Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 139

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Industrial Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

139 A 'Systematic Literature Review' of Specific Types of Inventory Faced by the Management of Firms

Authors: Rui Brito

Abstract:

This contribution regards a literature review of inventory management that is a relevant topic for the firms, due to its important use of capital with implications in firm’s profitability within the complexity of a more competitive and globalized world. Firms look for small inventories in order to reduce holding costs, namely opportunity cost, warehousing and handling costs, deterioration and being out of style, but larger inventories are required by some reasons, such as customer service, ordering cost, transportation cost, supplier’s payment to reduce unit costs or to take advantage of price increase in the near future, and equipment setup cost. Thus, management shall address a trade-off between small inventories and larger inventories. This literature review concerns three types of inventory (spare parts, safety stock, and vendor) whose management usually is beyond the scope of logistics. The applied methodology consisted of an online search of databases regarding scientific documents in English, namely Elsevier, Springer, Emerald, Wiley, and Taylor & Francis, but excluding books except if edited, using search engines, such as Google Scholar and B-on. The search was based on three keywords/strings (themes) which had to be included just as in the article title, suggesting themes were very relevant to the researchers. The whole search period was between 2009 and 2018 with the aim of collecting between twenty and forty studies considered relevant within each of the key words/strings specified. Documents were sorted by relevance and to prevent the exclusion of the more recent articles, based on lower quantity of citations partially due to less time to be cited in new research articles, the search period was divided into two sub-periods (2009-2015 and 2016-2018). The number of surveyed articles by theme showed a variation from 40 to 200 and the number of citations of those articles showed a wider variation from 3 to 216. Selected articles from the three themes were analyzed and the first seven of the first sub-period and the first three of the second sub-period with more citations were read in full to make a synopsis of each article. Overall, the findings show that the majority of article types were models, namely mathematical, although with different sub-types for each theme. Almost all articles suggest further studies, with some mentioning it for their own author(s), which widen the diversity of the previous research. Identified research gaps concern the use of surveys to know which are the models more used by firms, the reasons for not using the models with more performance and accuracy, and which are the satisfaction levels with the outcomes of the inventories management and its effect on the improvement of the firm’s overall performance. The review ends with the limitations and contributions of the study.

Keywords: Inventory Management, safety stock, spare parts inventory, vendor managed inventory

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138 Requirements for a Shared Management of State-Owned Building in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii

Authors: Maria Giovanna Pacifico

Abstract:

Maintenance, in Italy, is not yet a consolidated practice despite the benefits that could come from. Among the main reasons, there is a lack of financial resources and personnel in the public administration and a general lack of knowledge about how to activate and to manage a prevented and programmed maintenance. The experimentation suggests that users and tourists could be involved in the maintenance process from the knowledge phase to the monitoring ones by using mobile devices. The goal is to increase the quality of Facility Management for cultural heritage, prioritizing usage needs, and limiting interference between the key stakeholders. The method simplifies the consolidated procedures for the Information Systems, avoiding a loss in terms of quality and amount of information by focusing on the users' requirements: management economy, user safety, accessibility, and by receiving feedback information to define a framework that will lead to predictive maintenance. This proposal was designed to be tested in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii on the state property asset.

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137 The Job of Rhetoric in Public Relations Practice

Authors: Talal Alqahtani

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For all institutions, either public or private, communication is important now more than ever. This is because the importance of communication has grown over the years, and it has the ability to either break or make an organization. With globalization, the changing technology, and other emergent issues that affect organizations, the communication given out has had to be better, sharper, and both proactive and reactive. This is the reason why the importance of public relations has been on the increase. Institutions realize the importance of having a good image and having public relations experts who can effectively manage communication in an institution easily in times of crisis. Public relations itself is not, however, effective, and this has led to the adoption of rhetoric in communication. Rhetoric use has had a long transformation because, in the past, it was only used in politics. Rhetoric in communication has come to be appreciated and adopted by many diverse fields and sectors. This study looks at the job of rhetoric in public relations practice and how it can identify with the administration of an institution's notoriety.

