Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 248

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Systems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

248 The School-to-Work Transition: The Case of NEET Youths from Rural Areas

Authors: Anđelka Stojanović, Ivan Mihajlović, Ivica Nikolić

Abstract:

In the past years, due to the financial crisis and the tightening of conditions on the labor market, young people are facing great challenges in achieving financial independence and finding their place in society. Higher unemployment rates, poorer living conditions, separation from the labor market, and longer school-to-work transitions particularly affect rural youth and make significant differences between youth groups in rural and urban areas. Improving employability skills and development of instruments for further learning among young people “Not in Education, Employment, or Training” (NEET) should not be only the concerns of these people, already adequately be directed and supported by the institutions. According to the World Bank data, the share of youth not in education, employment or training (NEET), in the European Union in the past few years decreases but still shows a significant share in the total percentage of the youth population. In 2017 rate was 10.96% while in 2018 that value was 10.38%. When observing individual countries in Europe, especially those with lower incomes, this rate is much higher. It was concluded that this topic was not sufficiently elaborated and presented in the social and scientific environment. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify and systematize the problems of school-to-work transition among young NEETs living in rural areas as well as the initiatives for addressing their problems.

Keywords: NEET youth, risks and initiatives, rural youth, school-to-work transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
247 Corporate Social Responsibility vs Corporate Social Reactivity: An Exploration of Corporate Social Responsibility Planning in a Multinational Oil and Gas in Indonesia

Authors: Endang Ghani Ashfiya

Abstract:

This study explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) planning in a downstream business of multinational oil and gas company in Indonesia from managerial perspectives. The institutional logic is employed in this research to gain a comprehensive understanding of the way the MNC manages the socio-cultural aspects in the host countries, especially in the process of translation and adaptation of the company’s CSR global guidelines. The interviews are conducted with fifteen managers in that company, both at the top managerial level and operational level. In the beginning, this research explains the Indonesian society’s conception of CSR from the managerial standpoints. The society’s understanding of the CSR concept becomes the fundamental foundations of the company in developing CSR programs. This study found the company’s approach to its CSR in two ways. First, proactive CSR which reflects the global CSR guidelines. Second, reactive CSR which do not show any explicit relations to the global guidelines, but conform with society’s demands. The findings stimulate discussions regarding the power of an MNC vis-à-vis the socio-cultural implication in society’s demand for CSR.

Keywords: Indonesia, oil and gas company, corporate social responsibility planning, institutional logic, multinational company, socio-cultural aspects

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
246 Entrepreneurship, Institutional Quality, and Macroeconomic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Cleopatra Oluseye Ibukun

Abstract:

Following the endogenous growth theory, entrepreneurship has been considered pivotal to economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. Meanwhile, efforts to reduce unemployment has yielded minimal result with over 36% of youth unemployment and a dwindling economic growth despite the country’s natural and human resource endowment. This study, therefore, investigates the effects of entrepreneurship and institutional quality on economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria over the period 1996 to 2018. The data is obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI), and the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGI). The study period is guided by the availability of data, and the study employs both descriptive and econometric techniques of analysis (specifically, the Auto-regressive Distributed Lag Approach). This approach is preferable given that the variables are stationary at the first difference, while the bounds test suggests the existence of co-integration among the variables. By implication, an increase in entrepreneurship significantly improves economic growth, and it reduces unemployment in both the short-run and the long-run. Besides, institutional quality proxied by the control of corruption, political stability, and government effectiveness significantly mediates the interaction between entrepreneurship and macroeconomic performance. This study concludes that improved institutional quality enhances the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria, and it recommends an improvement in Nigeria’s institutional quality because it can jeopardise or augment the effect of entrepreneurship on macroeconomic performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Unemployment, Nigeria, gross domestic product, institutional quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
245 Discovering the Effects of Guerrilla Advertisements on Perceiver's Ad Attitude, Ad Likability and Purchase Intention

Authors: S. Y. Ozkan, S. Taftaf

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possible effects of guerrilla advertising on consumers' attitudes as well as purchase intentions in comparison with traditional advertising. Participants who were over 18 years of age were recruited and completed an online questionnaire. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of the four well-known brand conditions. The study had a within-subjects design where each participant evaluated two advertisements, one guerrilla advertisement, and one traditional advertisement od one respective brand. Participants rated both traditional advertisement and guerrilla advertisement on ad attitude, ad likability, and purchase intention scales. Ad attitude was measured by using both positive and negative adjectives. The hypotheses were tested by paired samples t-test analysis. The results indicated that perceivers were able to differentiate advertisements that include guerrilla techniques and advertisements that include traditional methods from one another. Regardless of the brand manipulation, guerrilla advertisements lead significantly higher positive ad attitude, negative ad attitude, ad likability, and purchase intention compared to traditional advertisements. Therefore, the results showed that while using guerrilla advertising, companies should be aware of any ethical concerns that may emerge in consumers' minds. Present study is one of the rare studies that measures the perceptions of guerrilla and traditional advertisements in an empirical manner in Turkish context, showing that guerrilla advertisements may stimulate negative ad attitudes together with positive ad attitudes, increasing ad likability and purchase intention.

