Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3358

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Medical and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3358 Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of Stroke; A Systematic Review

Authors: Zahra Hassani

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the complications of a stroke that reduces the patient's chance of recovery, becomes irritable, and changes personality. Cognitive rehabilitation is one of the non-pharmacological methods that improve deficits such as attention, memory, and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke. Method: In this study, a systematic review of the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier between the years 2015 and 2019 with the keywords cognitive rehabilitation therapy, post-stroke, depression Search is done. In this process, studies that examined the Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of stroke were included in the study. Results: Inclusion criteria were full-text availability, interventional study, and non-review articles. There was a significant difference between the articles in terms of the indices studied, sample number, method of implementation, and so on. A review of studies have shown that cognitive rehabilitation therapy has a significant role in reducing the symptoms of post-stroke depression. The use of these interventions is also effective in improving problem-solving skills, improving memory, and improving attention and concentration. Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the development of efficient and flexible adaptive skills through cognitive processes and its effect on reducing depression in patients after stroke.

Keywords:

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3357 Assessing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Permeability in PEA-15 Mutant Cat Brain using Magnetization Transfer (MT) Effect at 7T

Authors: Sultan Z. Mahmud, Emily C. Graff, Adil Bashir

Abstract:

Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) is a multifunctional adapter protein which is associated with the regulation of apoptotic cell death. Recently it has been discovered that PEA-15 is crucial in normal neurodevelopment of domestic cats, a gyrencephalic animal model, although the exact function of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment is unknown. This study investigates how PEA-15 affects the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in cat brain, which can cause abnormalities in tissue metabolite and energy supplies. Severe polymicrogyria and microcephaly have been observed in cats with a loss of function PEA-15 mutation, affecting the normal neurodevelopment of the cat. This suggests that the vital role of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment is associated with gyrification. Neurodevelopment is a highly energy demanding process. The mammalian brain depends on glucose as its main energy source. PEA-15 plays a very important role in glucose uptake and utilization by interacting with phospholipase D1 (PLD1). Mitochondria also plays a critical role in bioenergetics and essential to supply adequate energy needed for neurodevelopment. Cerebral blood flow regulates adequate metabolite supply and recent findings also showed that blood plasma contains mitochondria as well. So the BBB can play a very important role in regulating metabolite and energy supply in the brain. In this study the blood-brain permeability in cat brain was measured using MRI magnetization transfer (MT) effect on the perfusion signal. Perfusion is the tissue mass normalized supply of blood to the capillary bed. Perfusion also accommodates the supply of oxygen and other metabolites to the tissue. A fraction of the arterial blood can diffuse to the tissue, which depends on the BBB permeability. This fraction is known as water extraction fraction (EF). MT is a process of saturating the macromolecules, which has an effect on the blood that has been diffused into the tissue while having minimal effect on intravascular blood water that has not been exchanged with the tissue. Measurement of perfusion signal with and without MT enables to estimate the microvascular blood flow, EF and permeability surface area product (PS) in the brain. All the experiments were performed with Siemens 7T Magnetom with 32 channel head coil. Three control cats and three PEA-15 mutant cats were used for the study. Average EF in white and gray matter was 0.9±0.1 and 0.86±0.15 respectively, perfusion in white and gray matter was 85±15 mL/100g/min and 97±20 mL/100g/min respectively, PS in white and gray matter was 201±25 mL/100g/min and 225±35 mL/100g/min respectively for control cats. For PEA-15 mutant cats, average EF in white and gray matter was 0.81±0.15 and 0.77±0.2 respectively, perfusion in white and gray matter was 140±25 mL/100g/min and 165±18 mL/100g/min respectively, PS in white and gray matter was 240±30 mL/100g/min and 259±21 mL/100g/min respectively. This results show that BBB is compromised in PEA-15 mutant cat brain, where EF is decreased and perfusion as well as PS are increased in the mutant cats compared to the control cats. This findings might further explain the function of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment.

Keywords: BBB, cat brain, magnetization transfer, PEA-15

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3356 Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Enhances Arterial Medial Calcification in a Uremic Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Maria Giovanna Lupo, Marina Camera, Marcello Rattazzi, Nicola Ferri

Abstract:

A complex interplay among chronic kidney disease, lipid metabolism and aortic calcification has been recognized starting from results of many clinical and experimental studies. Here we investigated the influence of kidney function on PCSK9 levels, both in uremic rats and in clinical observation study, and its potential direct action on cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) calcification. In a cohort of 594 subjects enrolled in a single centre, observational, cross-sectional and longitudinal study, a negative association between GFR and plasma PCSK9 was found. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), as co-morbidity, further increased PCSK9 plasma levels. Diet-induced uremic condition in rats, induced aortic calcification and increased total cholesterol and PCSK9 levels in plasma, livers and kidneys. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed PCSK9 expression in aortic SMCs. SMCs overexpressing PCSK9 (SMCsPCSK9), cultured for 7-days in a pro-calcification environment (2.0mM or 2.4mM inorganic phosphate, Pi) showed a significantly higher extracellular calcium (Ca2+) deposition compared to mocked SMCs. Under the same experimental conditions, the addition of exogenous recombinant PCSK9 did not increase the extracellular calcification of SMCs. By flow cytometry analysis we showed that SMCsPCSK9, in response to 2.4mM Pi, released higher number of extracellular vesicles (EVs) positive for three tetraspanin molecules, such as CD63, CD9, and CD81. EVs derived from SMCsPCSK9 tended to be more enriched in calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), compared to EVs from mocks SMCs. In conclusion, our study reveals a direct role of PCSK9 on vascular calcification induced by higher inorganic phosphate levels associated to CKD condition. This effect appears to be mediated by a positive effect of endogenous PCSK9 on the release of EVs containing Ca2+ and ALP, which facilitate the deposition inorganic calcium phosphate crystals.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, calcification, PCSK9, extracellular vesicles

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3355 Correlation between Early Government Interventions in the Northeastern United States and COVID-19 Outcomes

