Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

mathematical model Related Abstracts

49 Software Reliability Prediction Model Analysis

Authors: Lela Mirtskhulava, Mariam Khunjgurua, Nino Lomineishvili, Koba Bakuria


Software reliability prediction gives a great opportunity to measure the software failure rate at any point throughout system test. A software reliability prediction model provides with the technique for improving reliability. Software reliability is very important factor for estimating overall system reliability, which depends on the individual component reliabilities. It differs from hardware reliability in that it reflects the design perfection. Main reason of software reliability problems is high complexity of software. Various approaches can be used to improve the reliability of software. We focus on software reliability model in this article, assuming that there is a time redundancy, the value of which (the number of repeated transmission of basic blocks) can be an optimization parameter. We consider given mathematical model in the assumption that in the system may occur not only irreversible failures, but also a failure that can be taken as self-repairing failures that significantly affect the reliability and accuracy of information transfer. Main task of the given paper is to find a time distribution function (DF) of instructions sequence transmission, which consists of random number of basic blocks. We consider the system software unreliable; the time between adjacent failures has exponential distribution.

Keywords: Software reliability, exponential distribution, conditional mean time to failure, distribution function, mathematical model

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48 A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics

Authors: J. P. Chollom, T. G. Kassem, A. K. Adunchezor


This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Vaccination, mathematical model, hepatitis B virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
47 Mathematical Modelling of Different Types of Body Support Surface for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Authors: Mahbub C. Mishu, Tamas Hickish, Jonathan Cole, Venktesh N. Dubey


Pressure ulcer is a common problem for today's healthcare industry. It occurs due to external load applied to the skin. Also when the subject is immobile for a longer period of time and there is continuous load applied to a particular area of human body,blood flow gets reduced and as a result pressure ulcer develops. Body support surface has a significant role in preventing ulceration so it is important to know the characteristics of support surface under loading conditions. In this paper we have presented mathematical models of different types of viscoelastic materials and also we have shown the validation of our simulation results with experiments.

Keywords: experimental validation, Pressure Ulcer, mathematical model, viscoelastic material

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46 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin


In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Green Manufacturing, Green supply chain, Green Design, mathematical model

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45 On the Mathematical Modelling of Aggregative Stability of Disperse Systems

Authors: Arnold M. Brener, Lesbek Tashimov, Ablakim S. Muratov


The paper deals with the special model for coagulation kernels which represents new control parameters in the Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation. On the base of the model the new approach to evaluating aggregative stability of disperse systems has been submitted. With the help of this approach the simple estimates for aggregative stability of various types of hydrophilic nano-suspensions have been obtained.

Keywords: mathematical model, aggregative stability, coagulation kernels, disperse systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
44 Solar Energy Applications in Seawater Distillation

Authors: Yousef Abdulaziz Almolhem


Geographically, the most Arabic countries locate in areas confined to arid or semiarid regions. For this reason, most of our countries have adopted the seawater desalination as a strategy to overcome this problem. For example, the water supply of AUE, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia is almost 100% from the seawater desalination plants. Many areas in Saudia Arabia and other countries in the world suffer from lack of fresh water which hinders the development of these areas, despite the availability of saline water and high solar radiation intensity. Furthermore, most developing countries do not have sufficient meteorological data to evaluate if the solar radiation is enough to meet the solar desalination. A mathematical model was developed to simulate and predict the thermal behavior of the solar still which used direct solar energy for distillation of seawater. Measurement data were measured in the Environment and Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agricultural and Food sciences, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, in order to evaluate the present model. The simulation results obtained from this model were compared with the measured data. The main results of this research showed that there are slight differences between the measured and predicted values of the elements studied, which is resultant from the change of some factors considered constants in the model such as the sky clearance, wind velocity and the salt concentration in the water in the basin of the solar still. It can be concluded that the present model can be used to estimate the average total solar radiation and the thermal behavior of the solar still in any area with consideration to the geographical location.

Keywords: Distillation, Solar Radiation, mathematical model, sea water

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43 OmniDrive Model of a Holonomic Mobile Robot

Authors: Hussein Altartouri


In this paper the kinematic and kinetic models of an omnidirectional holonomic mobile robot is presented. The kinematic and kinetic models form the OmniDrive model. Therefore, a mathematical model for the robot equipped with three- omnidirectional wheels is derived. This model which takes into consideration the kinematics and kinetics of the robot, is developed to state space representation. Relative analysis of the velocities and displacements is used for the kinematics of the robot. Lagrange’s approach is considered in this study for deriving the equation of motion. The drive train and the mechanical assembly only of the Festo Robotino® is considered in this model. Mainly the model is developed for motion control. Furthermore, the model can be used for simulation purposes in different virtual environments not only Robotino® View. Further use of the model is in the mechatronics research fields with the aim of teaching and learning the advanced control theories.