Keywords: purchase intention, ad attitude, guerrilla advertisement, traditional advertisement

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
244 Processes Optimization and Automation of Information Technology Services in a Heterogenic Digital Environment

Authors: Tasneem Halawani, Yamen Khateeb

Abstract:

With the ever-increasing customers’ expectations for fast services provisioning for all their business needs, information technology (IT) organizations as business partners have to cope with this demanding environment and deliver their services in the most effective and efficient way. The purpose of this paper is to identify the optimization and automation opportunities for the top requested IT services in a heterogenic digital environment and widely spread customer-base. In collaboration with systems and processes subject matter experts (SMEs), the processes in scope were approached by analyzing a four-year related historical data, identifying & surveying stakeholders, modeling the as-is processes and studying systems integration/automation capabilities. This effort resulted in identifying several pain areas including standardization, unnecessary customer and IT involvement, manual steps, systems integration, and performance measurement. These pain areas were addressed by standardizing the top five requested IT services, eliminating/ automating 43 steps, and utilizing a single platform for an end-to-end processes execution. In conclusion, the optimization of IT service requests processes in a heterogenic digital environment and widely spread customer-base is challenging, yet achievable without compromising the service quality and customers’ added value. Further studies can focus on measuring the value of the eliminated/automated process steps in order to quantify the enhancement impact. Moreover, similar approach can be utilized to optimize other IT service requests with focus on criticality from a business perspective.

Keywords: Automation, Optimization, Integration, Processes, Customer Value, IT services, heterogenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
243 Human Quality Treatment and Organizational Growth: The Principle of Respect at Nestle Nigeria

Authors: Rose Ogbechie, Nicholas Anakwue

Abstract:

In recent times, research has centered, in the area of Business Ethics, on the issue of human quality treatment (HQT), regarding the way people are dealt with, in organizations, taking into cognizance, respect for the dignity of the human person, as well as, the rights and responsibilities of the corporate individual. As such, the principle of respect is an essential ethical principle that should govern professional relationships in the workplace. There is a prevailing myth in the Nigerian business space, that to drive business success, business leadership must coerce and drive people, oftentimes, beyond comfort to meet work expectations. This has, most times, necessitated abuses and insults on subordinates in the workplace, and instituted a rigid hierarchy of management in business relationships. Nestlé Nigeria, one of the largest foods and beverage companies in Africa, provides a contrast to this myth in their success heuristic. Over the years in Nigeria, the company has registered significant successes in the Nigerian Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Market, with stellar performances year-on-year, and a high-penetration rate of its products in the Nigerian consumer space. At the heart of the FMCG giant’s success and culture is the principle of respect—respect for stakeholders, respect for all peoples, respect for cultures, respect for the environment. Utilizing qualitative research methods, through interviews and focus group discussions with Nestlé’s stakeholders, this paper explores the ethical principle of respect, and how, through it, human quality treatment influences positively organizational growth.

Keywords: Respect, FMCG, human quality treatment, Nestlé Nigeria, organizational growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
242 Numerical Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations by B-Spline Wavelet Method

Authors: Ritu Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, we apply minimalistically upheld linear semi-orthogonal B-spline wavelets, exceptionally developed for the limited interim to rough the obscure function present in the integral equations. Semi-orthogonal wavelets utilizing B-spline uniquely developed for the limited interim and these wavelets can be spoken to in a shut frame. This gives a minimized help. Semi-orthogonal wavelets frame the premise in the space L²(R). Utilizing this premise, an arbitrary function in L²(R) can be communicated as the wavelet arrangement. For the limited interim, the wavelet arrangement cannot be totally introduced by utilizing this premise. This is on the grounds that backings of some premise are truncated at the left or right end purposes of the interim. Subsequently, an uncommon premise must be brought into the wavelet development on the limited interim. These functions are alluded to as the limit scaling functions and limit wavelet functions. B-spline wavelet method has been connected to fathom linear and nonlinear integral equations and their systems. The above method diminishes the integral equations to systems of algebraic equations and afterward these systems can be illuminated by any standard numerical methods. Here, we have connected Newton's method with suitable starting speculation for solving these systems.

Keywords: Integral Equations, semi-orthogonal, wavelet arrangement, wavelet development

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
241 Detection of Hepatitis B by the Use of Artifical Intelegence

Authors: Shizra Waris, Bilal Shoaib, Munib Ahmad

Abstract:

Background; The using of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) may recover unceasing disease organization, which requires regular visits to multiple health professionals, treatment monitoring, disease control, and patient behavior modification. The objective of this survey is to determine if these CDSSs improve the processes of unceasing care including diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of diseases. Though artificial intelligence is not a new idea it has been widely documented as a new technology in computer science. Numerous areas such as education business, medical and developed have made use of artificial intelligence Methods: The survey covers articles extracted from relevant databases. It uses search terms related to information technology and viral hepatitis which are published between 2000 and 2016. Results: Overall, 80% of studies asserted the profit provided by information technology (IT); 75% of learning asserted the benefits concerned with medical domain;25% of studies do not clearly define the added benefits due IT. The CDSS current state requires many improvements to hold up the management of liver diseases such as HCV, liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Conclusion: We concluded that the planned model gives earlier and more correct calculation of hepatitis B and it works as promising tool for calculating of custom hepatitis B from the clinical laboratory data.

