Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 212

Mechanical Properties Related Abstracts

212 Studies on Toxicity and Mechanical Properties of Nonmetallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste in Recycled HDPE Composites

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad


The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reusing nonmetallic printed circuit boards (PCBs) waste in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in terms of toxicity and mechanical properties. A series of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analysis tests have been conducted on raw nonmetallic PCBs waste to determine the chemical compositions. It can be seen that the nonmetallic PCBs approximately 72% of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin materials such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, BaO, Na2O, and SrO, 9.4% of metallic materials such as CuO, SnO2, and Fe2O3, and 6.53% of Br. Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests also have been done to study the toxicity characteristics of raw nonmetallic PCB powders, rHDPE/PCB and virgin HDPE for comparison purposes. For both of the testing, Cu was identified as the highest metal element contained in raw PCBs with the concentration of 905 mg/kg and 59.09 mg/L for TTLC and TCLP, respectively. However, once the nonmetallic PCB was filled in rHDPE composites, the concentrations of Cu were reduced to 134 mg/kg for TTLC and to 3 mg/L for TCLP testing. For mechanical properties testing, incorporation of 40 wt% nonmetallic PCB into rHDPE has increased the flexural modulus and flexural strength by 140% and 36%, respectively. While, Izod Impact strength decreased steadily with incorporation of 10 – 40 wt% nonmetallic PCBs.

Keywords: Composites, Mechanical Properties, nonmetallic printed circuit board, recycled HDPE, total threshold limit concentration, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
211 Effect of Plasticizer Additives on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Composite: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis

Authors: R. Mohan, V. Jadhav, A. Ahmed, J. Rivas, A. Kelkar


Cementitious materials are an excellent example of a composite material with complex hierarchical features and random features that range from nanometer (nm) to millimeter (mm) scale. Multi-scale modeling of complex material systems requires starting from fundamental building blocks to capture the scale relevant features through associated computational models. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) modeling is employed to predict the effect of plasticizer additive on the mechanical properties of key hydrated cement constituent calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) at the molecular, nanometer scale level. Due to complexity, still unknown molecular configuration of CSH, a representative configuration widely accepted in the field of mineral Jennite is employed. The effectiveness of the Molecular Dynamics modeling to understand the predictive influence of material chemistry changes based on molecular/nanoscale models is demonstrated.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, Mechanical Properties, cement composite, plasticizer additives

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
210 Reclaimed Tire and Carbon Black Mixture Effect on Mechanical Properties of Rubber Blends SBR/NR/BRcis Uses as Damping Materials

Authors: Samir Hassan AL-Nesrawy, Mohammed Al-Maamori, A. S. Hassani


Rebound resilience for various elastomeric composites has been measured by Tripsometer devise, in order to investigate the effect of mix of C.B & Reclaim loading on elastomeric materials to absorb or damping vibration or shocks by fenders uses in the Iraqi berths. After having been certain about attaining the physical and mechanical properties of the new samples which are similar to the levels of their standard ones, damping properties for the new samples have been measured and compared with those of the standard fenders. The new samples included four rubber blends from (SBR/NR/BR-cis) and four loading levels of mix carbon black (type N-375) and reclaim to become sixteen compound contain SBR(100,60,60,60), NR(0,10,20,30), BRcis(30,20,10,0) and loading level for C.B, Reclaim (10,20,30,40). Damping measurements have been carried out by the method Free Vibration Resilience Pendulum method (by using Wallace R2-Dunlop Tripsometer) and from this Resilience Pendulum method, both the resilience percentage value (R%) and time decay (t0) have been measured at 50oC. We found that the results of this method proved that the increment of C.B, Reclaim level in these robber composite lead to decreasing the resiliency (R%) and damping time.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, damping materials, carbon black mixture effect, rubber blends SBR/NR/BRcis

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
209 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Rajesh Gupta, Arvind Mittal


Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
208 Mechanical Performances and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Starch-Grafted-Polypropylene/Kenaf Fibres Composites

Authors: A. Hamma, A. Pegoretti


The paper focuses on the evaluation of mechanical performances and viscoelastic behaviour of starch-grafted-PP reinforced with kenaf fibres. Investigations were carried out on composites prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. Two aspects have been taken into account, the effects of various fibres loading rates (10, 20 and 30 wt.%) and the fibres aspect ratios (L/D=30 and 160). Good fibres/matrix interaction has been evidenced by SEM observations. However, processing induced variation of fibre length quantified by optical microscopy observations. Tensile modulus and ultimate properties, hardness and tensile impact stress, were found to remarkably increase with fibre loading. Moreover, short term tensile creep tests have proven that kenaf fibres improved considerably the creep stability. Modelling of creep behaviour by a four parameter Burger model was successfully used. An empirical equation involving Halpin-Tsai semi empirical model was also used to predict the elastic modulus of composites.

