diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasound, followed by CT and MRI. In most patients with solid tumors, they were located in the area of the pancreas tail - 58%, in the body area - 14%, in the area of the pancreatic head - 28%. In patients with pancreatic cysts, the distribution of patients by topography was as follows: head of the pancreas - 10%, body of the pancreas - 16%, tail of the pancreas - 68%, total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct - 6%. In pancreatic cysts, the method of surgical treatment was based on the results of MRCP, the level of amylase in the contents of the cyst, and the localization of the cyst. Thus, pathogenetically substantiated treatment included: excision of cysts, internal drainage on an isolated loop according to Ru, the formation of pancreatojejunoanastomosis in a child with the total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct. In patients with solid pancreatic lesions, pancretoduodenalresection, central resection of the pancreas, and distal resection from laparotomy and laparoscopic access were performed. In the postoperative period, in order to prevent pancreatitis, all children underwent antisecretory therapy, parenteral nutrition, and drainage of the omental bursa. Results: hospital stay ranged from 7 to 12 days. The duration of postoperative fermentemia in patients with solid formations lasted from 3 to 6 days. In all cases, according to the histological examination, a pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas was revealed. In the group of children with pancreatic cysts, fermentemia was observed from 2 to 4 days, recurrence of cysts in the long term was detected in 3 children (10%). Conclusions: the treatment of cystic and solid pancreatic neoplasms is a difficult task in connection with the anatomical and functional features of the organ.

Keywords: Children, Pancreas, Laparoscopy, Tumors, resection, cysts

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3314 Streptococcus anginosus Infections; Clinical and Bacteriologic Characteristics: A 6-Year Retrospective Study of Adult Patients in Qatar

Authors: Adila Shaukat, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal

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Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus (S.) anginosus group infections in Hamad General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the state of Qatar, which is a multinational community. The S. anginosus group is a subgroup of viridans streptococci that consist of 3 different species: S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius. Although a part of the human bacteria flora, they have potential to cause suppurative infections. Method: We studied a total of 101 patients with S. anginosus group infections from January 2006 until March 2012 by reviewing medical records and identification of organisms by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. Results: The most common sites of infection were skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal, and bacteremia (28.7%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Abscess formation was seen in approximately 30% of patients. Streptococcus constellatus was the most common isolated species (40%) followed by S. anginosus(30%) and S. intermedius(7%). In 23% of specimens, the species was unidentified. The most common type of specimen for organism isolation was blood followed by pus and tissue (50%, 22%, and 8%, respectively). Streptococcus constellatus was more frequently associated with abdominal and skin and soft tissue infections than the other 2 species, whereas S. anginosus was isolated more frequently from blood. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was also good, reaching 91% and 95%, respectively. Forty percent of patients needed surgical drainage along with antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Identification of S. anginosus group to species level is helpful in clinical practice because different species exhibit different pathogenic potentials.

Keywords: Bacterial Infection, bacteremia, abscess, Streptococcus anginosus

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3313 Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy in Gastroesophageal Junction Tumours

Authors: Ihab Saad Ahmed

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Background For Siewert type I and II gastroesophageal junction tumor (GEJ) laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy can be performed. It is associated with several perioperative benefits compared with open proximal gastrectomy. The use of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has become an increasingly popular approach for select tumors Methods We describe our technique for LPG, including the preoperative work-up, illustrated images of the main principle steps of the surgery, and our postoperative course. Results Thirteen pts (nine males, four female) with type I, II (GEJ) adenocarcinoma had laparoscopic radical proximal gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy. All of our patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, eleven patients had intrathoracic anastomosis through mini thoracotomy (two hand sewn end to end anastomoses and the other 9 patient end to side using circular stapler), two patients with intrathoracic anastomosis had flap and wrap technique, two patients had thoracoscopic esophageal and mediastinal lymph node dissection with cervical anastomosis The mean blood loss 80ml, no cases were converted to open. The mean operative time 250 minute Average LN retrieved 19-25, No sever complication such as leakage, stenosis, pancreatic fistula ,or intra-abdominal abscess were reported. Only One patient presented with empyema 1.5 month after discharge that was managed conservatively. Conclusion For carefully selected patients, LPG in GEJ tumour type I and II is a safe and reasonable alternative for open technique , which is associated with similar oncologic outcomes and low morbidity. It showed less blood loss, respiratory infections, with similar 1- and 3-year survival rates.