Authors: Joel Mintz, Kyle Huntley, Waseem Wahood, Samuel Raine, Farzanna Haffizulla

Abstract:

The effect of different state government interventions on COVID-19 health outcomes is currently unknown. Stay at home (SAH) orders, all non-essential business closures and school closures in the Northeastern US were examined. A linear correlation between the peak number of new daily COVID-19 positive tests, hospitalizations and deaths per capita and the elapsed time between government issued guidance and a fixed number of COVID-19 deaths in each state was performed. Earlier government interventions were correlated with lower peak healthcare burden. Statewide closures of schools and non-essential businesses showed significantly greater (p<.001) correlation to peak COVID-19 disease burden as compared to a statewide SAH. The implications of these findings require further study to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Public Health, coronavirus, government intervention, social distancing

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3354 Case Report and Discussion of Natural History of Bouveret Syndrome

Authors: Parul Garg

Abstract:

Bouveret Syndrome is a rare presentation described as Gastric Outlet Obstruction secondary to Gallstone Ileus. Here we describe the 3-year progression of disease from cholelithiasis to gallstone ileus with relevant imaging findings. The patient was treated under an Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery service with surgical intervention in the form of a laparoscopic assisted procedure with midline laparotomy. She recovered well and was discharged 1 week post operatively. No complications occurred.

Keywords: Cholelithiasis, Bouveret syndrome, Gallstone Ileus, gastric outlet obstruction

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3353 Characterization of a Lipolytic Enzyme of Pseudomonas nitroreducens Isolated from Mealworm's Gut

Authors: Jung-En Kuan, Whei-Fen Wu

Abstract:

In this study, a symbiotic bacteria from yellow mealworm's (Tenebrio molitor) mid-gut was isolated with characteristics of growth on minimal-tributyrin medium. After a PCR-amplification of its 16s rDNA, the resultant nucleotide sequences were then analyzed by schemes of the phylogeny trees. Accordingly, it was designated as Pseudomonas nitroreducens D-01. Next, by searching the lipolytic enzymes in its protein data bank, one of those potential lipolytic α/β hydrolases was identified, again using PCR-amplification and nucleotide-sequencing methods. To construct an expression of this lipolytic gene in plasmids, the target-gene primers were then designed, carrying the C-terminal his-tag sequences. Using the vector pET21a, a recombinant lipolytic hydrolase D gene with his-tag nucleotides was successfully cloned into it, of which the lipolytic D gene is under a control of the T7 promoter. After transformation of the resultant plasmids into Eescherichia coli BL21 (DE3), an IPTG inducer was used for the induction of the recombinant proteins. The protein products were then purified by metal-ion affinity column, and the purified proteins were found capable of forming a clear zone on tributyrin agar plate. Shortly, its enzyme activities were determined by degradation of p-nitrophenyl ester(s), and the substantial yellow end-product, p-nitrophenol, was measured at O.D.405 nm. Specifically, this lipolytic enzyme efficiently targets p-nitrophenyl butyrate. As well, it shows the most reactive activities at 40°C, pH 8 in potassium phosphate buffer. In thermal stability assays, the activities of this enzyme dramatically drop when the temperature is above 50°C. In metal ion assays, MgCl₂ and NH₄Cl induce the enzyme activities while MnSO₄, NiSO₄, CaCl₂, ZnSO₄, CoCl₂, CuSO₄, FeSO₄, and FeCl₃ reduce its activities. Besides, NaCl has no effects on its enzyme activities. Most organic solvents decrease the activities of this enzyme, such as hexane, methanol, ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. However, its enzyme activities increase when DMSO exists. All the surfactants like Triton X-100, Tween 80, Tween 20, and Brij35 decrease its lipolytic activities. Using Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal methods, the function of the enzyme kinetics were determined such as Km = 0.488 (mM), Vmax = 0.0644 (mM/min), and kcat = 3.01x10³ (s⁻¹), as well the total efficiency of kcat/Km is 6.17 x10³ (mM⁻¹/s⁻¹). Afterwards, based on the phylogenetic analyses, this lipolytic protein is classified to type IV lipase by its homologous conserved region in this lipase family.

Keywords: enzyme, esterase, lipotic hydrolase, type IV

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3352 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Habibollah Dadgar, Mahkameh Asadi

Abstract:

The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: Positron Emission Tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, amino acid positron emission tomography, low and high grade glioma

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3351 Medical Diagnosis of Retinal Diseases Using Artificial Intelligence Deep Learning Models

Authors: Ethan James

Abstract:

Over one billion people worldwide suffer from some level of vision loss or blindness as a result of progressive retinal diseases. Many patients, particularly in developing areas, are incorrectly diagnosed or undiagnosed whatsoever due to unconventional diagnostic tools and screening methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) based on deep learning (DL) convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently gained a high interest in ophthalmology for its computer-imaging diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a popular imaging technique used to capture high-resolution cross-sections of retinas. In ophthalmology, DL has been applied to fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography, and visual fields, achieving robust classification performance in the detection of various retinal diseases including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. However, there is no complete diagnostic model to analyze these retinal images that provide a diagnostic accuracy above 90%. Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop an AI model that utilizes machine learning techniques to automatically diagnose specific retinal diseases from OCT scans. The algorithm consists of neural network architecture that was trained from a dataset of over 20,000 real-world OCT images to train the robust model to utilize residual neural networks with cyclic pooling. This DL model can ultimately aid ophthalmologists in diagnosing patients with these retinal diseases more quickly and more accurately, therefore facilitating earlier treatment, which results in improved post-treatment outcomes.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Medical devices, Ophthalmology, Imaging, Retina, Deep learning, ophthalmic devices

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3350 The Impact of Working Environment on Work Ability at an Early Stage of Work-Related Mental Disorders - an Occupational Therapy Perspective

Authors: Tove Lassenius

Abstract:

Work related mental disorders continue to cause significant amounts of work absenteeism. The need of matching working conditions to the individuals’ work ability has been emphasized. The lack of knowledge concerning early interventions is though challenging. Occupational therapy is often offered at too late a point when the negative consequences of the sick-leave or the condition already are significant. The aim of this study was two-fold. Firstly, to explore and describe how people affected by work related stress but not on sick leave, experience their working environment. Secondly, to investigate interfering and supporting aspects in the working environment from an occupational therapy perspective. A Mixed methods design was chosen, and data collected using the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The qualitative content analysis employed both deductive and inductive approach. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse grading. The results reflected a multidimensional environmental influence in and outside the work leading to an experience of decreased work ability. The results imply the necessity to early support of work ability embracing the general daily context of the individual affected. Matching the individual and the work to each other, based on an analysis of individual, environmental and work-related factors, should be more common. The methods and the competence occupational therapists possess can contribute to gaining knowledge concerning early interventions and also support individuals to avoid sick leave. This expertise enriches customary occupational health services practice and should be more commonly provided.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Burnout, early interventions, clinical burnout, exhaustion syndrome, WEIS, workplace involvement, work related mental disorders

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3349 The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-182 and Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-214 in Cisplatin Resistance of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Bahadir Batar, Elif Serdal, Berna Erdal, Hasan Ogul

Abstract:

Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules about 22 nucleotides long. miRNAs play a key role in response to chemotherapeutic agents. WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein. Loss or reduction of Wwox protein is observed in many breast cancer cases. WWOX protein deficiency is increased in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is a heterogeneous, highly aggressive, and difficult to treat tumor type. WWOX loss contributes to resistance to cisplatin therapy in patients with TNBC. Here, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in cisplatin therapy resistance of WWOX-deficient TNBC cells. This was a cell culture study. miRNA expression profiling was analyzed by LightCycler 480 system. miRNA Set Enrichment Analysis tool was used to integrate experimental data with literature-based biological knowledge to infer a new hypothesis. Increased miR-182 and decreased miR-214 were significantly correlated with cisplatin resistance in WWOX-deficient TNBC cells. miR-182 and miR-214 may involve in cisplatin resistance of WWOX-deficient TNBC cells by deregulating the DNA repair, apoptosis, or protein kinase B signaling pathways. These data highlight the mechanism by which WWOX regulates cisplatin resistance of TNBC and the potential use of WWOX as a predictor biomarker for cisplatin resistance.

Keywords: microRNA, cisplatin, triple-negative breast cancer, WWOX

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3348 Perception and Attitudes of Medical Students towards Dermatology as a Future Specialty.

Authors: Rakan Alajmi, Rahaf Alnazzawi, Yara Aljefri, Abdullah Alafif, Ali Alraddadi, Awadh Alamri

Abstract:

Background: The distribution of physicians in different specialties across Saudi Arabia is determined by the career choices of medical students. Dermatology residency program is one of the highly competitive programs here in Saudi Arabia. Assessing and understanding the factors perceived to be attractive in choosing dermatology will aid the directors of the specialty programs to plan for a more balanced workforce distribution to better suit the needs of the specialties. Aim: The aim of our study is to determine and assess the factors perceived to be significantly attractive when choosing dermatology as a future specialty. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional study conducted in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A validated questionnaire was sent electronically to clinical year medical students. In addition to the questionnaire, gender, grade point average, preferred specialty, and other socio-demographic data were assessed. Results: A total of 121 clinical years medical students completed the questionnaire, 8 (6.6%) preferred dermatology as a specialty. 76 (62.8%) of the participants score a grade point average of more than 4.5 and 83 students (68.6%) chose their specialty during clinical years. The appeal of being a dermatologist (P= 0.047), the portrayal of different specialities in the media (P= 0.005), and the likelihood that dermatologists can influence patients’ lives (P=0.010) were shown to be significantly attractive factors. Conclusion: There are many factors that are affecting students’ choices when choosing a medical specialty. The appeal of being a dermatologist, the portrayal of different specialities in the media, and the likelihood that dermatologists can influence patients’ lives were shown to be significantly attractive factors when choosing dermatology as a future specialty. Recognizing medical students’ specialty perception will lead them to a proper specialty tailored to their needs.

Keywords: Dermatology, career choice, medical specialties, student's perception

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3347 Hemodialysis Technique in a Diabetic Population

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause end stage renal failure in Australia, responsible for 36% of cases. Patients who require dialysis may be suitable for haemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and preoperatively careful planning is required to select suitable vessels for a long-lasting fistula that provides suitable dialysis access. Due to high levels of vascular disease in diabetic patients, we sought to investigate whether there is a difference in the types of autologous AVFs created for diabetic patients in renal failure compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. Method: Data was collected from the Australasian Vascular Audit, for all vascular surgery completed at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne between 2011-2020. Patients were selected by operative type, creation of AVF, and compared in two groups, diabetic patients and patients without diabetes. Chi-squared test was utilised to determine significance. Results: Data analysis is ongoing and will be complete with updated abstract in time for the conference. Discussion: Diabetic nephropathy is the cause for roughly a third of end stage renal failure in Australia. Diabetic patients present with a unique set of challenges when it comes to dialysis access due to increased risk of peripheral vascular disease and arterial calcification. Care must be taken in the creation of fistulas to minimise complications and increase the chance of long-lasting access. Our study investigates the difference in autologous AVFs between diabetics and non-diabetics, and results may be used to influence location of fistula creation. Further research may be used to investigate patency rates of fistulas in diabetics vs non-diabetics which would further influence treatment decisions.