Keywords: thermoplastic Composites, Fibres, Mechanical Properties, Creep, starch-grafted-PP

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
207 Comparative Analysis of Real and Virtual Garment Fit

Authors: Kristina Ancutiene


The goal of this research is to perform comparative analysis between the virtual fit of the woman's dress and the fit on a real person. The dress fitting was done using mechanical and structural parameters of the 100 % linen fabric and using Modaris_3D_Fit software (CAD Lectra). The dress was also sawn after which garment fit differences of real and virtual dress was researched. Four respondents whose figures were similar were used to evaluate the ease and strain deformations of the real and virtual dress. The scores that were given by the respondents wearing the real dress were compared to the ease and strain results that were given by the software. The main result was that respondents feel similar to the virtual stretch deformations but their ease feeling is not always matching the virtual ones. The results may be influenced by psychological factors and different understanding about purpose of garment.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, virtual garment, garment fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
206 Cellulose Acetate/Polyacrylic Acid Filled with Nano-Hydroxapatite Composites: Spectroscopic Studies and Search for Biomedical Applications

Authors: E. M. AbdelRazek, G. S. ElBahy, M. A. Allam, A. M. Abdelghany, A. M. Hezma


Polymeric biocomposite of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid were prepared and their thermal and mechanical properties were improved by addition of cellulose acetate. FTIR spectroscopy technique and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of HAp nano-particles through the polymeric matrix of two organic/inorganic composites weight ratios (60/40 and 70/30), at which the material crystallinity reaches a considerable value appropriate for the needed applications were studied and revealed that the HAp nano-particles are uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix. Kinetic parameters were determined from the weight loss data using non isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Also, the main degradation steps were described and discussed. The mechanical properties of composites were evaluated by measuring tensile strength and elastic modulus. The data indicate that the addition of cellulose acetate can make homogeneous composites scaffold significantly resistant to higher stress. Elastic modulus of the composites was also improved by the addition of cellulose acetate, making them more appropriate for bioapplications.

Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy, Chemical Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, biocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
205 Mechanical Characterization of Banana by Inverse Analysis Method Combined with Indentation Test

Authors: Juan F. P. Ramírez, Jésica A. L. Isaza, Benjamín A. Rojano


This study proposes a novel use of a method to determine the mechanical properties of fruits by the use of the indentation tests. The method combines experimental results with a numerical finite elements model. The results presented correspond to a simplified numerical modeling of banana. The banana was assumed as one-layer material with an isotropic linear elastic mechanical behavior, the Young’s modulus found is 0.3Mpa. The method will be extended to multilayer models in further studies.

Keywords: Fruits, Mechanical Properties, Finite Element Method, inverse analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
204 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz


Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
203 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa


The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
202 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
201 Aging and Mechanical Behavior of Be-treated 7075 Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash, S. Alkahtani


The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of pre-aging and aging parameters (time and temperature) on the mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys. Ultimate tensile strength, 0.5% offset yield strength and % elongation measurements were carried out on specimens prepared from cast and heat treated 7075 alloys. Aging treatments were carried out for the as solution treated (SHT) specimens (after quenching in warm water). The specimens were aged at different conditions; Natural aging was carried out at room temperature for different periods of time. Double aging was performed for SHT conditions (pre-aged at different time and temperature followed by high temperature aging). Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and % elongation as a function of different pre-aging and aging parameters are analysed to acquire an understanding of the effects of these variables and their interactions on the mechanical properties of Be-treated 7075 alloys.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Mechanical Properties, duplex aging treatment, Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
200 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath


Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Weldability, HAZ simulation, peak temperature, ship hull steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
199 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: O. Eren, N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, İ. Karacan


Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Electrical Conductivity, Mechanical Properties, Silver Nanoparticles, Thermal Properties, composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
198 Composite Panels from Under-Utilized Wood and Agricultural Fiber Resources

Authors: Salim Hiziroglu


Rice straw, jute, coconut fiber, oil palm, bagasse and bamboo are some of agricultural resources that can be used to produce different types of value-added composite panels including particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Invasive species such as Eastern red cedar in South Western states in the USA would also be considered as viable raw material to manufacture above products. The main objective of this study was to investigate both physical and mechanical properties of both structural and non-structural panels manufactured from underutilized and agricultural species. Eastern red cedar, bamboo and rice straw were used to manufacture experimental panels. Properties of such samples including bending, internal bond strength, thickness swelling, density profiles and surface roughness were evaluated. Panels made 100% bamboo had the best properties among the other samples. Having rice straw in particleboard and medium density fiberboard panels reduced overall properties of the samples. Manufacturing interior sandwich type of panels having fibers on the face layers while particle of the same type of materials in the core improved their surface quality. Based on the findings of this work such species could have potential to be used as raw material to manufacture value-added panels with accepted properties.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, composite panels, wood and non-wood fibers, bamboo

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
197 Influence of the Growth Rate on Eutectic Microstructures and Physical Properties of Aluminum–Silicon-Cobalt Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Co alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate at constant temperature gradient using by Bridgman–type growth apparatus. The values of microstructures (λ) was measured from transverse sections of the samples. The microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) of the directional solidification samples were also measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: Electrical Properties, Mechanical Properties, directional solidification, Al-Si-Co alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
196 Finite Element Modeling and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Proceed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing Process

Authors: F. Al-Mufadi, F. Djavanroodi


During the last decade ultrafine grained (UFG) and nano-structured (NS) materials have experienced a rapid development. In this research work finite element analysis has been carried out to investigate the plastic strain distribution in equal channel angular process (ECAP). The magnitudes of standard deviation (S. D.) and inhomogeneity index (Ci) were compared for different ECAP passes. Verification of a three-dimensional finite element model was performed with experimental tests. Finally the mechanical property including impact energy of ultrafine grained pure commercially pure Aluminum produced by severe plastic deformation method has been examined. For this aim, equal channel angular pressing die with the channel angle, outer corner angle and channel diameter of 90°, 20° and 20 mm had been designed and manufactured. Commercial pure Aluminum billets were ECAPed up to four passes by route BC at the ambient temperature. The results indicated that there is a great improvement at the hardness measurement, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength after ECAP process. It is found that the magnitudes of HV reach 67 HV from 21 HV after the final stage of process. Also, about 330% and 285% enhancement at the YS and UTS values have been obtained after the fourth pass as compared to the as-received conditions, respectively. On the other hand, the elongation to failure and impact energy have been reduced by 23% and 50% after imposing four passes of ECAP process, respectively.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, FEM, SPD, ECAP, pure Al

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
195 Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite Reinforced with Copper Coated MWCNTs

Authors: M. Nazem Salimi, C. Abrinia, M. Baniassadi, M. Ehsani


Mechanical properties of epoxy based nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs were investigated and a comparative study between nanocomposites containing functionalized MWCNTs and copper coated MWCNTs which are already functionalized was conducted. The MWCNTs was deposited with copper nanoparticles through electroless deposition process after accomplishment of "two-step" method as sensitization and activation procedures on oxidized MWCNTs. In addition, functionalization of MWCNTs was carried out through combination of two covalent and non-covalent funcionalization methods using HNO3 for acid solution of covalent treatment and Triton X100 as non-ionic surfactant of non-covalent treatment. The presence of functional groups and removal of impurities of MWCNTs were confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The layer of copper nanoparticles on the MWCNTs wall increasing its diameter was observed by SEM. Utilizing solution blending process, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% wt loading of both copper coated MWCNTs and non-coated MWCNTs were used to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of nanocomposites were investigated. The results of tensile test demonstrated that nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs exhibited brittle behavior compared to those reinforced with functionalized MWCNTs, whereas former one exhibited higher values of modulus than latter one for concentrations more than 0.4% wt. Presence of copper particles on MWCNTs surface decreased the tensile strength of nanocomposites. In comparison to pure epoxy, nanocomposites with treated-MWCNTs and Cu-MWCNTs loading of 0.1% wt showed an increase of 35% and 51.6% for flexural strength beside 20% and 30% increase in flexural modulus, respectively, whereas flexural properties of both naocomposites decreased with increasing of CNTs concentration. The results of impact strength of nanocomposites with Cu-CNTs demonstrated that impact properties decreased with increasing of filler content with a optimum value at 0.1% wt while in high concentrations impact properties of Cu-nanocomposites exhibited lower values than f-MWCNT nanocomposites.