Keywords: Mobile robot, mathematical model, omni-direction wheel, holonomic mobile robot

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42 Non-Linear Control in Positioning of PMLSM by Estimates of the Load Force by MRAS Method

Authors: Maamar Yahiaoui, Abdelrrahmene Kechich, Ismail Elkhallile Bousserhene


This article presents a study in simulation by means of MATLAB/Simulink software of the nonlinear control in positioning of a linear synchronous machine with the esteemed force of load, to have effective control in the estimator in all tests the wished trajectory follows and the disturbance of load start. The results of simulation prove clearly that the control proposed can detect the reference of positioning the value estimates of load force equal to the actual value.

Keywords: Control, MATLAB, Force, mathematical model, current, PMLSM, linearization, estimator, load

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41 Mathematical Modeling of Skin Condensers for Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: Nitin Ghule, S. G. Taji


A mathematical model of hot-wall condensers used in refrigerators is presented. The model predicts the heat transfer characteristics of condenser and the effects of various design and operating parameters on condenser tube length and capacity. A finite element approach was used to model the condenser. The condenser tube is divided into elemental units, with each element consisting of adhesive tape, refrigerant tube and outer metal sheet. The heat transfer characteristics of each section are then analyzed by considering the heat transfer through the tube wall, tape and the outer sheet. Variations in inner heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are considered depending on temperature, fluid phase, type of flow and orientation of tube. Variation in outer heat transfer coefficient is also taken into account. Various materials were analysed for the tube, tape and outer sheet.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, mathematical model, condenser, domestic refrigerator

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40 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang, Ankur Gill


In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

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39 Switched Uses of a Bidirectional Microphone as a Microphone and Sensors with High Gain and Wide Frequency Range

Authors: Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Kaburagi, Toru Shionoya


Mass-produced bidirectional microphones have attractive characteristics. They work as a microphone as well as a sensor with high gain over a wide frequency range; they are also highly reliable and economical. We present novel multiple functional uses of the microphones. A mathematical model for explaining the high-pass-filtering characteristics of bidirectional microphones was presented. Based on the model, the characteristics of the microphone were investigated, and a novel use for the microphone as a sensor with a wide frequency range was presented. In this study, applications for using the microphone as a security sensor and a human biosensor were introduced. The mathematical model was validated through experiments, and the feasibility of the abovementioned applications for security monitoring and the biosignal monitoring were examined through experiments.

Keywords: Frequency Response, mathematical model, bidirectional microphone, low-frequency

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38 Evaluation of Low-Reducible Sinter in Blast Furnace Technology by Mathematical Model Developed at Centre ENET, VSB: Technical University of Ostrava

Authors: S. Jursová, P. Pustějovská, S. Brožová, J. Bilík


The paper deals with possibilities of interpretation of iron ore reducibility tests. It presents a mathematical model developed at Centre ENET, VŠB–Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic for an evaluation of metallurgical material of blast furnace feedstock such as iron ore, sinter or pellets. According to the data from the test, the model predicts its usage in blast furnace technology and its effects on production parameters of shaft aggregate. At the beginning, the paper sums up the general concept and experience in mathematical modelling of iron ore reduction. It presents basic equation for the calculation and the main parts of the developed model. In the experimental part, there is an example of usage of the mathematical model. The paper describes the usage of data for some predictive calculation. There are presented material, method of carried test of iron ore reducibility. Then there are graphically interpreted effects of used material on carbon consumption, rate of direct reduction and the whole reduction process.