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136 Digital Transformation of Payment Systems using Field Service Management

Authors: Hamze Torabian, Mohammad Mehrabioun Mohammadi

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Like many other industries, the payment industry has affected by digital transformation. The importance of digital transformation in the payment industry is very crucial. Because the payment industry considered as a leading industry in the field of digital and emerging technologies, and the digitalization of other industries such as retail, health, and telecommunication, also depends on the growth rate of digitalized payment systems. One of the technological innovations in service management is Field Service Management (FSM). Despite the widespread use of FSM in various industries such as petrochemical, health, maintenance, etc., this technology can also be recruited in the payment industry, transforming the payment industry into a more agile and efficient one. Accordingly, the present study pays close attention to the application of FSM in the payment industry. Given the importance of merchants' bargaining power in the payment industry, this study aims to use FSM in the digital transformation initiative with a targeted focus on providing real-time services to merchants. The research method consists of three parts. Firstly, conducting the review of past research, applications of FSM in the payment industry are considered. In the next step, Merchant's benefits such as emotional, functional, economic, and social benefits in using FSM, are identified using in-depth interviews and content analysis methods. In the following step, the related business model in helping the payment industry to transform into a more agile and efficient industry are considered. The results revealed the ten main pillars are required to realize the digital transformation of payment systems using FSM.

Keywords: Field Service Management, Digital transformation, merchant support systems, payment industry

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135 The Role of Trust in Intention to Use Prescribed and Non-prescribed Connected Devices

Authors: Jean-Michel SAHUT, Wissal Ben Arfi, Lubica Hikkerova

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The Internet of Things (IoT) emerged over the last few decades in many fields. Healthcare can significantly benefit from IoT. This study aims to examine factors influencing the adoption of IoT in eHealth. To do so, an innovative framework has been developed which applies both the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model and builds on them by analyzing trust and perceived-risk dimensions to predict intention to use IoT in eHealth. In terms of methodology, a Partial Least Approach Structural Equation Modelling was carried out on a sample of 267 French users. The findings of this research support the significant positive effect of constructs set out in the TAM (perceived ease of use) on predicting behavioral intention by adding the effects identified for UTAUT variables. This research also demonstrates how perceived risk and trust are significant factors for models examining behavioral intentions to use IoT. Perceived risk enhanced by the trust has a significant effect on patients’ behavioral intentions. Moreover, the results highlight the key role of prescription as a moderator of IoT adoption in eHealth. Depending on whether an individual has a prescription to use connected devices or not, ease of use has a stronger impact on adoption, while trust has a negative impact on adoption for users without a prescription. In accordance with the empirical results, several practical implications can be proposed. All connected devices applied in a medical context should be divided into groups according to their functionality: whether they are essential for the patient’s health and whether they require a prescription or not. Devices used with a prescription are easily accepted because the intention to use them is moderated by the medical trust (discussed above). For users without a prescription, ease of use is a more significant factor than for users who have a prescription. This suggests that currently, connected e-Health devices and online healthcare systems have to take this factor into account to better meet the needs and expectations of end-users.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Healthcare, Trust, Consumer Acceptance

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134 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Design Optimisation of a Triple Exit Volute for High Speed Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Brett Peter Dewar

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The key elements of a whole compressor system are inlet, impeller, diffuser, and volute. It is perhaps the volute that is the least well understood. Early simulation efforts have, justifiably, focused mostly on the impeller. As compressor speeds become higher, increased performance is demanded (particularly with regard to efficiency), and space, where compressors are housed, becomes tighter non-traditional volute designs are being studied. One such design is to have a volute with multiple outlets. Such a design has the potential to decrease the flow path length of individual fluid parcels from inlet to outlet, thus reducing total pressure loss for comparable static pressure rise. These designs also allow for the working fluid to be separated for different applications in the system as a whole, such as to different reservoirs, engine banks, or heat exchangers. These designs do, however, introduce more complicated geometry, particularly the addition of extra volute tongues; this can mitigate any gains in performance if the design is not carefully simulated and optimised. This works details the design, optimisation, and simulation process of a triple exit volute for a high speed air compressor. A detailed explanation of the CFD methodology is given, including boundary conditions and mesh verification. The volute geometry is evaluated in terms of different profile shapes and their hydraulic diameter gradient with regard to circumferential position. Cross section profiles are also allowed to change for each outlet, i.e., the design is not restricted to one volute simply mirrored three times. Objective functions are presented in terms of static pressure rise, total pressure loss, and circumferential velocity component at each cross section and compared against hydraulic diameter as a function of circumferential position. Finally, an analysis of any differences at the three volute tongues is presented.

