Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

lanthanide Related Abstracts

5 The Effect of Chelate to RE Ratio on Upconversion Emissions Property of NaYF4: Yb3+ and Tm3+ Nanocrystals

Authors: M. Kaviani Darani, S. Bastani, M. Ghahari, P. Kardar


In this paper the NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+ nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Different chelating ligand type (citric acid, butanoic acid, and AOT) was selected to investigate the effect of their concentration on upconversion efficiency. Crystal structure and morphology have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Photo luminescence were recorded on a spectrophotometer equipped with 980 nm laser diode az excitation source and an integerating sphere. The products with various morphologies range from sphere to cubic, hexagonal,prism and nanorods were prepared at different ratios. The particle size was found to be dependent on the nucleation rate, which, in turn, was affected by type and concentration of ligands. The optimum amount of chelate to RE ratio was obtained 0.75, 1.5, and 1 for Citric Acid, Butanoic Acid and AOT, respectively. Emissions in the UV (1D2-3H6), blue-violet(1D2-3F4), blue (1G4-3H6), red (1G4-3F4), and NIR (1G4-3H5) were observed and were the direct result of subsequent transfers of energy from the Yb3+ ion to the Tm3+ ion.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, Upconversion Nanoparticles, NaYF4, lanthanide

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4 Lanthanide Incorporated Dendron Based White Light Emitting Material

Authors: Prashant Kumar, Edamana Prasad


The White light emitting material has an emerging field in recent years due to their widespread application in the field of optoelectronics and cellular display. In the present study, we have achieved white light emission in gel medium through partial resonance energy transfer from different donors (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) to lanthanides {Eu(III) and Tb(III)}. The gel was formed by the self- assembly of glucose cored poly(aryl ether) dendrons in DMSO-Water mixture (1:9 v/v). The white light emission was further confirmed by the CIE coordinates (Commission Internationale d’ Eclairage). Moreover, we have developed three different white light emitting system by utilizing three different donor moiety namely, naphthalene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {I}, phenanthrene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {II}, and pyrene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {III}. The CIE coordinates for I, II and III were (0.35, 0.37), (0.33, 0.32) and (0.35, 0.33) respectively. Furthermore, we have investigated the energy transfer from different donors (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene) to lanthanide {Eu(III)}. The efficiency of energy transfer from phenanthrene-Eu(III), naphthalene-Eu(III) and pyrene-Eu(III) systems was 11.9%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Detailed mechanistic aspects will be displayed in the poster.

Keywords: lanthanide, dendron, resonance energy transfer, white light emission

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3 Eu³⁺ Ions Doped-SnO₂ for Effective Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

Authors: Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Nehra


Visible light sensitive Eu³⁺ doped-SnO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method and extensively characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated using Malachite Green (MG) as decomposition objective by varying the concentration of Eu³⁺ in SnO₂. The XRD analysis showed that lanthanides phase was not observed on lower loadings of Eu³⁺ ions doped-SnO₂. Eu³⁺ ions can enhance the photocatalytic activity of SnO₂ to some extent as compared with pure SnO₂, and it was found that 3 wt% Eu³⁺ -doped SnO₂ is the most effective photocatalyst due to its lowest band gap, crystallite size and also the highest surface area. The photocatalytic tests indicate that at the optimum conditions, illumination time 40 min, pH 65, 0.3 g/L photocatalyst loading and 50 ppm dye concentration, the dye removal efficiency was 98%.

Keywords: Visible light, photocatalyst, lanthanide, SnO2

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2 Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Lanthanide Nanoparticles for NIR Luminescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Syue-Liang Lin, C. Allen Chang


Luminescence imaging is an important technique used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic applications in recent years. Concurrently, the development of NIR luminescence probes / imaging contrast agents has helped the understanding of the structural and functional properties of cells and animals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, but the therapeutic efficacy of general PDT for deeper tumor was limited by the penetration of excitation source. The tumor targeting biomedical nanomaterials [email protected] (upconversion nanoparticle conjugated with photosensitizer) for photodynamic therapy and near-infrared imaging of cancer will be developed in our study. Synthesis and characterization of biomedical nanomaterials were completed in this studies. The spectrum of UCNP was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). TEM and XRD analyses indicated that these nanoparticles are about 20~50 nm with hexagonal phase. NaYF₄:Ln³⁺ (Ln= Yb, Nd, Er) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with core / shell structure, synthesized by thermal decomposition method in 300°C, have the ability to emit visible light (upconversion: 540 nm, 660 nm) and near-infrared with longer wavelength (downconversion: NIR: 980 nm, 1525 nm) by absorbing 800 nm NIR laser. The information obtained from these studies would be very useful for applications of these nanomaterials for bio-luminescence imaging and photodynamic therapy of deep tumor tissue in the future.

Keywords: Core-Shell Structure, Theranostics, lanthanide, Near Infrared (NIR), upconversion

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1 Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge

Authors: K. Eryilmaz, G. Mercanoglu


Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.

Keywords: Synthesis, Purification, Radionuclide, labeling, Peptide, radiopharmaceutical, lanthanide

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