Keywords: Diabetes, Dialysis, fistula, renal access

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3346 Implementation of A Treatment Escalation Plan During The Covid 19 Outbreak in Aneurin Bevan University Health Board

Authors: Peter Collett, Mike Pynn, Haseeb Ur Rahman

Abstract:

For the last few years across the UK there has been a push towards implementing treatment escalation plans (TEP) for every patient admitted to hospital. This is a paper form which is completed by a junior doctor then countersigned by the consultant responsible for the patient's care. It is designed to address what level of care is appropriate for the patient in question at point of entry to hospital. It helps decide whether the patient would benefit for ward based, high dependency or intensive care. They are completed to ensure the patient's best interests are maintained and aim to facilitate difficult decisions which may be required at a later date. For example, a frail patient with significant co-morbidities, unlikely to survive a pathology requiring an intensive care admission is admitted to hospital the decision can be made early to state the patient would not benefit from an ICU admission. This decision can be reversed depending on the clinical course of the patient's admission. It promotes discussions with the patient regarding their wishes to receive certain levels of healthcare. This poster describes the steps taken in the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board (ABUHB) when implementing the TEP form. The team implementing the TEP form campaigned for it's use to the board of directors. The directors were eager to hear of experiences of other health boards who had implemented the TEP form. The team presented the data produced in a number of health boards and demonstrated the proposed form. Concern was raised regarding the legalities of the form and that it could upset patients and relatives if the form was not explained properly. This delayed the effectuation of the TEP form and further research and discussion would be required. When COVID 19 reached the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence issued guidance stating every patient admitted to hospital should be issued a TEP form. The TEP form was accelerated through the vetting process and was approved with immediate effect. The TEP form in ABUHB has now been in circulation for a month. An audit investigating it's uptake and a survey gathering opinions have been conducted.

Keywords: Intensive Care, Clinical governance, acute medicine, patient centered decision making

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3345 The Origin, Diffusion and the Comparison of Ode Numerical Solutions Used by SIR Model in Order to Predict SARS-COV-2 in Nordic Countries

Authors: Gleda Kutrolli, Maksi Kutrolli, Etjon Meco

Abstract:

SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently one of the most virulent pathogens for humans. It started in China at the end of 2019 and now it is spread in all over the world. The origin and diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, is analysed based on the discussion of viral phylogeny presented in Cristianini \& Hahn (2006). With the aim of understanding the spread of infection in the affected countries, it is crucial to modelize the spread of virus and simulate his activity. In this paper, the prediction of coronavirus outbreak is done by using SIR model without vital dynamics, applying different numerical technique solving ODEs. We find out that ABM and MRT methods perform better than other techniques and that the activity of the virus will decrease on April but it never cease (for some time the activity will remain low) and the next cycle will start around middle July 2020 for Norway and Denmark, October 2020 for Sweden, and September for Finland.

Keywords: Forecasting, Ordinary differential equations, SIR model, SARS-COV-2 epidemic

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3344 Environmental Risk Assessment of Ebola Vaccine ERVEBO

Authors: Jenal Ursula, Tell Joan

Abstract:

The first vaccine against Ebola virus disease (EVD) to be approved in the United States and the European Union in 2019 was ERVEBOTM by Merck & Co. This live attenuated, recombinant vaccine has been used widely and successfully in ring vaccinations in Africa in Expanded Access/Compassionate Use protocols, as recommended by the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization. An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was required as part of the marketing authorization applications for this recombinant vaccine both by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA). The goal of an ERA is to assess the potential risk to people, animals and the environment at large from administration of a genetically modified vaccine. The most important questions to be addressed are: can the vaccine propagate and be released by vaccinated individuals and could such a release result in direct transmission to people and host animals or indirect transmission through insect vectors and subsequent unintentional propagation of the vaccine virus in the environment. This presentation addresses these questions, drawing from the actual experience with the marketing authorization application for ERVEBOTM. ERVEBOTM is based on an attenuated Indiana strain of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV Indiana) expressing the Zaire strain Ebolavirus Glycoprotein antigen. The wild type strain of the VSV Indiana virus is not indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Where it occurs, it can cause disease that primarily affects cattle, horses, swine and occasionally sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. Demonstration of safety was drawn from a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies with the investigational recombinant vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, now termed ERVEBOTM. Overall, the ERA of ERVEBOTM resulted in the conclusion that the risk of this recombinant Ebola vaccine for people and the environment is negligible.

Keywords: Environmental Risk Assessment, Ebola vaccine, life attenuated recombinant vaccine, market authorization application

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3343 Dialysis Access Surgery for Patients in Renal Failure: A 10-Year Institutional Experience

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti

Abstract:

Introduction: Dialysis access is a key component of the care of patients with end stage renal failure. In our institution, a combined service of vascular surgeons and nephrologists are responsible for the creation and maintenance of arteriovenous fisultas (AVF), tenckhoff cathethers and Hickman/permcath lines. This poster investigates the last 10 years of dialysis access surgery conducted at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne. Method: A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was conducted of patients of St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) utilising data collection from the Australasian Vascular Audit (Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery). Descriptive demographic analysis was carried out as well as operation type, length of hospital stays, postoperative deaths and need for reoperation. Results: 2085 patients with renal failure were operated on between the years of 2011 and 2020. 1315 were male (63.1%) and 770 were female (36.9%). The mean age was 58 (SD 13.8). 92% of patients scored three or greater on the American Society of Anesthiologiests classification system. Almost half had a history of ischaemic heart disease (48.4%), more than half had a history of diabetes (64%), and a majority had hypertension (88.4%). 1784 patients had a creatinine over 150mmol/L (85.6%), the rest were on dialysis (14.4%). The most common access procedure was AVF creation, with 474 autologous AVFs and 64 prosthetic AVFs. There were 263 Tenckhoff insertions. We performed 160 cadeveric renal transplants. The most common location for AVF formation was brachiocephalic (43.88%) followed by radiocephalic (36.7%) and brachiobasilic (16.67%). Fistulas that required re-intervention were most commonly angioplastied (n=163), followed by thrombectomy (n=136). There were 107 local fistula repairs. Average length of stay was 7.6 days, (SD 12). There were 106 unplanned returns to theatre, most commonly for fistula creation, insertion of tenckhoff or permacath removal (71.7%). There were 8 deaths in the immediately postoperative period. Discussion: Access to dialysis is vital for patients with end stage kidney disease, and requires a multidisciplinary approach from both nephrologists, vascular surgeons, and allied health practitioners. Our service provides a variety of dialysis access methods, predominately fistula creation and tenckhoff insertion. Patients with renal failure are heavily comorbid, and prolonged hospital admission following surgery is a source of significant healthcare expenditure. AVFs require careful monitoring and maintenance for ongoing utility, and our data reflects a multitude of operations required to maintain usable access. The requirement for dialysis is growing worldwide and our data demonstrates a local experience in access, with preferred methods, common complications and the associated surgical interventions.