Keywords: Turbomachinery, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Optimisation, ANSYS

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133 A Regional Analysis on Co-movement of Sovereign Credit Risk and Interbank Risks

Authors: Mehdi Janbaz

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The global financial crisis and the credit crunch that followed magnified the importance of credit risk management and its crucial role in the stability of all financial sectors and the whole of the system. Many believe that risks faced by the sovereign sector are highly interconnected with banking risks and most likely to trigger and reinforce each other. This study aims to examine (1) the impact of banking and interbank risk factors on the sovereign credit risk of Eurozone, and (2) how the EU Credit Default Swaps spreads dynamics are affected by the Crude Oil price fluctuations. The hypothesizes are tested by employing fitting risk measures and through a four-staged linear modeling approach. The sovereign senior 5-year Credit Default Swap spreads are used as a core measure of the credit risk. The monthly time-series data of the variables used in the study are gathered from the DataStream database for a period of 2008-2019. First, a linear model test the impact of regional macroeconomic and market-based factors (STOXX, VSTOXX, Oil, Sovereign Debt, and Slope) on the CDS spreads dynamics. Second, the bank-specific factors, including LIBOR-OIS spread (the difference between the Euro 3-month LIBOR rate and Euro 3-month overnight index swap rates) and Euribor, are added to the most significant factors of the previous model. Third, the global financial factors including EURO to USD Foreign Exchange Volatility, TED spread (the difference between 3-month T-bill and the 3-month LIBOR rate based in US dollars), and Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Crude Oil Volatility Index are added to the major significant factors of the first two models. Finally, a model is generated by a combination of the major factor of each variable set in addition to the crisis dummy. The findings show that (1) the explanatory power of LIBOR-OIS on the sovereign CDS spread of Eurozone is very significant, and (2) there is a meaningful adverse co-movement between the Crude Oil price and CDS price of Eurozone. Surprisingly, adding TED spread (the difference between the three-month Treasury bill and the three-month LIBOR based in US dollars.) to the analysis and beside the LIBOR-OIS spread (the difference between the Euro 3M LIBOR and Euro 3M OIS) in third and fourth models has been increased the predicting power of LIBOR-OIS. Based on the results, LIBOR-OIS, Stoxx, TED spread, Slope, Oil price, OVX, FX volatility, and Euribor are the determinants of CDS spreads dynamics in Eurozone. Moreover, the positive impact of the crisis period on the creditworthiness of the Eurozone is meaningful.

Keywords: crude oil, CDS, TED, interbank risk, LIBOR-OIS, OVX, sovereign credit risk

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132 From Makers to Maker Communities: A Survey on Turkish Makerspaces

Authors: Dogan Can Hatunoglu, Cengiz Hakan Gurkanlı, Hatice Merve Demirci

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Today, the maker movement is regarded as a socio-cultural movement that represents designing and building objects for innovations. In these creativity-based activities of the movement, individuals from different backgrounds such as; inventors, programmers, craftspeople, DIY’ers, tinkerers, engineers, designers, and hackers, form a community and work collaboratively for mutual, open-source innovations. Today, with the accessibility of recently emerged technologies and digital fabrication tools, the Maker Movement is continuously expanding its scope and has evolved into a new experience, and for many, it is now considered as new kind of industrial revolution. In this new experience, makers create new things within their community by using new digital tools and technologies in spots called makerspaces. In these makerspaces, activities of learning, experience sharing, and mentoring are evolved into maker events. Makers who share common interests in making benefit from makerspaces as meeting and working spots. In literature, there are many sources on Maker Movement, maker communities, and their activities, especially in the field of business administration. However, there is a gap in the literature about the maker communities in Turkey. This research aims to be an information source on the dynamics and process design of “making” activities in Turkish maker communities and also aims to provide insights to sustain and enhance local maker communities in the future. Within this aim, semi-structured interviews were conducted with founders and facilitators from selected Turkish maker communities. (1) The perception towards Maker Movement, makers, activity of making, and current situation of maker communities, (2) motivations of individuals who participate the maker communities, and (3) key drivers (collaboration and decision-making in design processes) of maker activities from the perspectives of main actors (founders, facilitators) are all examined deeply with question on personal experiences and perspectives. After a qualitative approached data analysis concerning the maker communities in Turkey, this research reveals that there are two main conclusions regarding (1) the foundation of the Turkish maker mindset and (2) emergence of self-sustaining communities.