Keywords: mathematical model, blast furnace technology, iron ore reduction, prediction of iron ore reduction

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37 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md. Noorani


A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron-Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift AZ, x is in M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, we find a new method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: Theory, Entropy, mathematical model, Motzkin shift

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36 The Effects of a Thin Liquid Layer on the Hydrodynamic Machine Rotor

Authors: František Pochylý, Jaroslav Krutil, Simona Fialová, Vladimír Habán


A mathematical model of the additional effects of the liquid in the hydrodynamic gap is presented in the paper. An in-compressible viscous fluid is considered. Based on computational modeling are determined the matrices of mass, stiffness and damping. The mathematical model is experimentally verified.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, mathematical model, hydrodynamic gap, matrices of mass, stiffness and damping

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35 Use of Transportation Networks to Optimize The Profit Dynamics of the Product Distribution

Authors: S. Jayasinghe, R. B. N. Dissanayake


Optimization modelling together with the Network models and Linear Programming techniques is a powerful tool in problem solving and decision making in real world applications. This study developed a mathematical model to optimize the net profit by minimizing the transportation cost. This model focuses the transportation among decentralized production plants to a centralized distribution centre and then the distribution among island wide agencies considering the customer satisfaction as a requirement. This company produces basically 9 types of food items with 82 different varieties and 4 types of non-food items with 34 different varieties. Among 6 production plants, 4 were located near the city of Mawanella and the other 2 were located in Galewala and Anuradhapura cities which are 80 km and 150 km away from Mawanella respectively. The warehouse located in the Mawanella was the main production plant and also the only distribution plant. This plant distributes manufactured products to 39 agencies island-wide. The average values and average amount of the goods for 6 consecutive months from May 2013 to October 2013 were collected and then average demand values were calculated. The following constraints are used as the necessary requirement to satisfy the optimum condition of the model; there was one source, 39 destinations and supply and demand for all the agencies are equal. Using transport cost for a kilometer, total transport cost was calculated. Then the model was formulated using distance and flow of the distribution. Network optimization and linear programming techniques were used to originate the model while excel solver is used in solving. Results showed that company requires total transport cost of Rs. 146, 943, 034.50 to fulfil the customers’ requirement for a month. This is very much less when compared with data without using the model. Model also proved that company can reduce their transportation cost by 6% when distributing to island-wide customers. Company generally satisfies their customers’ requirements by 85%. This satisfaction can be increased up to 97% by using this model. Therefore this model can be used by other similar companies in order to reduce the transportation cost.

Keywords: Network Optimization, Linear Programming, mathematical model

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34 The Influence of the Diameter of the Flow Conducts on the Rheological Behavior of a Non-Newtonian Fluid

Authors: Hacina Abchiche, Mounir Mellal, Imene Bouchelkia


The knowledge of the rheological behavior of the used products in different fields is essential, both in digital simulation and the understanding of phenomenon involved during the flow of these products. The fluids presenting a nonlinear behavior represent an important category of materials used in the process of food-processing, chemical, pharmaceutical and oil industries. The issue is that the rheological characterization by classical rheometer cannot simulate, or take into consideration, the different parameters affecting the characterization of a complex fluid flow during real-time. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the diameter of the flow conducts or pipe on the rheological behavior of a non-Newtonian fluid and Propose a mathematical model linking the rheologic parameters and the diameter of the conduits of flow. For this purpose, we have developed an experimental system based on the principal of a capillary rheometer.

Keywords: mathematical model, non-Newtonian fluids, rhéologie, experimental stady, cylindrical conducts

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33 Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan

Authors: Javaid Iqbal, Akhtar Nawaz Malik, Aqeela Mir


The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.

Keywords: mathematical model, mechatronics society survey, future development trend of mechatronics in pakistan, probability estimation

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32 The Role of Speed Reduction Model in Urban Highways Tunnels Accidents

Authors: Khashayar Kazemzadeh, Mohammad Hanif Dasoomi


According to the increasing travel demand in cities, bridges and tunnels are viewed as one of the fundamental components of cities transportation systems. Normally, due to geometric constraints forms in the tunnels, the considered speed in the tunnels is lower than the speed in connected highways. Therefore, drivers tend to reduce the speed near the entrance of the tunnels. In this paper, the effect of speed reduction on accident happened in the entrance of the tunnels has been discussed. The relation between accidents frequency and the parameters of speed, traffic volume and time of the accident in the mentioned tunnel has been analyzed and the mathematical model has been proposed.