Keywords: Observation, Detection, hapataties, disesese

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
240 Profit Comparative of Fisheries in East Aceh Regency Aceh Province

Authors: Mawardati Mawardati

Abstract:

This research was carried out on the traditional milkfish and shrimp culture cultivation from March to May 2018 in East Aceh District. This study aims to to analyze the differences between traditional milkfish cultivation and shrimp farming in East Aceh District, Aceh Province. The analytical method used is acquisition analysis and Independent Sample T test analysis. The results showed a significant difference between milkfish farming and shrimp farming in East Aceh District, Aceh Province. Based on the results of the analysis, the average profit from shrimp farming is higher than that of milkfish farming. This demand exceeds market demand for exports. Thus the price of shrimp is still far higher than the price of milk fish.

Keywords: Shrimp, comparative, profit, milkfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
239 Researching the Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth: Making Traditional Products Suitable for Our Age with E-Commerce

Authors: GüLcan Keskin

Abstract:

In a globalizing world, it is more difficult for developing counties to gain a competitive advantage compared to developed countries. Entrepreneurship is an important factor for economic growth in developing countries. Entrepreneurship is not only in the success of an entrepreneur’s own businesses, but also plays an important role in regional and national development. Entrepreneurship is the factor that triggers change for the country to accelerate the creation, dissemination, and implementation of new thoughts, leading to the emergence of industries that supports economic growth and development as it increases productivity by creating a competitive advantage. Therefore, it is an important factor for countries to develop economically and socially in a global world. As the know-how of the local products belongs to the region, it is a value that should not be lost. Having know-how provides a competitive advantage to the region. On the other hand, traditional products can be tailored to today’s trade understanding to appeal to more audiences. The primary aim of the study is to examine the interaction mechanism between traditional products and innovation in the context of related literature. The second aim of the study is to show the effect the traditional products to competitive advantage.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Entrepreneurship, Economic growth, traditional products

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
238 Determinants of Successful Accounting Information System Outsourcing for the Egyptian Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study

Authors: Maram Elkady

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose behind this study is to determine the impact of some factors on achieving successful accounting information systems (AIS) outsourcing in Egypt, taking into account two factors: the selection of an effective accounting service provider and the quality relationships between the client firm and the accounting service provider. The researcher measured outsourcing success through the perceived benefits, including (strategic, technological, and economic benefits). Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was carried out by means of questionnaires answered by 152 small and medium Egyptian firms outsourcing their accounting activities. The researcher targeted the personnel in the client firms who were in direct contact with the accounting outsourcer. The hypotheses were tested through multiple regression analysis using SPSS 24 and AMOS 22. Findings: Building a quality relationship with the provider is found to have more impact than the effective selection of the AIS provider on the success of the AIS outsourcing process. Originality/Value: The researcher found that some proxies of each success determinant can be more influential than others based on type of benefits perceived from AIS outsourcing (strategic, technological, and economic).

Keywords: Outsourcing, ais, Accounting Information System, successful outsourcing, AIS service provider selection, relationship with the accounting service provider

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
237 Performance Management in Public Administration on Chile and Portugal

Authors: Lilian Bambirra De Assis, Patricia Albuquerque Gomes, Kamila Pagel De Oliveira, Deborah Oliveira Santos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves Campos

Abstract:

This paper aimed to analyze how performance management occurs in the context of the modernization of the federal public sector in Chile and Portugal. To do so, the study was based on a theoretical framework that covers the modernization of public administration to performance management, passing on people management. The work consisted of qualitative-descriptive research in which 16 semi-structured interviews were applied in the countries of study and documents and legislation were used referring to the subject. Performance management, as well as other people management subsystems, is criticized for using private sector management tools, based on a results-driven logic. From this point of view, it is understood that certain practices of the private sector, regarding the measurement of performance, can not be simply inserted in the scenario of the public administration. Beyond this criticism, performance management can contribute to the achievement of the strategic objectives of the countries and its focus is upward, a trend that can be verified through the manuals produced; by the interest of consultants and professional organizations, both public and private; and OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) evaluations. In Portugal, public administration reform was implemented during the Constitutional Government (2005-2009) and had as its objective the restructuring of human resources management, with an emphasis on its integration with budget management, which is an inclination of the OECD, while in Chile HRM (Human Resource Management) practices are directed to ministries to a lesser extent than the OECD average. The central human resources management sector, for the most part, coordinates policy but is also responsible for other issues, including payment and classification systems. Chile makes less use of strategic Human Resource Management practices than the average of OECD countries, and its prominence lies in the decentralization of public bodies, which may grant autonomy, but fragments the implementation of policies and practices in that country since they are not adopted by all organs. Through the analysis, it was possible to identify that Chile and Portugal have practices and personnel management policies that make reference to performance management, which is similar to other OECD countries. The study countries also have limitations to implement performance management and the results indicate that there are still processes to be perfected, such as performance appraisal and compensation.