Keywords: Sustainability, maker movement, makerspaces, maker community, open-source design

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131 Forecasting Stock Indexes Using Bayesian Additive Regression Tree

Authors: Darren Zou

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Forecasting the stock market is a very challenging task. Various economic indicators such as GDP, exchange rates, interest rates, and unemployment have a substantial impact on the stock market. Time series models are the traditional methods used to predict stock market changes. In this paper, a machine learning method, Bayesian Additive Regression Tree (BART) is used in predicting stock market indexes based on multiple economic indicators. BART can be used to model heterogeneous treatment effects, and thereby works well when models are misspecified. It also has the capability to handle non-linear main effects and multi-way interactions without much input from financial analysts. In this research, BART is proposed to provide a reliable prediction on day-to-day stock market activities. By comparing the analysis results from BART and with time series method, BART can perform well and has better prediction capability than the traditional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian, predict, stock, BART

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130 A Novel Multi-Attribute Green Decision Making Model for Environmental Supply Chain Sustainability

Authors: Amirhossein Mahlouji

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In current business market, the concept of integrating environmental sustainability into long-term as well as routine operations is becoming a prevailing trend. Therefore, several stimuli are helping organization to move toward environmental sustainability. The concept of green supply chain management can help provide a strategic framework to develop a customized sustainability roadmap for each organization. In this regard, this paper is mainly focused on presenting a strategic decision making framework that will assist top level decision-making issues. This decision-making tool is based on literature and practice in the area of environmentally conscious business practices. The goal of this paper will be on the components and parameters of green supply chain management and how they serve as a baseline for the decision framework. Later, the applicability of a multi-input multi-output decision model (MIMO), will be analyzed as the analytical network process, within the green supply chain.

Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental, Green supply chain, Multi-attribute

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129 Innovative Small and Medium Sized Firms: Intangible Investment and Financial Constraints - a Literature Review.

Authors: Eliane Abdo

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Small and medium sized firms “SMEs” play essential role in the countries’ economic development mainly in terms of production, employment and equitable distribution of income. For innovative SMEs, the investment in the human capital and in research and development are crucial to survive in a competitive environment. In this paper we perform a literature review to underline the financing difficulties and constraints which innovative SMEs face while investing in intangible assets: not only when defining amount of the investments but also while choosing its financing methods. Literature review revealed that in order to finance their intangible assets, SMEs rely in first on their internal financing: the availability of internal cash flows can then determine their investment’s decision. Moreover SMEs face difficulties to finance their intangibles by financial debts due to the uncertainty of future cash flow and the absence of physical guarantees; they will therefore go for the issuance of new shares as a second choice, since innovative companies have high opportunity of growth that attract new shareholders.

Keywords: Capital Structure, financial constraints, small and medium sized firms, Intangible investment

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128 Workforce Optimization: Fear Workload Balance and Near-Optimal Task Execution Order

Authors: Alvaro Javier Ortega

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A large number of companies face the challenge of matching highly-skilled professionals to high-end positions by human resource deployment professionals. However, when the professional list and tasks to be matched are larger than a few dozens, this process result is far from optimal and takes a long time to be made. Therefore, an automated assignment algorithm for this workforce management problem is needed. The majority of companies are divided into several sectors or departments, where trained employees with different experience levels deal with a large number of tasks daily. Also, the execution order of all tasks is of mater consequence, due to some of these tasks just can be run it if the result of another task is provided. Thus, a wrong execution order leads to large waiting times between consecutive tasks. The desired goal is, therefore, creating accurate matches and a near-optimal execution order that maximizes the number of tasks performed and minimizes the idle time of the expensive skilled employees. The problem described before can be model as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) as it will be shown in detail through this paper. A large number of MINLP algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Here, genetic algorithm solutions are considered and a comparison between two different mutation approaches is presented. The simulated results considering different complexity levels of assignment decisions show the appropriateness of the proposed model.