Keywords: Tunnel, mathematical model, accident, urban highway

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31 Evaluation of Solid-Gas Separation Efficiency in Natural Gas Cyclones

Authors: A. Ahmadi, W. I. Mazyan, M. Hoorfar


Objectives/Scope: This paper proposes a mathematical model for calculating the solid-gas separation efficiency in cyclones. This model provides better agreement with experimental results compared to existing mathematical models. Methods: The separation ratio efficiency, ϵsp, is evaluated by calculating the outlet to inlet count ratio. Similar to mathematical derivations in the literature, the inlet and outlet particle count were evaluated based on Eulerian approach. The model also includes the external forces acting on the particle (i.e., centrifugal and drag forces). In addition, the proposed model evaluates the exact length that the particle travels inside the cyclone for the evaluation of number of turns inside the cyclone. The separation efficiency model derivation using Stoke’s law considers the effect of the inlet tangential velocity on the separation performance. In cyclones, the inlet velocity is a very important factor in determining the performance of the cyclone separation. Therefore, the proposed model provides accurate estimation of actual cyclone separation efficiency. Results/Observations/Conclusion: The separation ratio efficiency, ϵsp, is studied to evaluate the performance of the cyclone for particles ranging from 1 microns to 10 microns. The proposed model is compared with the results in the literature. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model indicates an error of 7% between its efficiency and the efficiency obtained from the experimental results for 1 micron particles. At the same time, the proposed model gives the user the flexibility to analyze the separation efficiency at different inlet velocities. Additive Information: The proposed model determines the separation efficiency accurately and could also be used to optimize the separation efficiency of cyclones at low cost through trial and error testing, through dimensional changes to enhance separation and through increasing the particle centrifugal forces. Ultimately, the proposed model provides a powerful tool to optimize and enhance existing cyclones at low cost.

Keywords: mathematical model, cyclone efficiency, solid-gas separation, models error comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
30 Assessment of Landfill Pollution Load on Hydroecosystem by Use of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation Data in Fish

Authors: Gintarė Sauliutė, Gintaras Svecevičius


Landfill leachates contain a number of persistent pollutants, including heavy metals. They have the ability to spread in ecosystems and accumulate in fish which most of them are classified as top-consumers of trophic chains. Fish are freely swimming organisms; but perhaps, due to their species-specific ecological and behavioral properties, they often prefer the most suitable biotopes and therefore, did not avoid harmful substances or environments. That is why it is necessary to evaluate the persistent pollutant dispersion in hydroecosystem using fish tissue metal concentration. In hydroecosystems of hybrid type (e.g. river-pond-river) the distance from the pollution source could be a perfect indicator of such a kind of metal distribution. The studies were carried out in the Kairiai landfill neighboring hybrid-type ecosystem which is located 5 km east of the Šiauliai City. Fish tissue (gills, liver, and muscle) metal concentration measurements were performed on two types of ecologically-different fishes according to their feeding characteristics: benthophagous (Gibel carp, roach) and predatory (Northern pike, perch). A number of mathematical models (linear, non-linear, using log and other transformations) have been applied in order to identify the most satisfactorily description of the interdependence between fish tissue metal concentration and the distance from the pollution source. However, the only one log-multiple regression model revealed the pattern that the distance from the pollution source is closely and positively correlated with metal concentration in all predatory fish tissues studied (gills, liver, and muscle).

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Landfill Leachate, mathematical model, bioaccumulation in fish, hydroecosystem

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29 Evaluation of the Beach Erosion Process in Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba: Effects of Different Hurricane Trajectories

Authors: Jr., Ana Gabriela Diaz, Luis Fermín Córdova, Roberto Lamazares


The island of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles, is located in the tropical North Atlantic. It is annually affected by numerous weather events, which have caused severe damage to our coastal areas. In the same way that many other coastlines around the world, the beautiful beaches of the Hicacos Peninsula also suffer from erosion. This leads to a structural regression of the coastline. If measures are not taken, the hotels will be exposed to the advance of the sea, and it will be a serious problem for the economy. With the aim of studying the intensity of this type of activity, specialists of group of coastal and marine engineering from CIH, in the framework of the research conducted within the project MEGACOSTAS 2, provide their research to simulate extreme events and assess their impact in coastal areas, mainly regarding the definition of flood volumes and morphodynamic changes in sandy beaches. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of the process of Varadero beach erosion (the coastal sector has an important impact in the country's economy) on the Hicacos Peninsula for different paths of hurricanes. The mathematical model XBeach, which was integrated into the Coastal engineering system introduced by the project of MEGACOSTA 2 to determine the area and the more critical profiles for the path of hurricanes under study, was applied. The results of this project have shown that Center area is the greatest dynamic area in the simulation of the three paths of hurricanes under study, showing high erosion volumes and the greatest average length of regression of the coastline, from 15- 22 m.