Keywords: nanocomposite, functionalization, Mechanical Properties, Copper, epoxyresin, electroless deposition process

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
194 Influence of Different Thicknesses on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, H. Saitoh, P. Wongpanya, Y. Nakaya, N. Konkhunthot, S. Arakawa


The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrates at different thicknesses by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (rf-PECVD). Raman spectra display asymmetric diamond-like peaks, representative of the a-C:H films. The decrease of intensity ID/IG ratios revealed the sp3 content arise at different thicknesses of the a-C:H films. In terms of mechanical properties, the high hardness and elastic modulus values show the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors related to sp3 content in amorphous carbon films. Electro chemical properties showed that the a-C:H films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in air-saturated 3.5 wt% NaCl solution for pH 2 at room temperature. Thickness increasing affected the small sp2 clusters in matrix, restricting the velocity transfer and exchange of electrons. The deposited a-C:H films exhibited excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, thickness, electrochemical corrosion properties, a-C:H film

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
193 Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon


High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200°C. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200°C. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200°C, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900°C. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that σ phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200°C, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.

Keywords: Microstructure, High temperature deformation, Mechanical Properties, stainless steel, STS 310S

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
192 Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Nonflammable Mg Alloy

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon, Myoung-Gon Yoon


Tensile specimens of nonflammable AZ91D Mg alloy were fabricated in this study via cold chamber die-casting process. Dimensions of tensile specimens were 25mm in length, 4mm in width, and 0.8 or 3.0mm in thickness. Microstructure observation was conducted before and after tensile tests at room temperature. In the die casting process, various injection distances from 150 to 260mm were employed to obtain optimum process conditions. Distribution of Al12Mg17 phase was the key factor to determine the mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy. Specimens with 3mm of thickness showed superior mechanical properties to those with 0.8mm of thickness. Closed networking of Al12Mg17 phase along grain boundary was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, non-flammable magnesium alloy, AZ91D, die-casting

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
191 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee


Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
190 Mechanical Properties of Recycled Plasticized PVB/PVC Blends

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Christian Carrot, Caroline Pillon, Vít Petránek


The mechanical properties of blends consisting of plasticized poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of using recycled PVB waste derived from windshields. PVC was plasticized with 38% of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), while PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The optimal process conditions for the PVB/PVC blend in 1:1 ratio were determined. Entropy was used in order to theoretically predict the blends miscibility. The PVB content of each blend composition used was ranging from zero to 100%. Tensile strength and strain were tested. In addition, a comparison between recycled and original PVB, used as constituents of the blend, was performed.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, windshield, poly(vinyl butyral), polymer waste, poly(vinyl chloride)

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
189 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin


The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, pozzolan, rice husk ash, shrinkage and expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
188 Theoretical Method for Full Ab-Initio Calculation of Rhenium Carbide Compound

Authors: D.Rached, M.Rabah


First principles calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of the utraincompressible materials, namely, noble metal carbide of Rhenium carbide (ReC) in four phases, the rocksalt (NaCl-B1), zinc blende (ZB-B2), the tungsten carbide(Bh) (WC), and the nickel arsenide (NiAs-B8).The ground state properties such as the equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, the bulk modulus its pressure derivate, and the hardness of ReC in these phases are systematically predicted by calculations from first–principles. The corresponding calculated bulk modulus is comparable with that of diamond, especially for the B8 –type rhenium carbide (ReC), the incompressibility along the c axis is demonstrated to exceed the linear incompressibility of diamond. Our calculations confirm in the nickel arsenide (B8) structure the ReC is found to be stable with a large bulk modulus B=440 GPa and the tungsten carbide (WC) structure becomes the most more favourable with to respect B3 and B1 structures, which ReC- WC is meta-stable. Furthermore, the highest bulk modulus values in the zinc blende (B3), rock salt (B1), tungsten carbide (WC), and the nickel arsenide (B8) structures (294GPa, 401GPa, 415GPa and 447 GPa, respectively) indicates that ReC is a hard material, and is superhard compound H(B8)= 36 GPa compared with the H(diamond)=96 GPa and H(c BN)=63.10 GPa.