Keywords: LPG(laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy, GEJ( gastroesophageal junction tumour), d2 lymphadenectomy, neoadjuvant cth

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3312 Autologous Blood for Conjunctival Autograft Fixation in Primary Pterygium Surgery: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmongy

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Autologous Blood for Conjunctival Autograft Fixation in Primary Pterygium Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Hossam Zein1,2, Ammar Ismail1,3, Mohamed Abdelmongy1,4, Sherif Elsherif1,5,6, Ahmad Hassanen1,4, Basma Muhammad2, Fathy Assaf1,3, Ahmed Elsehili1,7, Ahmed Negida1,7, Shin Yamane9, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim8,9 and Kazuaki Kadonosono9 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30277146 BACKGROUND: Pterygium is a benign ocular lesion characterized by triangular fibrovascular growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea. Patients complain of the bad cosmetic appearance, ocular surface irritation and decreased visual acuity if the pterygium is large enough to cause astigmatism or encroach on the pupil. The definitive treatment of pterygium is surgical removal. However, outcomes are compromised by recurrence . The aim of the current study is to systematically review the current literature to explore the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue, suture and autologous blood coagulum for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of fibrin glue compared to sutures and autologous blood coagulum in conjunctival autografting for the surgical treatment of pterygium. METHODS: During preparing this manuscript, we followed the steps adequately illustrated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 5.3, and reported it according to the preferred reporting of systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines. We searched PubMed, Ovid (both through Medline), ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) through January 2017, using the following keywords “Pterygium AND (blood OR glue OR suture)” SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that met the following criteria: 1) comparing autologous blood vs fibrin glue for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery 2) comparing autologous blood vs sutures for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The extracted data included A) study design, sample size, and main findings, B) Baseline characteristics of patients included in this review including their age, sex, pterygium site and grade, and graft size. C) Study outcomes comprising 1) primary outcomes: recurrence rate 2) secondary outcomes: graft stability outcomes (graft retraction, graft displacement), operation time (min) and postoperative symptoms (pain, discomfort, foreign body sensation, tearing) MAIN RESULTS: We included 7 RCTs and The review included662eyes (Blood: 293; Glue: 198; Suture: 171). we assess the 1) primary outcomes: recurrence rate 2) secondary outcomes: graft stability outcomes (graft retraction, graft displacement), operation time (min) and postoperative symptoms (pain, discomfort, foreign body sensation, tearing) CONCLUSIONS: Autologous blood for conjunctivalautograft fixation in pterygium surgery is associated with lower graft stability than fibrin glue or sutures. It was not inferior to fibrin glue or sutures regarding recurrence rate. The overall quality of evidence is low. Further well designed RCTs are needed to fully explore the efficacy of this new technique.

Keywords: Ophthalmology, Cornea, autograft, pterygium

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3311 Oxidative Antioxidative Status and DNA Damage Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Algerian Children with Lymphoma

Authors: Nacira Cherif, Assia Galleze, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nidel Benhalilou, Nabila Attal, Chafia Touil Boukkoffa, Rachida Raache

