Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 171

India Related Abstracts

171 Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Iranian and Indian Spices by ELISA Method

Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad

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This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that was included of chilli powder (n=12), black pepper powder (n=12) and whole black pepper (n=12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analysing the samples. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit i.e. 5 µg/kg of European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. The occurrence of AFB1 in spices samples could be a potential hazard for public health.

Keywords: India, ELISA, Iran, Aflatoxin B1, chilli, black pepper

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170 Perceptions of Doctors and Nurses About Euthanasia in Indian Scenario

Authors: TANUJ KANCHAN, B. Unnikrishnan, Ramesh Holla, Nithin Kumar

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Euthanasia has been debated for the ethical, legal, social, and religious implications associated with it. The present research was conducted to study the perceptions of doctors and nurses about ethical and legal aspects of Euthanasia in Indian scenario. The study was carried out at three tertiary care hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Practicing doctors and nurses working in the hospitals associated with KMC were included in the study after taking written informed consent from the participants. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the responses of doctors and nurses. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A total of 144 doctors and nurses participated in the study. Both doctors and nurses agreed that if a terminally ill patient wishes to die, the wish cannot be honored ethically and legally. A significantly larger number of nurses agreed that patient’s wish for euthanasia cannot be honored ethically and legally when compared to the doctors. Though the doctors and nurses were broadly in agreement with the existing legal and ethical views on the issue, their knowledge on the issue with regard to the legal status of euthanasia in India and ethical aspects relating to it needs to be strengthened.

Keywords: Euthanasia, Legal Aspects, India, ethical aspects

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
169 The Impact of India’s Centre-State Relations on its Maritime Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Authors: Riddhi Shah

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Centre-state relations in India are a fascinating area of studies. The structure of the relationship has an effect on every single aspect of life as we know it in India. This paper is an attempt to study centre-state relations in the context of India’s maritime counter-terrorism strategy. Although the Government of India has not publicly stated its counter-terrorism strategy on the sea; intelligence, information sharing, crisis response, finances for internal security and the nation’s legislation for battling terrorism together comprise of India’s maritime-terrorism strategy. Through study of these areas, the paper argues that the centre-state divide has had systemic implications on India’s maritime security and has largely done more harm than good to collective initiatives that aspire to prevent future risk of terrorism from the sea or on the sea.

Keywords: Counter-Terrorism, India, maritime terrorism, federalism, centre-state relations

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168 The out of Proportion - Pulmonary Hypertension in Indians with Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: S. P. Chintan, A. M. Khoja, M. Modi, R. K. Chopra, S. Garde, D. Jain, O. Kajale

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Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare but debilitating disease that affects individuals of all ages and walks of life. As recent as 15 years ago, a patient diagnosed with PH was given an average survival rate of 2.8 years. Recent advances in treatment options have allowed patients to improve quality o and quantity of life. Initial screening for PH is through echocardiography with final diagnosis confirmed through right heart catheterization. PH is now considered to have five major classifications with subgroups among each. The mild to moderate PH is common in chronic lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and Interstitial lung disease. But very severe PH is noted in few cases. In COPD patients, PH is associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations and a reduced life expectancy. Similarly, in patients with ILD, the presence of PH correlates with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to slow disease progression. We report here five cases of severe PH (Out of Proportion) of which four cases were of COPD and another one of IPF (UIP pattern). There echocardiography showed gross RA/RV dilatation, interventricular septum bulging to the left and mPAP of more than 100 mmHg in all the five cases. These patients were put on LTOT, pulmonary rehabilitation, combination pharmacotherapy of vasodilators and diuretics in continuation to the treatment of underlying disease. As these patients have grave prognosis close monitoring and follow up is required. Physicians associated with respiratory care and treating chronic lung disease should have knowledge in the diagnosis and management of patients with PH.

