Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

itraconazole Related Abstracts

3 Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Non-ionic Surfactant Vesicles Containing Itraconazole

Authors: S. Ataei, F. Sarrafzadeh Javadi, K. Gilani, E. Moazeni


Drug delivery systems using colloidal particulate carriers such as niosomes or liposomes have distinct advantages over conventional dosage forms because the particles can act as drug-containing reservoirs. These carriers play an increasingly important role in drug delivery. Niosomes are vesicular delivery systems which result from the self-assembly of hydrated surfactant. Niosomes are now widely studied as an attractive to liposomes because they alleviate the disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as chemical instability, variable purity of phospholipids and high cost. The encapsulation of drugs in niosomes can decrease drug toxicity, increase the stability of drug and increase the penetrability of drug in the location of application, and may reduce the dose and systemic side effect. Nowadays, Niosomes are used by the pharmaceutical industry in manufacturing skin medications, eye medication, in cosmetic formulas and these vesicular systems can be used to deliver aspiratory drugs. One way of improving dispersion in the water phase and solubility of the hydrophobic drug is to formulate in into niosomes. Itraconazole (ITZ) was chosen as a model hydrophobic drug. This drug is water insoluble (solubility ~ 1 ng/ml at neutral pH), is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent and is used to treat various fungal disease. This study aims to investigate the capability of forming itraconazole niosomes with Spans, Tweens, Brijs as non-ionic surfactants. To this end, various formulations of niosomes have been studied with regard to parameters such as the degree of containment and particle size.

Keywords: physicochemical, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, itraconazole

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2 Design and Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Bearing Itraconazole

Authors: KAMTA PRASAD NAMDEO, Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Surendra Bodhake


The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive films for buccal administration of itraconazole using film-forming and mucoashesive polymers. Buccal films of chitosan bearing Itraconazole were prepared by solvent casting technique. The films have been evaluated in terms of film weight, thickness, density, surface pH, FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, bioadhesion, swelling properties, and in vitro drug release studies. It was found that film formulations of 2 cm2 size having weight in the range of 204 ± 0.76 to 223 ± 2.09 mg and film thickness were in the range of 0.44 ± 0.11 to 0.57 ± 0.19 mm. Density of the films was found to be 0.102 to 0.126 g/ml. Drug content was found to be uniform in the range of 8.23 ± 0.07 to 8.73 ± 0.09 mg/cm2 for formulation A1 to A4. Maximum bioadhesion force was recorded for HPMC buccal films (A2) i.e. 0.57 ± 0.47 as compared to other films. In vitro residence time was in range of 1.7 ± 0.12 to 7.65 ± 0.15 h. The drug release studies show that formulations follow non-fickian diffusion. These mucoadhesive formulations could offer many advantages in comparison to traditional treatments.

Keywords: Mucoadhesion, itraconazole, biovariability, buccal patches

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1 The Influence of Gender on Itraconazole Pharmacokinetic Parameters in Healthy Adults

Authors: Milijana N. Miljkovic, Viktorija M. Dragojevic-Simic, Nemanja K. Rancic, Vesna M. Jacevic, Snezana B. Djordjevic, Momir M. Mikov, Aleksandra M. Kovacevic


Itraconazole (ITZ) is a weak base and extremely lipophilic compound, with water solubility as a rate-limiting step in its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Its absolute bioavailability, about 55%, is maximal when its oral formulation, capsules, are taken immediately after a full meal. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) are reached within 2 to 5 hrs after their administration. ITZ undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism by human CYP3A4 isoenzyme and more than 30 different metabolites have been identified. One of the main ones is hydroxyitraconazole (HITZ), in which plasma concentrations are almost twice higher than those of ITZ. Gender differences in drug PK (Pharmacokinetics) have already been recognized, but variations in metabolism are believed to be their major cause. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on ITZ PK parameters after administration of oral capsule formulation, following 100 mg single dosing in healthy adult volunteers under fed conditions. The single-center, open-label PK study was performed. PK analyses included PK parameters obtained after a single 100 mg dose administration of itraconazole capsules to 48 females and 66 males. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose and up to 72.0 h after administration (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0, 9.0, 12.0, 24.0, 36.0 and 72.0 hrs). The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters, based on the plasma concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole, were Cmax, AUClast, and AUCtot. Plasma concentrations of ITZ and HITZ were determined using a validated liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection, while pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using Kinetica software version 5.0. The mean value of ITZ Cmaxmen was 74.79 ng/ml, and Cmaxwomen was 51.291 ng/ml (independent samples test; p = 0.005). Hydroxyitraconazole had a mean value of Cmaxmen 106.37 ng/ml, and the mean value Cmaxwomen was 70.05 ng/ml. Women had, on average, lower AUClast and Cmax than men. AUClastmen for ITZ was 736.02 ng/mL*h and AUClastwomen was 566.62 ng/mL*h, while AUClastmen for HITZ was 1154.80 was ng/mL*h and AUClastwomen for HITZ was 708.12 ng/mL*h (independent samples test; p = 0.033). The mean values of ITZ AUCtotmen were 884.73 ng/mL*h and AUCtotwomen was 685.10 ng/mL*h. AUCtotmen for HITZ was 1290.41 ng/mL*h, while AUCtotwomen for HIZT was 788.60 ng/mL*h (p < 0.001). The results could point out to lower oral bioavailability of ITZ in women, since values of Cmax, AUClast, and AUCtot of both ITZ and HITZ were significantly lower in women than in men, respectively. The reason may be higher expression and activity of CYP3A4 in women than in men, but there also may be differences in other PK parameters. High variability of both ITZ and HITZ concentrations in both genders confirmed that ITZ is a highly variable drug. Further examinations of its PK are needed to justify strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated by this antifungal agent.

Keywords: Gender, Pharmacokinetics, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole

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