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Introduction and aims: Chemotherapeutic agents used to inhibit cell division and reduce tumor growth, increase reactive oxygen species levels, which contributes to their genotoxicity [1]. The comet assay is an inexpensive and rapid method to detect the damage at cellular levels and has been used in various cancer populations undergoing chemotherapy [2,3]. The present study aim to assess the oxidative stress and the genotoxicity induced by chemotherapy by the determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lymphocyte DNA damage in Algerian children with lymphoma. Materials and Methods: For our study, we selected thirty children with lymphoma treated in university hospital of Beni Messous, Algeria, and fifty unrelated subjects as controls, after obtaining the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Plasma levels of MDA, PC and SOD activity were spectrophotometrically measured, while DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results and Discussion: Plasma MDA, PC levels and lymphocyte DNA damage, were found to be significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Whereas, SOD activity in lymphoma patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between DNA damage, MDA and PC in patients (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively), and negative correlation with SOD (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Conclusion and Perspective: Our results indicated that, leukocytes DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly higher in lymphoma patients, suggesting that the direct effect of chemotherapy and the alteration of the redox balance may influence oxidative/antioxidative status.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Lymphoma, DNA damage, comet assay

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3310 Peripheral Nerves Cross-Sectional Area for the Diagnosis of Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Ultrasonographic Measurements

Authors: Saeed Pourhassan, Nastaran Maghbouli

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1) Background It has been hypothesized that, in individuals with diabetes mellitus, the peripheral nerve is swollen due to sorbitol over-accumulation. Additionally growing evidence supported electro diagnostic study of diabetes induced neuropathy as a method having some challenges. 2) Objective To examine the performance of sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). 3) Data Sources Electronic databases, comprising PubMed and EMBASE and Google scholar, were searched for the appropriate studies before Jan 1, 2020. 4) Study Selection Eleven trials comparing different peripheral nerve CSA measurements between participants with and without DPN were included. 5) Data Extraction Study design, participants' demographic characteristics, diagnostic reference of DPN, and evaluated peripheral nerves and methods of CSA measurement. 6) Data Synthesis Among different peripheral nerves, Tibial nerve diagnostic odds ratios pooled from five studies (713 participants) were 4.46 (95% CI, 0.35–8.57) and the largest one with P<0.0001, I²:64%. Median nerve CSA at wrist and mid-arm took second and third place with ORs= 2.82 (1.50-4.15), 2.02(0.26-3.77) respectively. The sensitivities and specificities pooled from two studies for Sural nerve were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68–0.89), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53–0.74). Included studies for other nerves were limited to one study. The largest sensitivity was for Sural nerve and the largest specificity was for Tibial nerve. 7) Conclusions The peripheral nerves CSA measured by ultrasound imaging is useful for the diagnosis of DPN and is most significantly different between patients and participants without DPN at the Tibial nerve. Because the Tibial nerve CSA in healthy participants, at various locations, rarely exceeds 24 mm2, this value can be considered as a cutoff point for diagnosing DPN.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Diabetes, Ultrasound, polyneuropathy

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3309 Paternal Postpartum Depression and Its Relationship to Maternal Depression

Authors: Fatemeh Abdollahi, Mehran Zarghami, Jamshid Yazdani Jarati, Mun-Sunn Lye

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Fathers may be at risk of depression during the postpartum period. Some studies have been reported maternal depression is the key predictor of paternal postpartum depression (PPD). This study aimed to explore this association. Using a cross-sectional study design, 591 couples referring to primary health centers at 2-8 weeks postpartum (during 2017) were recruited. Couples screened for depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors was also gathered. Paternal PPD was analyzed in relation to maternal PPD and other related factors using multiple regressions. The prevalence of Paternal and maternal postpartum depression was 15.7% (93) and 31.8% (188), respectively. The regression model showed that there was increased risk of PPD in fathers whose wives experienced PPD [OR=1.15, (95%CI: 1.04-1.27)], who had a lower state of general health [OR=1.21, (95%CI: 1.11-1.33)], who experienced increased number of life events [OR=1.42, (95%CI: 1.01-1.2.00)], and who were at older age [OR=1.20, (95%CI: 1.05- 1.36)]. Also, there was a decreased risk of depression in fathers with more children compared with those with fewer children [OR=0.20, (95%CI: 0.07-0.53)]. Maternal PPD and psychosocial risk factors were the strong predictors of parental PPD. Being grown up in a family with two depressed parents are an important issue for children and needs futher research and attention.

Keywords: Risk Factors, Postpartum Depression, father, mother

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