Keywords: erosion, mathematical model, coastal areas, beach

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28 Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass Cylindrical Shell with Hinged Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ebru Dural, M. Zulfu Asık


Laminated glass is a kind of safety glass, which is made by 'sandwiching' two glass sheets and a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer in between them. When the glass is broken, the interlayer in between the glass sheets can stick them together. Because of this property, the hazards of sharp projectiles during natural and man-made disasters reduces. They can be widely applied in building, architecture, automotive, transport industries. Laminated glass can easily undergo large displacements even under their own weight. In order to explain their true behavior, they should be analyzed by using large deflection theory to represent nonlinear behavior. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is developed for the analysis of laminated glass cylindrical shell which is free in radial directions and restrained in axial directions. The results will be verified by using the results of the experiment, carried out on laminated glass cylindrical shells. The behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shell can be represented by five partial differential equations. Four of the five equations are used to represent axial displacements and radial displacements and the fifth one for the transverse deflection of the unit. Governing partial differential equations are derived by employing variational principles and minimum potential energy concept. Finite difference method is employed to solve the coupled differential equations. First, they are converted into a system of matrix equations and then iterative procedure is employed. Iterative procedure is necessary since equations are coupled. Problems occurred in getting convergent sequence generated by the employed procedure are overcome by employing variable underrelaxation factor. The procedure developed to solve the differential equations provides not only less storage but also less calculation time, which is a substantial advantage in computational mechanics problems.

Keywords: Nonlinear Behavior, mathematical model, laminated glass, PVB

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27 Mathematical Models for Drug Diffusion Through the Compartments of Blood and Tissue Medium

Authors: M. A. Khanday, Aasma Rafiq, Khalid Nazir


This paper is an attempt to establish the mathematical models to understand the distribution of drug administration in the human body through oral and intravenous routes. Three models were formulated based on diffusion process using Fick’s principle and the law of mass action. The rate constants governing the law of mass action were used on the basis of the drug efficacy at different interfaces. The Laplace transform and eigenvalue methods were used to obtain the solution of the ordinary differential equations concerning the rate of change of concentration in different compartments viz. blood and tissue medium. The drug concentration in the different compartments has been computed using numerical parameters. The results illustrate the variation of drug concentration with respect to time using MATLAB software. It has been observed from the results that the drug concentration decreases in the first compartment and gradually increases in other subsequent compartments.

Keywords: mathematical model, diffusion, Laplace transform, eigenvalue method

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
26 Modelling Phytoremediation Rates of Aquatic Macrophytes in Aquaculture Effluent

Authors: A. O. Ogunlela, E. A. Kiridi


Pollutants from aquacultural practices constitute environmental problems and phytoremediation could offer cheaper environmentally sustainable alternative since equipment using advanced treatment for fish tank effluent is expensive to import, install, operate and maintain, especially in developing countries. The main objective of this research was, therefore, to develop a mathematical model for phytoremediation by aquatic plants in aquaculture wastewater. Other objectives were to evaluate the retention times on phytoremediation rates using the model and to measure the nutrient level of the aquaculture effluent and phytoremediation rates of three aquatic macrophytes, namely; water hyacinth (Eichornia crassippes), water lettuce (Pistial stratoites) and morning glory (Ipomea asarifolia). A completely randomized experimental design was used in the study. Approximately 100 g of each macrophyte were introduced into the hydroponic units and phytoremediation indices monitored at 8 different intervals from the first to the 28th day. The water quality parameters measured were pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Others were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH₄⁺ -N), nitrite- nitrogen (NO₂⁻ -N), nitrate- nitrogen (NO₃⁻ -N), phosphate –phosphorus (PO₄³⁻ -P), and biomass value. The biomass produced by water hyacinth was 438.2 g, 600.7 g, 688.2 g and 725.7 g at four 7–day intervals. The corresponding values for water lettuce were 361.2 g, 498.7 g, 561.2 g and 623.7 g and for morning glory were 417.0 g, 567.0 g, 642.0 g and 679.5g. Coefficient of determination was greater than 80% for EC, TDS, NO₂⁻ -N, NO₃⁻ -N and 70% for NH₄⁺ -N using any of the macrophytes and the predicted values were within the 95% confidence interval of measured values. Therefore, the model is valuable in the design and operation of phytoremediation systems for aquaculture effluent.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, mathematical model, macrophytes, aquaculture effluent

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25 A Traceability Index for Food