Keywords: Nephrology, Dialysis, Vascular Surgery, fistula

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3342 High-Throughput Mechanized Microfluidic Test Groundwork for Precise Microbial Genomics

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Gasemi Shayan, Parsa Sheykhzade

Abstract:

Ease shotgun DNA sequencing is changing the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are compelling to the point that example planning is currently the key constraining element. Here, we present a microfluidic test readiness stage that incorporates the key strides in cells to grouping library test groundwork for up to 96 examples and decreases DNA input prerequisites 100-overlay while keeping up or improving information quality. The universally useful microarchitecture we show bolsters work processes with subjective quantities of response and tidy up or catch steps. By decreasing the example amount necessities, we empowered low-input (∼10,000 cells) entire genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil miniaturized scale settlements with prevalent outcomes. We additionally utilized the upgraded throughput to succession ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and exhibit magnificent single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery execution that clarified phenotypically watched anti-toxin opposition. Completely coordinated lab-on-chip test arrangement beats specialized boundaries to empower more extensive organization of genomics across numerous fundamental research and translational applications.

Keywords: Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology, Microbial Genomics, Dna

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3341 Benefits of Occupational Therapy for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Aspects of Vocational Activities and Instrumental Activities of Daily Life

Authors: Shakhawath Hossain, Tazkia Tahsin

Abstract:

Introduction/Background: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. Vocational education is a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living activities to support daily life within the home and community. Like as community mobility, financial management, meal preparation, and clean-up, shopping. Material and Method: Electronic searches of Medline, PubMed, Google scholar, OT Seeker literature using the key terms of intellectual disability, vocational rehabilitation, instrumental activities of daily living and Occupational Therapy, as well as a thorough manual search for relevant literature. Results: There were 13 articles, all qualitative and quantitative, which are included in this review. All studies were mixed methods in design. To take the Occupational Therapy services, there is a significant improvement in their children's various areas like as sensory issues, cognitive abilities, perceptual skills, visual, motor planning, and group therapy. After taking the vocational and instrumental activities of daily living training children with intellectual disabilities to participate in their daily activities and work as an employee different company or organizations. Conclusion: The persons with intellectual disability are an integral part of our society who deserves social support and opportunities like other human beings. From the result section of the project papers, it is found that the significant benefits of Occupational Therapy services in the aspects of vocational and instrumental activities of daily living.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Intellectual Disabilities, daily living activities, instrumental ADL

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3340 Comparison of Titanium and Aluminum Functions as Spoilers for Dose Uniformity Achievement in Abutting Oblique Electron Fields: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

Authors: Faranak Felfeliyan, Parvaneh Shokrani, Maryam Atarod

Abstract:

Introduction Using electron beam is widespread in radiotherapy. The main criteria in radiation therapy is to irradiate the tumor volume with maximum prescribed dose and minimum dose to vital organs around it. Using abutting fields is common in radiotherapy. The main problem in using abutting fields is dose inhomogeneity in the junction region. Electron beam divergence and lateral scattering may lead to hot and cold spots in the junction region. One solution for this problem is using of a spoiler to broaden the penumbra and uniform dose in the junction region. The goal of this research was to compare titanium and aluminum effects as a spoiler for dose uniformity achievement in the junction region of oblique electron fields with Monte Carlo simulation. Dose uniformity in the junction region depends on density, scattering power, thickness of the spoiler and the angle between two fields. Materials and Methods In this study, Monte Carlo model of Siemens Primus linear accelerator was simulated for a 5 MeV nominal energy electron beam using manufacture provided specifications. BEAMnrc and EGSnrc user code were used to simulate the treatment head in electron mode (simulation of beam model). The resulting phase space file was used as a source for dose calculations for 10×10 cm2 field size at SSD=100 cm in a 30×30×45 cm3 water phantom using DOSXYZnrc user code (dose calculations). An automatic MP3-M water phantom tank, MEPHYSTO mc2 software platform and a Semi-Flex Chamber-31010 with sensitive vol­ume of 0.125 cm3 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used for dose distribution measurements. Moreover, the electron field size was 10×10 cm2 and SSD=100 cm. Validation of devel­oped beam model was done by comparing the measured and calculated depth and lateral dose distributions (verification of electron beam model). Simulation of spoilers (using SLAB compo­nent module) placed at the end of the electron applicator, was done using previously vali­dated phase space file for a 5 MeV nominal energy and 10×10 cm2 field size (simulation of spoiler). An in-house routine was developed in order to calculate the combined isodose curves re­sulting from the two simulated abutting fields (calculation of dose distribution in abutting electron fields). Results Verification of the developed 5.9 MeV elec­tron beam model was done by comparing the calculated and measured dose distributions. The maximum percentage difference between calculated and measured PDD was 1%, except for the build-up region in which the difference was 2%. The difference between calculated and measured profile was 2% at the edges of the field and less than 1% in other regions. The effect of PMMA, aluminum, titanium and chromium in dose uniformity achievement in abutting normal electron fields with equivalent thicknesses to 5mm PMMA was evaluated. Comparing R90 and uniformity index of different materials, aluminum was chosen as the optimum spoiler. Titanium has the maximum surface dose. Thus, aluminum and titanium had been chosen to use for dose uniformity achievement in oblique electron fields. Using the optimum beam spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 110% for 15 degrees, from 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, from 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and from 180% to 100% for 60 degrees oblique abutting fields. Using Titanium spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 120% for 15 degrees, 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and 180% to 110% for 60 degrees. In addition, penumbra width for 15 degrees, without spoiler in the surface was 10 mm and was increased to 15.5 mm with titanium spoiler. For 30 degrees, from 9 mm to 15 mm, for 45 degrees from 4 mm to 6 mm and for 60 degrees, from 5 mm to 8 mm. Conclusion Using spoilers, penumbra width at the surface increased, size and depth of hot spots was decreased and dose homogeneity improved at the junc­tion of abutting electron fields. Dose at the junction region of abutting oblique fields was improved significantly by using spoiler. Maximum dose at the junction region for 15⁰, 30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰ was decreased about 40%, 60%, 40% and 70% respectively for Titanium and about 50%, 60%, 40% and 80% for Aluminum. Considering significantly decrease in maximum dose using titanium spoiler, unfortunately, dose distribution in the junction region was not decreased less than 110%.