Keywords: Workforce, Genetic Algorithm, employees, industry management

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127 Time Series Simulation by Conditional Generative Adversarial Net

Authors: Jie Chen, Rao Fu, Shutian Zeng, Yiping Zhuang, Agus Sudjianto

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Generative Adversarial Net (GAN) has proved to be a powerful machine learning tool in image data analysis and generation. In this paper, we propose to use Conditional Generative Adversarial Net (CGAN) to learn and simulate time series data. The conditions include both categorical and continuous variables with different auxiliary information. Our simulation studies show that CGAN has the capability to learn different types of normal and heavy-tailed distributions, as well as dependent structures of different time series. It also has the capability to generate conditional predictive distributions consistent with training data distributions. We also provide an in-depth discussion on the rationale behind GAN and the neural networks as hierarchical splines to establish a clear connection with existing statistical methods of distribution generation. In practice, CGAN has a wide range of applications in market risk and counterparty risk analysis: it can be applied to learn historical data and generate scenarios for the calculation of Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES), and it can also predict the movement of the market risk factors. We present a real data analysis including a backtesting to demonstrate that CGAN can outperform Historical Simulation (HS), a popular method in market risk analysis to calculate VaR. CGAN can also be applied in economic time series modeling and forecasting. In this regard, we have included an example of hypothetical shock analysis for economic models and the generation of potential CCAR scenarios by CGAN at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Neural Network, Time series, conditional generative adversarial net, market and credit risk management

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126 Earnings Management from Taiwan Gisa Firms

Authors: An-an Chiu, Shaio Yan Huang, Ling-Na Chen, Wei-Hua Lin

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Research has primarily focused on listed companies, less is done regarding small and medium-sized enterprises. Under the authorities' support, Taipei Exchange (TPEx) started Go Incubation Board for Startup and Acceleration Firms (GISA) in January 2014. This platform is designed to help small-sized innovative companies grow and to enter the capital market in the future. This research yield insight into earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEO) based on Taiwan’s GISA firms and the effectiveness of external corporate governance. Data for the study come from the GISA Market Observation Post System from January 2014 to December 2016. The result finds that GISA firms prone to upward accrual-based earnings management during SEO to avoid long-term negative consequences. Especially, firms with paid-in capital more than NT$ 30 million, higher fundraising amounts, or smaller-sized firms, tend to increase discretionary accruals. Finally, consistent with prior literature, CPA firms effectively serve as the role of external corporate governances on mitigating earnings management.

Keywords: Earnings Management, CPA, GISA, seasoned equity offerings

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125 The Truism of the True and Fair View of Auditor’s Report

Authors: Ofuan James Ilaboya, Okhae J. Ibhadode

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The objective of this paper is to theoretically examine the truism of the “true and fair view” in the context of financial reporting. The paper examines the concepts such as true, fair, true and fair view, problems of true and fair view, the origin/history of true and fair view, review of attributes and key issues relating to true and fair view. The methodological approach adopted in this paper is library-based research, focusing on the review of relevant and related extant literature. The findings based on the review of relevant and related literature is suggestive of the fact that the true and fair concept in financial reporting environment is contentious. The study concludes that given the circumstances as chronicled on this paper, it is evident that the truism of the true and fair view of the auditor’s opinion is under serious threat. The way forward may be for the auditor to certify the accuracy and the correctness of the financial statement. While this position being canvassed here may help to substantially bridge the age-long expectation gap, it may as well require an upward review of the current audit fee structure in order to be able to operationalize the onerous task of certifying the accuracy and correctness of the financial statement. This position is contentious and will require a robust consideration which is not within the purview of the present review.

Keywords: Financial Statement, fiduciary duty, true and correct, true and fair

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124 Design and Validation of Different Steering Geometries for an All-Terrain Vehicle

Authors: Prabhsharan Singh, Rahul Sindhu, Piyush Sikka

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The steering system is an integral part and medium through which the driver communicates with the vehicle and terrain, hence the most suitable steering geometry as per requirements must be chosen. The function of the chosen steering geometry of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is to provide the desired understeer gradient, minimum tire slippage, expected weight transfer during turning as these are requirements for a good steering geometry of a BAJA ATV. This research paper focuses on choosing the best suitable steering geometry for BAJA ATV tracks by reasoning the working principle and using fundamental trigonometric functions for obtaining these geometries on the same vehicle itself, namely Ackermann, Anti- Ackermann, Parallel Ackermann. Full vehicle analysis was carried out on Adams Car Analysis software, and graphical results were obtained for various parameters. Steering geometries were achieved by using a single versatile knuckle for frontward and rearward tie-rod placement and were practically tested with the help of data acquisition systems set up on the ATV. Each was having certain characteristics, setup, and parameters were observed for the BAJA ATV, and correlations were created between analytical and practical values.