Keywords: COPD, Pulmonary Hypertension, India, Chronic lung disease

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167 Applicability of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Health Literacy in Medicine (Short Form) among Patients in Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

Authors: U. P. Rathnakar, Medha Urval, K. Ashok Shenoy

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Introduction: There are many tools available for the measurement of health literacy. REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) is a very commonly used tool in advanced countries. It comes in two forms-one with 66 words and shorter version (REALM-SF) with seven words. We decided to test the applicability of shorter version of the REALM test among our patients. Methodology: REALM (SF) was tested among 200 patients in a tertiary hospital. Discussion and conclusion: From the analysis of results, when the results of pronunciation indicate adequate levels of HL skills, analysis of comprehension shows that mere reading skills is likely to be misleading. So it is proposed that in Indian population who have adequate reading skills without adequate comprehension the REALM-SF test tool in its present form may not be an ideal testing tool for assessing HL.

Keywords: health literacy, India, REALM, short form

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166 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

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The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: Migration, Displacement, India, North-East

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165 A Sector-Wise Study on Detecting Earnings Management in India

Authors: Ashu Khanna, Raghuveer Kaur, Kartikay Sharma

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Earnings management has been present from times immemorial. The recent downfall of giant enterprises like Enron, Satyam and WorldCom has brought a lot of focus on the study and detection of earnings management. The present study is an attempt to study earnings management in one of the fastest emerging economy - India. The study makes an attempt to understand earnings management in different sectors of the economy. The paper first tests a hypothesis to check whether different sectors of India are engaged in earnings management or not. In the later section the paper aims to study the level of earnings management in 6 popular sectors of India: IT&BPO, Retail, Telecom, Biotech, Hotels and coffee. To measure earnings management two popular techniques of detecting earnings management has been employed: Modified Jones Model and Beniesh M Score. A total of 332 companies were studied. Publicly available data from Capitaline database has been used. The paper also classifies the top and bottom five performers on the basis of sales turnover in each sector and identifies whether they manage their earnings or not.

Keywords: Earnings Management, India, modified Jones model, Beneish M score

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164 Clinical Characteristics of Children Presenting with History of Child Sexual Abuse to a Tertiary Care Centre in India

Authors: T. S. Sowmya Bhaskaran, Shekhar Seshadri

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This study aims to study the clinical features of with a history of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). A chart review of 40 children (<16 years) with history of CSA evaluated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of NIMHANS during a two year period was performed. Results:The most common form of abuse was contact penetrative abuse (65%) followed by non-contact penetrative abuse (32.5%). 75% (N=30) had a psychiatric diagnosis at baseline. 50% of these children had one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Anxiety disorder was the most common diagnosis (27.5%) which included PTSD (11%) followed by Depressive disorder (25.2%). Children abused by multiple perpetrators were found to be more likely to have depression, to having a comorbid psychiatric disorder and more prone to exhibit sexualized behaviour. Children who also experienced physical violence at home were more likely to develop psychiatric illness following child sexual abuse. Psychiatric morbidity is high in clinic population of children with history of CSA. It is important to increase the awareness regarding the consequences of CSA in order to increase help seeking.

Keywords: India, child sexual abuse, tertiary care centre, clinical characteristics

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163 Analyzing Information Management in Science and Technology Institute Libraries in India

Authors: P. M. Naushad Ali

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India’s strength in basic research is recognized internationally. Science and Technology research in India has been performed by six distinct bodies or organizations such as Cooperative Research Associations, Autonomous Research Council, Institute under Ministries, Industrial R&D Establishment, Universities, Private Institutions. All most all these institutions are having a well-established library/information center to cater the information needs of their users like scientists and technologists. Information Management (IM) comprises disciplines concerned with the study and the effective and efficient management of information and resources, products and services as well as the understanding of the involved technologies and the people engaged in this activity. It is also observed that the libraries and information centers in India are also using modern technologies for the management of various activities and services to serve their users in a better way. Science and Technology libraries in the country are usually better equipped because the investment in Science and Technology in the country are much larger than those in other fields. Thus, most of the Science and Technology libraries are equipped with modern IT-based tools for handling and management of library services. In spite of these facts Science and Technology libraries are having all the characteristics of a model organization where computer application is found most successful, however, the adoption of this IT based management tool is not uniform in these libraries. The present study will help to know about the level use of IT-based management tools for the information management of Science and Technology libraries in India. The questionnaire, interview, observation and document review techniques have been used in data collection. Finally, the author discusses findings of the study and put forward some suggestions to improve the quality of Science and Technology institute library services in India.