Keywords: Radiation therapy, electron beam, abutting fields, spoilers

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3339 Detection of Cardiac Arrhythmia Using Principal Component Analysis and Xgboost Model

Authors: Sujay Kotwale, Ramasubba Reddy M.

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a non-invasive technique used to study and analyze various heart diseases. Cardiac arrhythmia is a serious heart disease which leads to death of the patients, when left untreated. An early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia would help the doctors to do proper treatment of the heart. In the past, various algorithms and machine learning (ML) models were used to early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia, but few of them have achieved better results. In order to improve the performance, this paper implements principal component analysis (PCA) along with XGBoost model. The PCA was implemented to the raw ECG signals which suppress redundancy information and extracted significant features. The obtained significant ECG features were fed into XGBoost model and the performance of the model was evaluated. In order to valid the proposed technique, raw ECG signals obtained from standard MIT-BIH database were employed for the analysis. The result shows that the performance of proposed method is superior to the several state-of-the-arts techniques.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, electrocardiogram, cardiac arrhythmia, XGboost

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3338 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

Abstract:

Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, coronary angiography, clinical manifestations, myocardial bridging, stable angina

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3337 Barriers and Challenges to a Healthy Lifestyle for Postpartum Women and the Possibilities in an Information Technology-Based Intervention: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Pernille K. Christiansen, Mette Maria Skjøth, Line Lorenzen, Eva Draborg, Christina Anne Vinter, Trine Kjær, Mette Juel Rothmann

Abstract:

Background and aims: Overweight and obesity are an increasing challenge on a global level. In Denmark, more than one-third of all pregnant women are overweight or obese, and many women exceed the gestational weight gain recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Being overweight or obese, is associated with a higher risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including gestational diabetes and childhood obesity. Thus, it is important to focus on the women’s lifestyles between their pregnancies to lower the risk of gestational weight retention in the long run. The objective of this study was to explorer what barriers and challenges postpartum women experience with respect to healthy lifestyles during the postpartum period and to access whether an Information Technology based intervention might be a supportive tool to assist and motivate postpartum women to a healthy lifestyle. Materials and methods: The method is inspired by participatory design. A systematic text condensation was applied to semi-structured focus groups. Five focus group interviews were carried out with a total of 17 postpartum women and two interviews with a total of six health professionals. Participants were recruited through the municipality in Svendborg, Denmark, and at Odense University Hospital in Odense, Denmark, during a four-month period in early 2018. Results: From the women’s perspective, better assistance is needed from the health professionals to obtain or maintain a healthy lifestyle. The women need tools that inform and help them understand and prioritise their own health-related risks, and to motivate them to plan and take care of their own health. As the women use Information Technology on a daily basis, the solution could be delivered through Information Technology. Finally, there is room for engaging the partner more in the communication related to the baby and family’s lifestyle. Conclusion: Postpartum women need tools that inform and motivate a healthy lifestyle postpartum. The tools should allow access to high-quality information from health care professionals, when the information is needed, and also allow engagement from the partner. Finally, Information Technology is a potential tool for delivering tools.

Keywords: Information Technology, Overweight, Lifestyle, Postpartum

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3336 Nurse-Led Codes: Practical Application in the Emergency Department during a Global Pandemic

Authors: F. DelGaudio, H. Gill

Abstract:

Resuscitation during cardiopulmonary (CPA) arrest is dynamic, high stress, high acuity situation, which can easily lead to communication breakdown, and errors. The care of these high acuity patients has also been shown to increase physiologic stress and task saturation of providers, which can negatively impact the care being provided. These difficulties are further complicated during a global pandemic and pose a significant safety risk to bedside providers. Nurse-led codes are a relatively new concept that may be a potential solution for alleviating some of these difficulties. An experienced nurse who has completed advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and additional training, assumed the responsibility of directing the mechanics of the appropriate ACLS algorithm. This was done in conjunction with a physician who also acted as a physician leader. The additional nurse-led code training included a multi-disciplinary in situ simulation of a CPA on a suspected COVID-19 patient. During the CPA, the nurse leader’s responsibilities include: ensuring adequate compression depth and rate, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions, the timing of rhythm/pulse checks, and appropriate medication administration. In addition, the nurse leader also functions as a last line safety check for appropriate personal protective equipment and limiting exposure of staff. The use of nurse-led codes for CPA has shown to decrease the cognitive overload and task saturation for the physician, as well as limiting the number of staff being exposed to a potentially infectious patient. The real-world application has allowed physicians to perform and oversee high-risk procedures such as intubation, line placement, and point of care ultrasound, without sacrificing the integrity of the resuscitation. Nurse-led codes have also given the physician the bandwidth to review pertinent medical history, advanced directives, determine reversible causes, and have the end of life conversations with family. While there is a paucity of research on the effectiveness of nurse-led codes, there are many potentially significant benefits. In addition to its value during a pandemic, it may also be beneficial during complex circumstances such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Keywords: COVID-19, cardiopulmonary arrest, nurse-led code, task saturation

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3335 The Risk of Deaths from Viral Hepatitis among the Female Workers in the Beauty Service Industry

Authors: Byeongju Choi, Sanggil Lee, Kyung-Eun Lee

Abstract:

Introduction: In the republic of Korea, the number of workers in the beauty industry has been increasing. Because the prevalence of hepatitis B carriers in Korea is higher than in other countries, the risk of blood-borne infection including viral hepatitis B and C, among the workers by using the sharp and contaminated instruments during procedure can be expected among beauty salon workers. However, the health care policies for the workers to prevent the blood-borne infection are not established due to the lack of evidences. Moreover, the workers in hair and nail salon were mostly employed at small businesses, where national mandatory systems or policies for workers’ health management are not applied. In this study, the risk of the viral hepatitis B and C from the job experiencing the hair and nail procedures in the mortality was assessed. Method: We conducted a retrospective review of the job histories and causes of death in the female deaths from 2006-2016. 132,744 of female deaths who had one more job experiences during their lifetime were included in this study. Job histories were assessed using the employment insurance database in Korea Employment Information Service (KEIS) and the causes of death were in death statistics produced by Statistics Korea. Case group (n= 666) who died from viral hepatitis was classified the death having record involved in ‘B15-B19’ as a cause of deaths based on Korean Standard Classification of Diseases(KCD) with the deaths from other causes, control group (n=132,078). The group of the workers in the beauty service industry were defined as the employees who had ever worked in the industry coded as ‘9611’ based on Korea Standard Industry Classification (KSIC) and others were others. Other than job histories, birth year, marital status, education level were investigated from the death statistics. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the risk of deaths from viral hepatitis in the case and control group. Result: The number of the deaths having ever job experiences at the hair and nail salon was 255. After adjusting confounders of age, marital status and education, the odds ratio(OR) for deaths from viral hepatitis was quite high in the group having experiences with working in the beauty service industry with 3.14(95% confidence interval(CI) 1.00-9.87). Other associated factors with increasing the risk of deaths from viral hepatitis were low education level(OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.73), married women (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.02-1.97). Conclusion: The risk of deaths from viral hepatitis were high in the workers in the beauty service industry but not statistically significant, which might attributed from the small number of workers in beauty service industry. It was likely that the number of workers in beauty service industry could be underestimated due to their temporary job position. Further studies evaluating the status and the incidence of viral infection among the workers with consideration of the vertical transmission would be required.

Keywords: Viral Hepatitis, Viral Infection, beauty service, blood-borne infection

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3334 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

Abstract:

Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: Stroke, dysphagia, transcranial direct current stimulation, cortical stimulation

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3333 Antibacterial Activity of Melaleuca Cajuputi Oil against Resistant Strain Bacteria

Authors: R. M. Noah, N. M. Nasir, M. R. Jais, M. S. S. Wahab, M. H. Abdullah, A. S. S. Raj

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are getting more difficult to treat due to the resistant strains of bacteria. Current generations of antibiotics are most likely ineffective against multi-drug resistant strains bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need in search of natural antibiotics in particular from medicinal plants. One of the common medicinal plants, Melaleuca cajuputi, has been reported to possess antibacterial properties. The study was conducted to evaluate and justify the presence of antibacterial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil (EO) against the multi-drug resistant bacteria. Clinical isolates obtained from the teaching hospital were re-assessed to confirm the exact identity of the bacteria to be tested, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer (ESBLs). A well diffusion method was done to observe the inhibition zones of the essential oil against the bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method in 96-well flat microplate. The absorbance was measured using a microplate reader. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was performed using the agar medium method. The zones of inhibition produced by the EO against MRSA, CRE, and ESBL were comparable to that of generic antibiotics used, gentamicin and augmentin. The MIC and MBC results highlighted the antimicrobial efficacy of the EO. The outcome of this study indicated that the EO of Melaleuca cajuputi had antibacterial activity on the multi-drug resistant bacteria. This finding was eventually substantiated by electron microscopy work.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Essential Oil, Melaleuca cajuputi, resistant bacteria

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3332 Perception of Health Care Providers: A Need to Introduce Screening of Maternal Mental Health at Primary Health Care in Nepal

Authors: Manisha Singh, Padam Simkhada

Abstract:

Background: Although mental health policy has been adapted in Nepal since 1997, the implementation of the policy framework is yet to happen. The fact that mental health services are largely concentrated in urban areas more specific to treatment only provides a clear picture of the scarcity of mental health services in the country. The shreds of evidence from around the world, along with WHO’s (World Health Organization) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) suggest that effective mental health services can be provided from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers through community-based programs without having to place a specialized health worker. However, the country is still facing the same challenges to date with very few psychiatrists and psychologists, but they are largely based in cities. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are; (a) to understand the perception of health workers at PHC on maternal mental health, and (b) to assess the availability of the mental health services at PHC to address maternal mental health. Methods: This study used a qualitative approach where an in-depth interview was conducted with the health workers at the primary level. “Mayadevi” rural municipality in Rupendehi District that comprised of 13 small villages, was chosen as the study site. A total 8 health institutions which covered all 13 sites were included where either the health post in- charge or health worker working in maternal and child health care was interviewed for the study. All the health posts in the study area were included in the study. The interviews were conducted in Nepali; later, they were translated in English, transcribed, and triangulated. NViVO was used for the analysis. Results: The findings show that most of the health workers understood what maternal mental health was and deemed it as a public health issue. They could explain the symptoms and knew what medication to prescribe if need be. However, the majority of them failed to name the screening tools in place for maternal mental health. Moreover, they hadn’t even seen one. None of the health care centers had any provision for screening mental health status. However, one of the centers prescribed medication when the patients displayed symptoms of depression. But they believed there were a significant number of hidden cases in the community due to the stigma around mental health and being a woman with mental health problem makes the situation even difficult. Nonetheless, the health workers understood the importance of having screening tools and acknowledged the need of training and support in order to provide the services from PHC. Conclusion: Community health workers can identify cases with mental health problems and prevent them from deteriorating further. But there is a need for robust training and support to build the capacity of the health workers. The screening tools on mental health needs to be encouraged to be used in the PHC levels. Furthermore, community-based culture-sensitive programs need to be initiated and implemented to mitigate the stigma related issues around mental health.