Keywords: All-Terrain Vehicle, traction, steering system, steering geometry, Ackermann, Adams car, Baja Sae, tire slip, understeer gradient

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123 Determination of Optimum Parameters for Thermal Stress Distribution in Composite Plate Containing a Triangular Cutout by Optimization Method

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Bayati Chaleshtari, Hadi Khoramishad

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Minimizing the stress concentration around triangular cutout in infinite perforated plates subjected to a uniform heat flux induces thermal stresses is an important consideration in engineering design. Furthermore, understanding the effective parameters on stress concentration and proper selection of these parameters enables the designer to achieve a reliable design. In the analysis of thermal stress, the effective parameters on stress distribution around cutout include fiber angle, flux angle, bluntness and rotation angle of the cutout for orthotropic materials. This paper was tried to examine effect of these parameters on thermal stress analysis of infinite perforated plates with central triangular cutout. In order to achieve the least amount of thermal stress around a triangular cutout using a novel swarm intelligence optimization technique called dragonfly optimizer that inspired by the life method and hunting behavior of dragonfly in nature. In this study, using the two-dimensional thermoelastic theory and based on the Likhnitskiiʼ complex variable technique, the stress analysis of orthotropic infinite plate with a circular cutout under a uniform heat flux was developed to the plate containing a quasi-triangular cutout in thermal steady state condition. To achieve this goal, a conformal mapping function was used to map an infinite plate containing a quasi- triangular cutout into the outside of a unit circle. The plate is under uniform heat flux at infinity and Neumann boundary conditions and thermal-insulated condition at the edge of the cutout were considered.

Keywords: Thermal Stress, optimization method, infinite perforated plate, complex variable method

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122 The Role of Recruitment and Selection in Financial Performance of Enterprises in Kosovo

Authors: Arta Jashari, Enver Kutllovci

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Abstract— The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of recruitment and selection practice and performance in medium service enterprises in Kosovo. A total of 110 managers from public and private sector was analyzed. Our empirical results show that enterprises in Kosovo use recruitment and selection practice and they know how important is to have the right people with skills and knowledge accordingly with the job requirements. The outcome of Pearson correlation analysis provides evidence that recruitment and selection practice, positively and significantly influence the financial performance. Also, our results show a significant relationship between the education of managers and the use of the recruitment and selection practice. From our results we can conclude and suggest that with a good recruiting and selection, the organization will fill with a group of potentially qualified candidates who will be able to fulfill the enterprises objective.

Keywords: Human Resource, Performance, Recruitment and selection, Kosovo

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121 Financial Literacy and Stock Market Participation: Does Gender Matter?

Authors: Irfan Ullah Munir, Shen Yue, Muhammad Shahzad Ijaz, Saad Hussain, Syeda Yumna Zaidi

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Financial literacy is fundamental to every decision-making process and has received attention from researchers, regulatory bodies and policy makers in the recent past. This study is an attempt to evaluate financial literacy in an emerging economy, particularly Pakistan, and its influence on people's stock market participation. Data of this study was collected through a structured questionnaire from a sample of 300 respondents. EFA is used to check the convergent and discriminant validity. Data is analyzed using Hayes (2013) approach. A set of demographic control variables that have passed the mean difference test is used. We demonstrate that participants with financial literacy tend to invest more in the stock market. We also find that association among financial literacy and participation in stock market gets moderated by gender.

Keywords: Gender, Financial Literacy, Stock market participation, PSX

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120 Action Research into including Sustainability in [Lean] Product Development: Cases from the European Space Sector

Authors: Rob Dekkers, JoãO Paulo Estevam De Souza

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Particularly for the space sector the inclusion of sustainability in product development poses considerable challenges for practitioners. Outcomes of action research at two companies in this sector demonstrate how this contemporary theme could be included in methods for product and process development; this was supported by wider focus groups involving more companies. The working together with practitioners brought to the fore that holistic product life-cycle thinking needs further development, especially when firms are suppliers to original equipment manufacturers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the social aspect of the triple-bottom-line causes remains elusive for companies; to this purpose, some pathways based on the action research and focus groups are proposed.