Keywords: HRM, OECD, management of people in the public sector, modernization of public administration, performance management in the public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
236 Empirical Investigation of Bullwhip Effect with Sensitivity Analysis in Supply Chain

Authors: Shoaib Yousaf

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to the empirical investigation of the bullwhip effect under sensitivity analysis in the two-tier supply chain. The simulation modeling technique has been applied in this research as a research methodology to see the sensitivity analysis of the bullwhip effect in the rice industry of Pakistan. The research comprises two case studies that have been chosen as a sample. The results of this research have confirmed that reduction in production delay reduces the bullwhip effect, which conforms to the time compressing paradigm and the significance of the reduction in production delay to lessen demand amplification. The result of this research also indicates that by increasing the value of time to adjust inventory decreases the bullwhip effect. Furthermore, by decreasing the value of alpha increases the damping effect of the exponential smoother, it is not surprising that it also reduces the bullwhip effect. Moreover, by reducing the value of time to work in progress also reduces the bullwhip effect. This research will help practitioners and operation managers to reduces the major costs of their products in three ways. They can reduce their i) inventory levels, ii) better utilize their capacity and iii) improve their forecasting techniques. However, this study is based on two tier supply chain, while in reality the supply chain has got many tiers. Hence, future work will be extended across more than two-tier supply chains.

Keywords: Simulation, Sensitivity Analysis, supply chain dynamics, bullwhip effect, rice industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
235 Capacity Building and Motivation as Determinants of Productivity among Library Personnel in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: E. K. Soyele

Abstract:

This study is on capacity building and motivation as determinants of productivity among library personnel in colleges of education in South West, Nigeria. This study made use of a descriptive research design of survey type. A total enumeration sampling technique was used for the selected sample. The research sample consisted of 40 library personnel. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire divided into four parts. Statistics data analysis used were descriptive statistics with frequencies, percentages, and regression statistics analysis. Findings from this study revealed that capacity building and motivation have positive impact on library personnel productivity with their percentages greater than 50% acceptance level. A test of null hypotheses at P < 0.05 significant level was tested to see the significance between capacity building and productivity, which was positive at P < 0.05 significant level. This implies that capacity building and motivation significantly determine productivity among library personnel in selected college libraries in Nigeria. The study concluded that there is need for institutions to equip their library personnel via training programmes, in-service, digital training, ICT training, seminars, and conferences, etc. Incentives should be provided to motivate personnel for high productivity. The study, therefore, recommends that government, institutions and library management should fund college libraries adequately so as to enhance capacity building, staff commitment and training for further education

Keywords: Productivity, Capacity building, Motivation, library personnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
234 Designing Product-Service-System Applied to Reusable Packaging Solutions: A Strategic Design Tool

Authors: David Harrison, Yuan Long, Fabrizio Ceschin

Abstract:

Environmental sustainability is under the threat of excessive single-use plastic packaging waste, and current waste management fails to address this issue. Therefore, it has led to a reidentification of the alternative, which can curb the packaging waste without reducing social needs. Reusable packaging represents a circular approach to close the loop of consumption in which packaging can stay longer in the system to satisfy social needs. However, the implementation of reusable packaging is fragmented and lacks systematic approaches. The product-service system (PSS) is widely regarded as a sustainable business model innovation for embracing circular consumption. As a result, applying PSS to reusable packaging solutions will be promising to address the packaging waste issue. This paper aims at filling the knowledge gap relating to apply PSS to reusable packaging solutions and provide a strategic design tool that could support packaging professionals to design reusable packaging solutions. The methodology of this paper is case studies and workshops to provide a design tool. The respondents are packaging professionals who are packaging consultants, NGO professionals, and entrepreneurs. 57 cases collected show that 15 archetypal models operate in the market. Subsequently, a polarity diagram is developed to embrace those 15 archetypal models, and a total number of 24 experts were invited for the workshop to evaluate the design tool. This research finally provides a strategic design tool to support packaging professionals to design reusable packaging solutions. The application of the tool is to support the understanding of the reusable packaging solutions, analyzing the markets, identifying new opportunities, and generate new business models. The implication of this research is to provide insights for academics and businesses in terms of tackling single-use packaging waste and build a foundation for further development of the reusable packaging solution tool.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, product-service system, reusable packaging, design tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
233 Applying Push Notifications with Behavioral Change Strategies in Fitness Applications: A Survey of User's Perception Based on Consumer Engagement

Authors: Yali Liu, Maria Avello Iturriagagoitia

Abstract:

Background: Fitness applications (apps) are one of the most popular mobile health (mHealth) apps. These apps can help prevent/control health issues such as obesity, which is one of the most serious public health challenges in the developed world in recent decades. Compared with the traditional intervention like face-to-face treatment, it is cheaper and more convenient to use fitness apps to interfere with physical activities and healthy behaviors. Nevertheless, fitness applications apps tend to have high abandonment rates and low levels of user engagement. Therefore, maintaining the endurance of users' usage is challenging. In fact, previous research shows a variety of strategies -goal-setting, self-monitoring, coaching, etc.- for promoting fitness and health behavior change. These strategies can influence the users’ perseverance and self-monitoring of the program as well as favoring their adherence to routines that involve a long-term behavioral change. However, commercial fitness apps rarely incorporate these strategies into their design, thus leading to a lack of engagement with the apps. Most of today’s mobile services and brands engage their users proactively via push notifications. Push notifications. These notifications are visual or auditory alerts to inform mobile users about a wide range of topics that entails an effective and personal mean of communication between the app and the user. One of the research purposes of this article is to implement the application of behavior change strategies through push notifications. Proposes: This study aims to better understand the influence that effective use of push notifications combined with the behavioral change strategies will have on users’ engagement with the fitness app. And the secondary objectives are 1) to discuss the sociodemographic differences in utilization of push notifications of fitness apps; 2) to determine the impact of each strategy in customer engagement. Methods: The study uses a combination of the Consumer Engagement Theory and UTAUT2 based model to conduct an online survey among current users of fitness apps. The questionnaire assessed attitudes to each behavioral change strategy, and sociodemographic variables. Findings: Results show the positive effect of push notifications in the generation of consumer engagement and the different impacts of each strategy among different groups of population in customer engagement. Conclusions: Fitness apps with behavior change strategies have a positive impact on increasing users’ usage time and customer engagement. Theoretical experts can participate in designing fitness applications, along with technical designers.

Keywords: Customer Engagement, Behavioral Change, UTAUT2, fitness app, push notification

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
232 Stock Price Informativeness and Profit Warnings: Empirical Analysis

Authors: ADEL ALMASARWAH

Abstract:

This study investigates the nature of association between profit warnings and stock price informativeness in the context of Jordan as an emerging country. The analysis is based on the response of stock price synchronicity to profit warnings percentages that have been published in Jordanian firms throughout the period spanning 2005–2016 in the Amman Stock Exchange. The standard of profit warnings indicators have related negatively to stock price synchronicity in Jordanian firms, meaning that firms with a high portion of profit warnings integrate with more firm-specific information into stock price. Robust regression was used rather than OLS as a parametric test to overcome the variances inflation factor (VIF) and heteroscedasticity issues recognised as having occurred during running the OLS regression; this enabled us to obtained stronger results that fall in line with our prediction that higher profit warning encourages firm investors to collect and process more firm-specific information than common market information.

Keywords: synchronicity, Profit Warnings, Jordanian Firms, Stock Price Informativeness

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
231 Engaging Women Entrepreneurs in School Adolescent Health Program to Ensure Menstrual Hygiene Management in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Mohiuddin Ahmed, Jesmin Akter, Toslim Uddin Khan

Abstract:

Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) and personal health-care practice is a critical issue to prevent morbidity and other reproductive health complications among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Inadequate access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities lead to unhealthy MHM practices that resulted in poor reproductive health outcomes. It is evident from different studies that superstitions and misconception are more common in rural communities that limit young girls’ access to and understanding of the menstrual hygiene and self care practices. The state-of-the-art approach of Social Marketing Company (SMC) is proved to be instrumental in delivering reinforcing health messages, making public health and hygiene products available at the door steps of the community through community mobilization programs in rural Bangladesh. School health program is one of the flagship interventions of SMC to equip adolescent girls and boys with correct knowledge of health and hygiene practices among themselves, their families and peers. In Bangladeshi culture, adolescent girls often feel shy to ask fathers or male family members about buying sanitary napkin from local pharmacy and they seem to be reluctant to seek help regarding their menstrual problems. A recent study reveals that 48% adolescent girls are using sanitary napkins while majority of them are unaware of menstrual hygiene practices in Bangladesh. Under school adolescent program, SMC organizes health education sessions for adolescent girls from grade seven to ten using enter-educate approach with special focus on sexual and reproductive health and menstrual hygiene issues including delaying marriage and first pregnancy. In addition, 2500 rural women entrepreneurs branded as community sales agents are also involved in disseminating health messages and selling priority health products including sanitary napkin at the household level. These women entrepreneurs are serving as a source of sustainable supply of the sanitary napkins for the rural adolescent girls and thereby they are earning profit margins on the sales they make. A recent study on the impact of adolescent program activities reveals that majority (71%) of the school adolescent girls are currently using sanitary napkins. Health education equips and empowers adolescent girls with accurate knowledge about menstrual hygiene practices and self-care as well. Therefore, engagement of female entrepreneurs in school adolescent health program at the community level is one of the promising ways to improve menstrual hygiene practices leading to increased use of sanitary napkin in rural and semi-rural communities in Bangladesh.