Keywords: Elasticity, dft, Thermodynamic Properties, Mechanical Properties, high pressure, FP-LMTO, hard material

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
187 Effect of Shot Peening on the Mechanical Properties for Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6

Authors: Muna Khethier Abbass, Khairia Salman Hussan, Huda Mohummed AbdudAlaziz


This work aims to study the effect of shot peening on the mechanical properties of welded joints which performed by two different welding processes: Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and friction stir welding (FSW) processes of aluminum alloy 6061 T6. Arc welding process (TIG) was carried out on the sheet with dimensions of (100x50x6 mm) to obtain many welded joints with using electrode type ER4043 (AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon as shielding gas. While the friction stir welding process was carried out using CNC milling machine with a tool of rotational speed (1000 rpm) and welding speed of (20 mm/min) to obtain the same butt welded joints. The welded pieces were tested by X-ray radiography to detect the internal defects and faulty welded pieces were excluded. Tensile test specimens were prepared from welded joints and base alloy in the dimensions according to ASTM17500 and then subjected to shot peening process using steel ball of diameter 0.9 mm and for 15 min. All specimens were subjected to Vickers hardness test and micro structure examination to study the effect of welding process (TIG and FSW) on the micro structure of the weld zones. Results showed that a general decay of mechanical properties of TIG and FSW welded joints comparing with base alloy while the FSW welded joint gives better mechanical properties than that of TIG welded joint. This is due to the micro structure changes during the welding process. It has been found that the surface hardening by shot peening improved the mechanical properties of both welded joints, this is due to the compressive residual stress generation in the weld zones which was measured using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) inspection.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Friction Stir Welding, TIG welding, shot peening

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
186 Tensile Behaviours of Sansevieria Ehrenbergii Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites with Water Absorption Time

Authors: P. Navaneethakrishnan, T. P. Sathishkumar


The research work investigates the variation of tensile properties for the sansevieria ehrenbergii fiber (SEF) and SEF reinforced polyester composites respect to various water absorption time. The experiments were conducted according to ATSM D3379-75 and ASTM D570 standards. The percentage of water absorption for composite specimens was measured according to ASTM D570 standard. The fiber of SE was cut in to 30 mm length for preparation of the composites. The simple hand lay-up method followed by compression moulding process adopted to prepare the randomly oriented SEF reinforced polyester composites at constant fiber weight fraction of 40%. The surface treatment was done on the SEFs with various chemicals such as NaOH, KMnO4, Benzoyl Peroxide, Benzoyl Chloride and Stearic Acid before preparing the composites. NaOH was used for pre-treatment of all other chemical treatments. The morphology of the tensile fractured specimens studied using the Scanning Electron Microscopic. The tensile strength of the SEF and SEF reinforced polymer composites were carried out with various water absorption time such as 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours respectively. The result shows that the tensile strength was drop off with increase in water absorption time for all composites. The highest tensile property of raw fiber was found due to lowest moistures content. Also the chemical bond between the cellulose and cementic materials such as lignin and wax was highest due to lowest moisture content. Tensile load was lowest and elongation was highest for the water absorbed fibers at various water absorption time ranges. During this process, the fiber cellulose inhales the water and expands the primary and secondary fibers walls. This increases the moisture content in the fibers. Ultimately this increases the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water. In tensile testing, the water absorbed fibers shows highest elongation by stretching of expanded cellulose walls and the bonding strength between the fiber cellulose is low. The load carrying capability was stable at 20 hours of water absorption time. This could be directly affecting the interfacial bonding between the fiber/matrix and composite strength. The chemically treated fibers carry higher load and lower elongation which is due to removal of lignin, hemicellulose and wax content. The water time absorption decreases the tensile strength of the composites. The chemically SEF reinforced composites shows highest tensile strength compared to untreated SEF reinforced composites. This was due to highest bonding area between the fiber/matrix. This was proven in the morphology at the fracture zone of the composites. The intra-fiber debonding was occurred by water capsulation in the fiber cellulose. Among all, the tensile strength was found to be highest for KMnO4 treated SEF reinforced composite compared to other composites. This was due to better interfacial bonding between the fiber-matrix compared to other treated fiber composites. The percentage of water absorption of composites increased with time of water absorption. The percentage weight gain of chemically treated SEF composites at 4 hours to zero water absorption are 9, 9, 10, 10.8 and 9.5 for NaOH, BP, BC, KMnO4 and SA respectively. The percentage weight gain of chemically treated SEF composites at 24 hours to zero water absorption 5.2, 7.3, 12.5, 16.7 and 13.5 for NaOH, BP, BC, KMnO4 and SA respectively. Hence the lowest weight gain was found for KMnO4 treated SEF composites by highest percentage with lowest water uptake. However the chemically treated SEF reinforced composites is possible materials for automotive application like body panels, bumpers and interior parts, and household application like tables and racks etc.