Keywords: Aerospace, Product Development, Sustainability, Product Life-Cycle, action research, triple bottom-line

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119 Lean Product Development and Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Rob Dekkers, JoãO P. E. De Souza

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Whereas lean product development aims at maximising customer value whilst optimising product and process design, the question arises whether this approach includes sustainability. A systematic literature review reveals that methods associated with this conceptualisation of product development are suitable for including sustainability, but that the criteria for the triple-bottom line need to be included when using these methods; this is particularly the case for social aspects. Thus, the main finding is that not new methods should be developed, but that existing methods should be more inclusive towards all aspects of sustainability and product life-cycle thinking.

Keywords: Sustainability, systematic literature review, Product Life-Cycle, lean product development, triple bottom-line

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118 Public Financial Management in Ghana: A Move beyond Reforms to Consolidation and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai

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Ghana’s Public Financial Management reforms have been going on for some two decades now (1997/98 to 2017/18). Given this long period of reforms, Ghana in 2019 is putting together both a Public Financial Management (PFM) strategy and a Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) strategy for the next 5-years (2020-2024). The primary aim of these dual strategies is assisting the country in moving beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability. In this paper we, first, examined the evolution of Ghana’s PFM reforms. We, secondly, reviewed the legal and institutional reforms undertaken to strengthen the country’s key PFM institutions. Thirdly, we summarized the strengths and weaknesses identified by the 2018 Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment of Ghana’s PFM system relating to its macro-fiscal framework, budget preparation and approval, budget execution, accounting and fiscal reporting as well as external scrutiny and audit. We, finally, considered what the country should be doing to achieve its intended goal of PFM consolidation and sustainability. Using a qualitative method of review and analysis of existing documents, we, through this paper, brought to the fore the lessons that could be learnt by other developing countries from Ghana’s PFM reforms experiences. These lessons included the need to: (a) undergird any PFM reform with a comprehensive PFM reform strategy; (b) undertake a legal and institutional reforms of the key PFM institutions; (c) assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms using PFM performance evaluation tools such as PEFA framework; and (d) move beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, consolidation, reforms, public financial management, public expenditure and financial accountability

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117 Lexicon-Based Sentiment Analysis for Stock Movement Prediction

Authors: Zane Turner, Kevin Labille, Susan Gauch

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Sentiment analysis is a broad and expanding field that aims to extract and classify opinions from textual data. Lexicon-based approaches are based on the use of a sentiment lexicon, i.e., a list of words each mapped to a sentiment score, to rate the sentiment of a text chunk. Our work focuses on predicting stock price change using a sentiment lexicon built from financial conference call logs. We introduce a method to generate a sentiment lexicon based upon an existing probabilistic approach. By using a domain-specific lexicon, we outperform traditional techniques and demonstrate that domain-specific sentiment lexicons provide higher accuracy than generic sentiment lexicons when predicting stock price change.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, Computational Finance, sentiment lexicon, stock movement prediction

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116 Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention

Authors: Alexander Glebovskiy

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Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Fraud Prevention, criminogenesis, fraud triangle

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115 The Conduct of Laundering Money through Transport of Cash in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Authors: Haytham Yassine

Abstract:

This article mainly aims to detect and understand how money laundering activities are executed by transport of cash, identifying the underlying factors and separating legitimate from illegitimate usage of cash and how it is being used. This research provides academics with additional literature and provides bank supervisors and practitioners with a better understanding of sources and uses of cash in criminal activities and how cash is used in the laundering mechanism. Data are gathered through survey in the Middle East and North Africa region and review of the available research. The results of the analysis will help distinguish the factors affecting preference for cash rather other payment instruments in the region, identify what causes the tendency to launder illegal proceeds through cash transportation and how illegal cash is being laundered and moved. On the other hand, this paper sheds the light on major cash generating criminal activities, its sources and main destinations.

Keywords: Money Laundering, cash, terrorism financing, illegitimate activities

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114 A Machine Learning Decision Support Framework for Industrial Engineering Purposes

Authors: Anli Du Preez, James Bekker

Abstract:

Data is currently one of the most critical and influential emerging technologies. However, the true potential of data is yet to be exploited since, currently, about 1% of generated data are ever actually analyzed for value creation. There is a data gap where data is not explored due to the lack of data analytics infrastructure and the required data analytics skills. This study developed a decision support framework for data analytics by following Jabareen’s framework development methodology. The study focused on machine learning algorithms, which is a subset of data analytics. The developed framework is designed to assist data analysts with little experience, in choosing the appropriate machine learning algorithm given the purpose of their application.