Authors: Hari Pulapaka


This paper defines and develops the notion of a traceability index for food and may be used by any consumer (restaurant, distributor, average consumer etc.). The concept is then extended to a region's food system as a way to measure how well a regional food system utilizes its own bounty or at least, is connected to its food sources. With increasing emphases on the sustainability of aspects of regional and ultimately, the global food system, it is reasonable to accept that if we know how close (in relative terms) an end-user of a set of ingredients (as they traverse through the maze of supply chains) is from the sources, we may be better equipped to evaluate the quality of the set as measured by any number of qualitative and quantitative criteria. We propose a mathematical model which may be adapted to a number of contexts and sizes. Two hypothetical cases of different scope are presented which highlight how the model works as an evaluator of steps between an end-user and the source(s) of the ingredients they consume. The variables in the model are flexible enough to be adapted to other applications beyond food systems.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Food, Traceability, mathematical model

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24 The Modelling of Real Time Series Data

Authors: Valeria Bondarenko


We proposed algorithms for: estimation of parameters fBm (volatility and Hurst exponent) and for the approximation of random time series by functional of fBm. We proved the consistency of the estimators, which constitute the above algorithms, and proved the optimal forecast of approximated time series. The adequacy of estimation algorithms, approximation, and forecasting is proved by numerical experiment. During the process of creating software, the system has been created, which is displayed by the hierarchical structure. The comparative analysis of proposed algorithms with the other methods gives evidence of the advantage of approximation method. The results can be used to develop methods for the analysis and modeling of time series describing the economic, physical, biological and other processes.

Keywords: fractional Brownian motion, Wiener process, mathematical model, random process

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23 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev


Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: Simulation, mathematical model, optical Costas loop, hidden oscillation

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22 Increase of Energy Efficiency by Means of Application of Active Bearings

Authors: Alexander Babin, Leonid Savin


In the present paper, increasing of energy efficiency of a thrust hybrid bearing with a central feeding chamber is considered. The mathematical model was developed to determine the pressure distribution and the reaction forces, based on the Reynolds equation and static characteristics’ equations. The boundary problem of pressure distribution calculation was solved using the method of finite differences. For various types of lubricants, geometry and operational characteristics, axial gaps can be determined, where the minimal friction coefficient is provided. The next part of the study considers the application of servovalves in order to maintain the desired position of the rotor. The report features the calculation results and the analysis of the influence of the operational and geometric parameters on the energy efficiency of mechatronic fluid-film bearings.

Keywords: Mechatronics, Energy Efficiency, mathematical model, active bearings, thrust multipad bearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
21 Applicability of Linearized Model of Synchronous Generator for Power System Stability Analysis

Authors: J. Ritonja, B. Grcar


For the synchronous generator simulation and analysis and for the power system stabilizer design and synthesis a mathematical model of synchronous generator is needed. The model has to accurately describe dynamics of oscillations, while at the same time has to be transparent enough for an analysis and sufficiently simplified for design of control system. To study the oscillations of the synchronous generator against to the rest of the power system, the model of the synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance and inductance is needed. In this paper, the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the synchronous generator connected to the infinite bus is presented and analysed in details. This model accurately describes dynamics of the synchronous generator only in a small vicinity of an equilibrium state. With the digression from the selected equilibrium point the accuracy of this model is decreasing considerably. In this paper, the equations’ descriptions and the parameters’ determinations for the linearized reduced order mathematical model of the synchronous generator are explained and summarized and represent the useful origin for works in the areas of synchronous generators’ dynamic behaviour analysis and synchronous generator’s control systems design and synthesis. The main contribution of this paper represents the detailed analysis of the accuracy of the linearized reduced order dynamic model in the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. Borders of the areas where the linearized reduced order mathematical model represents accurate description of the synchronous generator’s dynamics are determined with the systemic numerical analysis. The thorough eigenvalue analysis of the linearized models in the entire operating range is performed. In the paper, the parameters of the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the laboratory salient poles synchronous generator were determined and used for the analysis. The theoretical conclusions were confirmed with the agreement of experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Power System Stability, mathematical model, synchronous generator, eigenvalue analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
20 Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Eloise C. Tredenick, Troy W. Farrell, W. Alison Forster, Steven T. P. Psaltis


The agriculture industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops. More efficacious sprays provide many environmental and financial benefits. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The importance of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted, as the results of each uptake experiments are specific to each formulation of active ingredient and plant species. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a nonlinear porous diffusion model of ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which provides additions to a simple diffusion model through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating plant species' variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. The model could feasibly be adapted to other ionic active ingredients diffusing through other plant species' cuticles. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms.

Keywords: mathematical model, aqueous pores, ionic active ingredient, plant cuticle, porous diffusion

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