Keywords: Information Management, India, science and technology libraries, IT-based tools

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162 Multiplying Vulnerability of Child Health Outcome and Food Diversity in India

Authors: Mukesh Ravi Raushan

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Despite consideration of obesity as a deadly public health issue contributing 2.6 million deaths worldwide every year developing country like India is facing malnutrition and it is more common than in Sub-Saharan Africa. About one in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India. The paper assess the nutritional health among children using data from total number of 43737 infant and young children aged 0-59 months (µ = 29.54; SD = 17.21) of the selected households by National Family Health Survey, 2005-06. The wasting was measured by a Z-score of standardized weight-for-height according to the WHO child growth standards. The impact of education with place of residence was found to be significantly associated with the complementary food diversity score (CFDS) in India. The education of mother was positively associated with the CFDS but the degree of performance was lower in rural India than their counterpart from urban. The result of binary logistic regression on wasting with WHO seven types of recommended food for children in India suggest that child who consumed the milk product food (OR: 0.87, p<0.0001) were less likely to be malnourished than their counterparts who did not consume, whereas, in case of other food items as the child who consumed food product of seed (OR: 0.75, p<0.0001) were less likely to be malnourished than those who did not. The nutritional status among children were negatively associated with the protein containing complementary food given the child as those child who received pulse in last 24 hour were less likely to be wasted (OR: 0.87, p<0.00001) as compared to the reference categories. The frequency to feed the indexed child increases by 10 per cent the expected change in child health outcome in terms of wasting decreases by 2 per cent in India when place of residence, education, religion, and birth order were controlled. The index gets improved as the risk for malnutrition among children in India decreases.

Keywords: India, Logistic Regression, CFDS, food diversity index

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
161 Caregiver’s Perception Regarding Diagnosis Disclosure to Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Resource-Limited Settings: Observational Study from India

Authors: Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar

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Background: With a better understanding of HIV pathogenesis and availability of antiretroviral therapy more children are growing and entering in teenage group; informing children of their own HIV status has become an important aspect of long-term disease management. There is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in a resource-limited setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 among a dyads of 156 HIV-infected children and their caregivers, those were visiting pediatric clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. The study protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee. After taking written informed consent; pretested structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers during routine clinic visits. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV infection status among children and their perception regarding disclosure was collected. Mean and frequencies were calculated and chi-square and logistic regression test were applied. Results: The mean age of children was 8.4 ±3.45 years. Among them 73.7% were male and 39.1% were orphans. Among 156 enrolled children, 74.4% (n=116) were of ≥ 6 years and were assessed for disclosure. Only 18.1% (n=21) children had been informed of their HIV status. Of those under 9 years, 6.4% knew their status, whereas 18.4% of 9-11 years and 35.5% of 12-14 years children knew they had HIV. Awareness among males (23.3%) was higher than females (3.3%). Both age and sex of child were significantly (p<0.01) associated with disclosure status. Other factors favoring disclosure were orphan-hood, non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.01-7.12), ART initiation (OR = 4.21; 95% CI 1.03-6.98), and caregiver educated beyond primary level (OR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.26). Repeated enquiry regarding the visit to clinic was the most common reason (66.6%) for disclosure. In 52.4% children disclosure was done with the involvement of other family members. 82.5% caregivers felt the age of > 10 years is appropriate for disclosing the HIV infection status to the child. Conclusion: Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status.