Keywords: Screening, Nepal, health care providers, maternal mental health

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3331 Scenario-Based Learning Using Virtual Optometrist Applications

Authors: J. S. M. Yang, G. E. T. Chua

Abstract:

Diploma in Optometry (OPT) course is a three-year program offered by Ngee Ann Polytechnic (NP) to train students to provide primary eye care. Students are equipped with foundational conceptual knowledge and practical skills in the first three semesters before clinical modules in fourth to six semesters. In the clinical modules, students typically have difficulties in integrating the acquired knowledge and skills from the past semesters to perform general eye examinations on public patients at NP Optometry Centre (NPOC). To help the students overcome the challenge, a web-based game Virtual Optometrist (VO) was developed to help students apply their skills and knowledge through scenario-based learning. It consisted of two interfaces, Optical Practice Counter (OPC) and Optometric Consultation Room (OCR), to provide two simulated settings for authentic learning experiences. In OPC, students would recommend and provide appropriate frame and lens selection based on virtual patient’s case history. In OCR, students would diagnose and manage virtual patients with common ocular conditions. Simulated scenarios provided real-world clinical situations that required contextual application of integrated knowledge from relevant modules. The stages in OPC and OCR are of increasing complexity to align to expected students’ clinical competency as they progress to more senior semesters. This prevented gameplay fatigue as VO was used over the semesters to achieve different learning outcomes. Numerous feedback opportunities were provided to students based on their decisions to allow individualized learning to take place. The game-based learning element in VO was achieved through the scoreboard and leader board to enhance students' motivation to perform. Scores were based on the speed and accuracy of students’ responses to the questions posed in the simulated scenarios, preparing the students to perform accurately and effectively under time pressure in a realistic optometric environment. Learning analytics was generated in VO’s backend office based on students’ responses, offering real-time data on distinctive and observable learners’ behavior to monitor students’ engagement and learning progress. The backend office allowed versatility to add, edit, and delete scenarios for different intended learning outcomes. Likert Scale was used to measure students’ learning experience with VO for OPT Year 2 and 3 students. The survey results highlighted the learning benefits of implementing VO in the different modules, such as enhancing recall and reinforcement of clinical knowledge for contextual application to develop higher-order thinking skills, increasing efficiency in clinical decision-making, facilitating learning through immediate feedback and second attempts, providing exposure to common and significant ocular conditions, and training effective communication skills. The results showed that VO has been useful in reinforcing optometry students’ learning and supporting the development of higher-order thinking, increasing efficiency in clinical decision-making, and allowing students to learn from their mistakes with immediate feedback and second attempts. VO also exposed the students to diverse ocular conditions through simulated real-world clinical scenarios, which may otherwise not be encountered in NPOC, and promoted effective communication skills.

Keywords: Game-Based Learning, Authentic Learning, scenario-based learning, simulated clinical scenarios

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3330 Redesigning Clinical and Nursing Informatics Capstones

Authors: Sue S. Feldman

Abstract:

As clinical and nursing informatics mature, an area that has gotten a lot of attention is the value capstone projects. Capstones are meant to address authentic and complex domain-specific problems. While capstone projects have not always been essential in graduate clinical and nursing informatics education, employers are wanting to see evidence of the prospective employee's knowledge and skills as an indication of employability. Capstones can be organized in many ways: a single course over a single semester, multiple courses over multiple semesters, as a targeted demonstration of skills, as a synthesis of prior knowledge and skills, mentored by one single person or mentored by various people, submitted as an assignment or presented in front of a panel. Because of the potential for capstones to enhance the educational experience, and as a mechanism for application of knowledge and demonstration of skills, a rigorous capstone can accelerate a graduate's potential in the workforce. In 2016, the capstone at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) could feel the external forces of a maturing Clinical and Nursing Informatics discipline. While the program had a capstone course for many years, it was lacking the depth of knowledge and demonstration of skills being asked for by those hiring in a maturing Informatics field. Since the program is online, all capstones were always in the online environment. While this modality did not change, other contributors to instruction modality changed. Pre-2016, the instruction modality was self-guided. Students checked in with a single instructor, and that instructor monitored progress across all capstones toward a PowerPoint and written paper deliverable. At the time, the enrollment was few, and the maturity had not yet pushed hard enough. By 2017, doubling enrollment and the increased demand of a more rigorously trained workforce led to restructuring the capstone so that graduates would have and retain the skills learned in the capstone process. There were three major changes: the capstone was broken up into a 3-course sequence (meaning it lasted about 10 months instead of 14 weeks), there were many chunks of deliverables, and each faculty had a cadre of about 5 students to advise through the capstone process. Literature suggests that the chunking, breaking up complex projects (i.e., the capstone in one summer) into smaller, more manageable chunks (i.e., chunks of the capstone across 3 semesters), can increase and sustain learning while allowing for increased rigor. By doing this, the teaching responsibility was shared across faculty with each semester course being taught by a different faculty member. This change facilitated delving much deeper in instruction and produced a significantly more rigorous final deliverable. Having students advised across the faculty seemed like the right thing to do. It not only shared the load, but also shared the success of students. Furthermore, it meant that students could be placed with an academic advisor who had expertise in their capstone area, further increasing the rigor of the entire capstone process and project and increasing student knowledge and skills.

Keywords: Health Informatics, Informatics, Clinical Informatics, capstones

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3329 Synchronous Carcinoma Cervix with Vulvar Carcinoma in situ: A Case Report

Authors: Bhushan Bhalgat, Suresh Singh, Phanindra Swain, Kamal Kishore Lakhera

Abstract:

Carcinoma of cervix and carcinoma of vulva have been associated with common predisposing factors like human papillomavirus and smoking. Skip metastases and metachronous appearance of both these tumours have been reported. There is no case report showing synchronous appearance of these tumours in English literature. We herewith report a case report of a middle aged female patient who presented with per vaginal bleeding, and on examination, a cervical mass was palpable. Also, a proliferative growth was seen over her left vulva. Biopsy of both lesions came out to be squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ, respectively. A radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodal dissection was performed along with left simple vulvectomy. This thereby underscores that any lesion over vulva appearing during or after treatment of cervical carcinoma should be biopsied to rule out vulvar carcinoma.

Keywords: Gynecological Oncology, carcinoma of cervix, carcinoma of vulva, synchronous tumours

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