Keywords: social marketing, Women Entrepreneurs, menstrual hygiene management, school adolescent program

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
230 A Descriptive Study of the Characteristics of Introductory Accounting Courses Offered by Community Colleges

Authors: Jonathan Nash, Allen Hartt, Catherine Plante

Abstract:

In many nations, community colleges, or similar institutions, play a crucial role in higher education. For example, in the United States more than half of all undergraduate students enroll in a community college at some point during their academic career. Similar statistics have been reported for Australia and Canada. Recognizing the important role these institutions play in educating future accountants, the American Accounting Association has called for research that contributes to a better understanding of these members of the academic community. Although previous literature has shown that community colleges and 4-year institutions differ on many levels, the extant literature has provided data on the characteristics of introductory accounting courses for four-year institutions but not for community colleges. We fill a void in the literature by providing data on the characteristics of introductory accounting courses offered by community colleges in the United States. Data are collected on several dimensions including: course size and staffing, pedagogical orientation, standardization of course elements, textbook selection, and use of technology-based course management tools. Many of these dimensions have been used in previous research examining four-year institutions thereby facilitating comparisons. The resulting data should be of interest to instructors, regulators and administrators, researchers, and the accounting profession. The data provide information on the introductory accounting courses completed by the average community college student which can help instructors identify areas where transfer students’ experiences might differ from their contemporaries at four-year colleges. Regulators and administrators may be interested in the differences between accounting courses offered by two- and four-year institutions when implementing standardized transfer programs. Researchers might use the data to motivate future research into whether differences between two- and four-year institutions affect outcomes like the probability of students choosing to major in accounting and their performance within the major. Accounting professionals may use our findings as a springboard for facilitating discussions related to the accounting labor supply.

Keywords: descriptive study, community college, Accounting curricula, Introductory accounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
229 Assessment of Digital Literacy Skills of Librarians in Tertiary Institutions Inniger State

Authors: Mustapha Abdulkadir Gana, Jibrin Attahiru Alhassan, Adamu Musa Baba

Abstract:

The exponential growth of information sources, resources and the continued Communication Technology (ICT) sophistication of libraries all over the world call for capable and ICT compliant librarians in Nigeria, this article assesses the digital literacy skills of librarians in tertiary institutions in Niger state. The survey research method was applied in the study using a random sampling technique to draw the sample. Fifty-eight copies of the questionnaire were administered while forty-nine copies were completed, returned, and used in the study, which represents 84% of the response rate. Two research questions were answered, and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The finding uncovered that the librarians lack the requisite digital literacy skills to access the wealth of digital information resources available. The study recommends some steps to turn around the situations amongst; librarians must be empowered with all necessary digital literacy skills, embark on rigorous training and retraining programs, workshops, conferences, and seminars, there should also be a coherent training policy for the librarians on a sustainable basis to increase their requisite digital literacy skills.

Keywords: Information, Digital, Literacy, Skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
228 Becoming Academic in the Entrepreneurial University: Researcher Identities and Research Impact Development

Authors: Victoria G. Mountford-Brown

Abstract:

The concept of the Entrepreneurial University and emphasis on higher education institutions as both hives of innovation and as producers of future innovators accord special significance to the role of academic researchers in future economic and social prosperity. Researcher development in the UK has embedded an emphasis or ‘enterprise lens’ on developing the capabilities of researchers to support a stable economy whilst providing solutions to societal challenges. However, the notion of the ‘entrepreneurial university’ and what that represents to many academics is met with tension and (dis)engagement in the premises of the ‘knowledge economy’ or ‘academic capitalism.’ Set in a landscape of UK higher education wherein the increasing emphasis on research impact, coupled with increasing competition for scarce funding, has created a ‘climate of performativity’. This research seeks to better understand the ways in which academic identities are (re)constructed in the everyday experiences of doctoral (PGR) and early career researchers (ECRs) as they navigate what is referred to by some as the ‘academic hunger games’. These daily pressures and high expectations of success are part of the identity work PGRs/ECRs undergo. This is often fraught with tension and struggles to adapt to the research environment suggesting a reason for imposter phenomenon to be rife in academia – particularly (but not exclusively) in the early stages of development. This pilot study involves qualitative semi-structured exploratory interviews with a mixed gendered sample of participants from a variety of subject disciplines who have taken part in an intensive 3-day innovation and enterprise program for PGR and ECRs premised on developing personal and research impact. The research seeks to better understand the processes of identity formation of becoming academic and offers a commentary on the notions of ‘imposter phenomenon’ and the exchange and development of resources or capital needed to ‘play the game’ in academia in the context of the ‘entrepreneurial university’. It explores ongoing (re)constructions of what it means to be an academic and the different ways in which social identities may embody and challenge the development of entrepreneurial academic identities. As such, it aims to contribute to our understanding of the innovation ecosystem of academia and the prosperity of academic researchers.