Keywords: Fibres, Mechanical Properties, Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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185 The Effects of Alkalization to the Mechanical Properties of Biocomposite PLA reinforced the Ijuk Fibers

Authors: Mochamad Chalid, Imam Prabowo


The pollution due to non-degradable material such as plastics, has led to studies about the development of environmental-friendly material. Because of biodegradability obtained from natural sources, polylactid acid (PLA) and ijuk fiber are interesting to modify into a composite. This material is also expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. Surface modification of ijuk fiber through alkalinization with 0.25 M NaOH solution for 30 minutes, was aimed to enhance it’s compatibility to PLA, in order to improve properties of the composite such as the mechanical properties. Alkalinization of the ijuk fibers annihilates some surface components such as lignin, wax and hemicelloluse, so the pore on the surface clearly appeared, decreasing of the density and diameter of the ijuk fibers. The change of the ijuk fiber properties leads to increase the mechanical properties of PLA composites reinforced the ijuk fibers through strengthening of the mechanical interlocking with the PLA matrix. An addition to enhance the distribution of the fibers in the PLA matrix, the stirring during DCM solvent evaporation from the mixture of the ijuk fibers and the dissolved-PLA can reduce amount of the trapped-voids and fibers pull-out phenomena, which can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite.

Keywords: Morphology, Adhesion, Compatibility, Mechanical Properties, Arenga Pinnata, polylactic acid, alkalinization, volume fraction, distributiom

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184 Effect of Chilling on Soundness, Micro Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength, and Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloy-Fused Silica Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: G. Purushotham, Joel Hemanth


An investigation has been carried out to fabricate and evaluate the strength and soundness of chilled composites consisting of nickel matrix and fused silica particles (size 40–150 μm) in the matrix. The dispersoid added ranged from 3 to 12 wt. % in steps of 3%. The resulting composites cast in moulds containing metallic and non-metallic chill blocks (MS, SiC, and Cu) were tested for their microstructure and mechanical properties. The main objective of the present research is to obtain fine grain Ni/SiO2 chilled sound composite having very good mechanical properties. Results of the investigation reveal the following: (1) Strength of the composite developed is highly dependent on the location of the casting from where the test specimens are taken and also on the dispersoid content of the composite. (2) Chill thickness and chill material, however, does significantly affect the strength and soundness of the composite. (3) Soundness of the composite developed is highly dependent on the chilling rate as well as the dispersoid content. An introduction of chilling and increase in the dispersoid content of the material both result in an increase in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the material. The temperature gradient developed during solidification and volumetric heat capacity (VHC) of the chill used is the important parameters controlling the soundness of the composite. (4) Thermal properties of the end chills are used to determine the magnitude of the temperature gradient developed along the length of the casting solidifying under the influence of chills.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, metal matrix composite, corrosion behavior, nickel alloy, fused silica, chills

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183 Microstructure and Hot Deformation Behavior of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon


Abstract—High temperature deformation behavior of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 1100 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 300×300×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Tensile strength of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was 4 MPa at 1200oC. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 13 MPa at 1100oC. Elongation also increased from 18 to 80% with temperature decreased from 1200oC to 1100oC. Microstructure observation revealed that M23C6 carbide was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix.

Keywords: Microstructure, High temperature deformation, Mechanical Properties, aging treatment

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