Keywords: Industrial Engineering, Machine Learning, Data Analytics, Value Creation

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113 Feasibility Study of Measurement of Turning Based-Surfaces Using Perthometer, Optical Profiler and Confocal Sensor

Authors: Khavieya Anandhan, Soundarapandian Santhanakrishnan, Vijayaraghavan Laxmanan

Abstract:

In general, measurement of surfaces is carried out by using traditional methods such as contact type stylus instruments. This prevalent approach is challenged by using non-contact instruments such as optical profiler, co-ordinate measuring machine, laser triangulation sensors, machine vision system, etc. Recently, confocal sensor is trying to be used in the surface metrology field. This sensor, such as a confocal sensor, is explored in this study to determine the surface roughness value for various turned surfaces. Turning is a crucial machining process to manufacture products such as grooves, tapered domes, threads, tapers, etc. The roughness value of turned surfaces are in the range of range 0.4-12.5 µm, were taken for analysis. Three instruments were used, namely, perthometer, optical profiler, and confocal sensor. Among these, in fact, a confocal sensor is least explored, despite its good resolution about 5 nm. Thus, such a high-precision sensor was used in this study to explore the possibility of measuring turned surfaces. Further, using this data, measurement uncertainty was also studied.

Keywords: surface roughness, confocal sensor, optical profiler, turned surfaces

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112 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov

Abstract:

We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: Biochar, fluidized bed, fixed bed, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction

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111 Tapping into Debt: The Effect of Contactless Payment Methods on Overdraft Fee Occurrence

Authors: Merle Van Den Akker, Neil Stewart, Andrea Isoni

Abstract:

Contactless methods of payment referred to as tap&go, have become increasingly popular globally. However, little is known about the consequences of this payment method on spending, spending habits, personal finance management, and debt accumulation. The literature on other payment methods such as credit cards suggests that, through increased ease and reduced friction, the pain of paying in these methods is reduced, leading to higher and more frequent spending, resulting in higher debt accumulation. Within this research, we use a dataset of 300 million transactions of 165.000 individuals to see whether the onset of using contactless methods of payment increases the occurrence of overdraft fees. Using the R package MatchIt, we find, when matching people on initial overdraft occurrence and salary, that people who do start using contactless incur a significantly higher number of overdraft fees, as compared to those who do not start using contactless in the same year. Having accounted for income, opting-in, and time-of-year effects, these results show that contactless methods of payment fall within the scope of earlier theories on credit cards, such as the pain of paying, meaning that this payment method leads to increasing difficulties managing personal finance.

Keywords: spending, contactless, debt accumulation, overdraft fees, payment methods

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110 [Keynote Talk]: Knowledge Codification and Innovation Success within Digital Platforms

Authors: Jean-Michel SAHUT, Wissal Ben Arfi, Lubica Hikkerova

Abstract:

This study examines interfirm networks in the digital transformation era, and in particular, how tacit knowledge codification affects innovation success within digital platforms. Hence, one of the most important features of digital transformation and innovation process outcomes is the emergence of digital platforms, as an interfirm network, at the heart of open innovation. This research aims to illuminate how digital platforms influence inter-organizational innovation through virtual team interactions and knowledge sharing practices within an interfirm network. Consequently, it contributes to the respective strategic management literature on new product development (NPD), open innovation, industrial management, and its emerging interfirm networks’ management. The empirical findings show, on the one hand, that knowledge conversion may be enhanced, especially by the socialization which seems to be the most important phase as it has played a crucial role to hold the virtual team members together. On the other hand, in the process of socialization, the tacit knowledge codification is crucial because it provides the structure needed for the interfirm network actors to interact and act to reach common goals which favor the emergence of open innovation. Finally, our results offer several conditions necessary, but not always sufficient, for interfirm managers involved in NPD and innovation concerning strategies to increasingly shape interconnected and borderless markets and business collaborations. In the digital transformation era, the need for adaptive and innovative business models as well as new and flexible network forms is becoming more significant than ever. Supported by technological advancements and digital platforms, companies could benefit from increased market opportunities and creating new markets for their innovations through alliances and collaborative strategies, as a mode of reducing or eliminating uncertainty environments or entry barriers. Consequently, an efficient and well-structured interfirm network is essential to create network capabilities, to ensure tacit knowledge sharing, to enhance organizational learning and to foster open innovation success within digital platforms.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, open innovation, digital platform, interfirm networks, virtual teams

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