Keywords: Higher Education, identities, entreprenruial development, researcher development

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
227 Impression Evaluation by Design Change of Anthropomorphic Agent

Authors: Kazuko Sakamoto

Abstract:

Anthropomorphic agents have been successful in areas where there are many human interactions, such as education and medical care. The persuasive effect is also expected in e-shopping sites on the web. This indicates that customer service is not necessarily human but can play that role. However, the 'humanity' in anthropomorphism sometimes has a risk of working negatively. In general, as the appearance of anthropomorphic agents approaches humans, it is thought that their affinity with humans increases. However, when the degree of similarity reaches a certain level, it gives the user a weird feeling. This is the 'eerie valley' phenomenon. This is a concept used in the world of robotics, but it seems to be applicable to anthropomorphic agents such as characters. Then what kind of design can you accept as an anthropomorphic agent that gives you a feeling of friendliness or good feeling without causing discomfort or fear to people? This study focused on this point and examined what design and characteristics would be effective for marketing communication. As a result of the investigation, it was found that there is no need for gaze and blinking, the size of the eyes is normal or large, and the impression evaluation is higher when the structure is as simple as possible. Conversely, agents with high eye-gaze and white-eye ratios had low evaluations, and the negative impact on eye-gaze was particularly large.

Keywords: Marketing Communication, Customer Service, Design Evaluation, anthropomorphicgents

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
226 Comparing Forecasting Performances of the Bass Diffusion Model and Time Series Methods for Sales of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Reinhold Kosfeld, Andreas Gohs

Abstract:

This study should be of interest for practitioners who want to predict precisely the sales numbers of vehicles equipped with an innovative propulsion technology as well as for researchers interested in applied (regional) time series analysis. The study is based on the numbers of new registrations of pure electric and hybrid cars. Methods of time series analysis like ARIMA are compared with the Bass Diffusion-model concerning their forecasting performances for new registrations in Germany at the national and federal state levels. Especially it is investigated if the additional information content from regional data increases the forecasting accuracy for the national level by adding predictions for the federal states. Results of parameters of the Bass Diffusion Model estimated for Germany and its sixteen federal states are reported. While the focus of this research is on the German market, estimation results are also provided for selected European and other countries. Concerning Bass-parameters and forecasting performances, we get very different results for Germany's federal states and the member states of the European Union. This corresponds to differences across the EU-member states in the adoption process of this innovative technology. Concerning the German market, the adoption is rather proceeded in southern Germany and stays behind in Eastern Germany except for Berlin.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, bass diffusion model, forecasting performance, market diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
225 Spatial Spillovers in Forecasting Market Diffusion of Electric Mobility

Authors: Reinhold Kosfeld, Andreas Gohs

Abstract:

In the reduction of CO₂ emissions, the transition to environmentally friendly transport modes has a high significance. In Germany, the climate protection programme 2030 includes various measures for promoting electromobility. Although electric cars at present hold a market share of just over one percent, its stock more than doubled in the past two years. Special measures like tax incentives and a buyer’s premium have been put in place to promote the shift towards electric cars and boost their diffusion. Knowledge of the future expansion of electric cars is required for planning purposes and adaptation measures. With a view of these objectives, we particularly investigate the effect of spatial spillovers on forecasting performance. For this purpose, time series econometrics and panel econometric models are designed for pure electric cars and hybrid cars for Germany. Regional forecasting models with spatial interactions are consistently estimated by using spatial econometric techniques. Regional data on the stocks of electric cars and their determinants at the district level (NUTS 3 regions) are available from the Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt) for the period 2017 - 2019. A comparative examination of aggregated regional and national predictions provides quantitative information on accuracy gains by allowing for spatial spillovers in forecasting electric mobility.

Keywords: Electric mobility, Spatial Interaction, forecasting market diffusion, regional panel data model

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
224 Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Indonesia

Authors: Bela Sulistyaguna, Yuli Chomsatu Samrotun, Endang Masitoh Wahyuningsih

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of company size, liquidity, profitability, leverage, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. The grand theories of this research are agency theory, stakeholders theory, and legitimacy theory. Analysis of data using multiple linear regression method with SPSS 22.0 for mac. The sample consists of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and disclosed the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) sustainability reports from 2013 to 2018. The final sample of this research was 19 companies that obtained by purposive sampling. The results of the research showed that, simultaneously, company size, liquidity, profitability, leverage, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership has an influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. Partially, the results showed that liquidity and leverage has an influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. Meanwhile, company size, profitability, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership has no influence on corporate social responsibility disclosure.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Indonesia, CSR disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
223 Reflections of Nocturnal Librarian: Attaining a Work-Life Balance in a Mega-City of Lagos State Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole Durodolu

Abstract:

The rationale for this study is to explore the adaptive strategy that librarians adopt in performing night shifts in a mega-city like Lagos state. Maslach Burnout Theory would be used to measure the three proportions of burnout in understanding emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and individual accomplishment to scrutinise job-related burnout syndrome allied with longstanding, unsolved stress. The qualitative methodology guided by a phenomenological research paradigm, which is an approach that focuses on the commonality of real-life experience in a particular group, would be used, focus group discussion adopted as a method of data collection from library staff who are involved in night-shift. The participant for the focus group discussion would be selected using a convenience sampling technique in which staff at the cataloguing unit would be included in the sample because of the representative characteristics of the unit. This would be done to enable readers to understand phenomena as it is reasonable than from a remote perspective. The exploratory interviews which will be in focus group method to shed light on issues relating to security, housing, transportation, budgeting, energy supply, employee duties, time management, information access, and sustaining professional levels of service and how all these variables affect the productivity of all the 149 library staff and their work-life balance.

Keywords: Lagos state, work-life balance, academic library, nightshift, mega-city, Maslach Burnout Theory, University of Lagos

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
222 Board Gender Diversity and Firm Sustainable Investment: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Atif, M. Samsul Alam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We test the extent to which sustainable investment is affected by the presence of female directors on U.S. corporate boards. Using data of S&P 1500 indexed firms collected from Bloomberg covering the period 2004-2016, we estimate the baseline model to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We find a positive relationship between board gender diversity and sustainable investment. We also find that boards with two or more women have a pronounced impact on sustainable investment, consistent with the critical mass theory. Female independent directors have a stronger impact on sustainable investment than female executive directors. Our findings are robust to different identification and estimation techniques. The study offers another perspective of the ongoing debate in the social responsibility literature about the accountability relationships between business and society.

Keywords: gender diversity, Social Responsibility, Sustainable Investment, environmental proctection

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
221 Intergenerational Influences on Automobile Brand Preferences in Pakistan

Authors: Amena Sibghatullah

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of Inter-generational Influence (IGI) between two successive generations in the selection of automobile brands. IGI was examined between mother-daughter dyads and father-son dyads. A total sample of 320 respondents (80 fathers and their 80 sons, 80 mothers, and their 80 daughters) from the upper-middle class was selected. Three important findings from this study are; (a) the difference in proportion of agreements Brand-In-Use versus Brand-In-Mind appeared to be statistically significant in the Automobile product category. Thus agreements Brand-In-Use situation between parent and child has more agreements than Brand-In-Mind situation; (b) the difference in proportions between women and men (women means mother-daughter dyad agreement, and men means father-son dyad agreement) is statistically significant in automobile brand preferences. This means that mother-daughter dyad brand preferences, both brand-in-mind and brand-in-use are more significant than that of a father-son dyad, and (c) dominance of the top three brands has been exhibited in automobiles both Brand-In-Use and Brand-In-Mind. These three brands hold more than 57% of auto brand preferences. This means that the three brands occupy distinct and strong positions in the minds of consumers. These results reflect that there is significant evidence of IGI presence between parent and adult child. Marketers of auto brands need to understand this sort of influence on their target consumers.

Keywords: branding, Preferences, autombile brands, intergenerational influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
220 Macroscopic Support Structure Design for the Tool-Free Support Removal of Laser Powder Bed Fusion-Manufactured Parts Made of AlSi10Mg

Authors: Tobias Schmithuesen, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum

Abstract:

The additive manufacturing process laser powder bed fusion offers many advantages over conventional manufacturing processes. For example, almost any complex part can be produced, such as topologically optimized lightweight parts, which would be inconceivable with conventional manufacturing processes. A major challenge posed by the LPBF process, however, is, in most cases, the need to use and remove support structures on critically inclined part surfaces (α < 45 ° regarding substrate plate). These are mainly used for dimensionally accurate mapping of part contours and to reduce distortion by absorbing process-related internal stresses. Furthermore, they serve to transfer the process heat to the substrate plate and are, therefore, indispensable for the LPBF process. A major challenge for the economical use of the LPBF process in industrial process chains is currently still the high manual effort involved in removing support structures. According to the state of the art (SoA), the parts are usually treated by simple hand tools (e.g., pliers, chisels) or by machining (e.g., milling, turning). New automatable approaches are the removal of support structures by means of wet chemical ablation and thermal deburring. According to the state of the art, the support structures are essentially adapted to the LPBF process and not to potential post-processing steps. The aim of this study is the determination of support structure designs that are adapted to the mentioned post-processing approaches. In the first step, the essential boundary conditions for complete removal by means of the respective approaches are identified. Afterward, a representative demonstrator part with various macroscopic support structure designs will be LPBF-manufactured and tested with regard to a complete powder and support removability. Finally, based on the results, potentially suitable support structure designs for the respective approaches will be derived. The investigations are carried out on the example of the aluminum alloy AlSi10Mg.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, Aluminum Alloy, laser powder bed fusion, laser beam melting, post processing, tool-free, wet chemical ablation, thermal deburring, AlSi10Mg

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
219 The Impact of Gender Inequality on Corruption:Evidence from Politics and Labor Market

Authors: Mahmoud Salari

Abstract:

Corruption and gender inequality are the main topics of interest for both economists and policymakers. This study develops various static and dynamic estimation models to examine the impact of gender inequality in politics and the labor market on corruption using data of 170 countries from 1998 to 2014. This study uses two most reliable corruption indexes, including Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and Corruption Control (CC), to evaluate corruption levels across countries. The results indicate that gender inequality in politics has a strong impact on corruption level, and those countries that have larger/smaller gender inequality in their parliaments are faced with higher/lower corruption, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no enough evidence that supports the relationship between gender inequality in the labor market and corruption, and the results indicate that gender inequality in the labor market is not directly linked to the corruption level.

Keywords: Politics, Corruption, Gender Inequality, female labor force participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1