Keywords: HIV, Children, disclosure, India

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160 Increasing Prevalence of CVD and Its Risk Factors in India: A Review

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

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Non-communicable diseases in general and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in particular are a big cause of concern worldwide especially in fast growing economy like India. CVD is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are now significant in all populations. At least one-third of all CVD is attributable to five risk factors: tobacco use, alcohol use, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and obesity. Methods: This article aspires to collate data gathered by relevant studies conducted after year 2000 and provide an overview of the prevalence of CVD in India and worldwide. Results: Studies show an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in India as compared to other developing and developed countries with recent trends showing incidence in younger age group. It is seen to affect almost all sections of the society from young to old and most affluent to least affluent. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco and alcohol use, as well as low vegetable and fruit intake, already figure among the top risk factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of risk factors associated with CVD has increased and will keep on increasing in India as indicated by studies in the last decade and as predicted by the projections for future estimates. Some major risks are modifiable in that they can be prevented, treated, and controlled. There are considerable health benefits at all ages, for both men and women, in stopping smoking, reducing cholesterol and blood pressure, eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, India, Risk Factors, Prevalence

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159 Effect Of Selected Food And Nutrition Environments On Prevalence Of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors With Emphasis On Worksite Environment In Urban Delhi

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

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Food choice is a complex process influenced by the interplay of multiple factors, including physical, socio-cultural and economic factors comprising macro or micro level food environments. While a clear understanding of the relationship between what we eat and the environmental context in which these food choices are made is still needed; it has however now been shown that food environments do play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and increasing cardio-metabolic risk factors. Evidence in other countries indicates that the food environment may strongly influence the prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adults. Although in the Indian context, data does indicate the associations between sedentary lifestyle, stress, faulty diets but very little evidence supports the role of food environment in influencing cardio-metabolic health among employed adults. Thus, this research is required to establish how different environments affect different individuals as individuals interact with the environment on a number of levels. Methodology: The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of selected food and nutrition environments with emphasis on worksite environment and to analyse its impact on the food choices and dietary behaviour of the employees (25-45 years of age) of the organizations under study. In the proposed study an attempt will be made to randomly select various worksite environments from Delhi and NCR. The study will be conducted in two phases. In phase I, Information will be obtained on their socio-demographic profile and various factors influencing their food choices including most commonly consumed foods and most frequently visited eating outlets in and around the work place. Data will also be gathered on anthropometry (height, weight, waist circumference), biochemical parameters (lipid profile and fasting glucose), blood pressure and dietary intake. Based on the findings of phase I, a list of the most frequently visited eating outlets in and around the workplace will be prepared in Phase II. These outlets will then be subjected to nutrition environment assessment survey (NEMS). On the basis of the information gathered from phase I and phase II, influence of selected food and nutrition environments on food choice, dietary behaviour and prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among employed adults will be assessed. Expected outcomes: The proposed study will try to ascertain the impact of selected food and nutrition environments on food choice and dietary intake of the working adults as it is important to learn how these food environments influence the eating perceptions and health behavior of the adults. In addition to this, anthropometry blood pressure and biochemical assessment of the subjects will be done to assess the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. If the findings indicate that the work environment, where most of these young adults spend their productive hours of the day, influence their health, than perhaps steps maybe needed to make these environments more conducive to health.

Keywords: India, food and nutrition environment, cardio-metabolic risk factors, worksite environment

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158 Exploring the Food Environments and Their Influence on Food Choices of Working Adults

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

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Food environments are believed to play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and robust research methods are required to establish which factors or aspects of the food environment are relevant to food choice and to adiposity. The relationship between the food environment and obesity is complex. While there is little research linking food access with obesity as an outcome measure in any age group, with the help of this article we will try to understand the relationship between what we eat and the environmental context in which these food choices are made. Methods: A literature search of studies published between January 2000 and December 2013 was undertaken on computerized medical, social science, health, nutrition and education databases including Google, PubMed etc. Reports of organisations such as World Health Organisation (WHO), Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC) were studied to project the data. Results: Studies show that food environments play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and robust research methods are required to establish which factors or aspects of the food environment are relevant to food choice and to adiposity. Evidence indicates that the food environment may help explain the obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adults. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease is the ever growing chronic disease, the incidence of which will increase markedly in the coming decades. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to assess the prevalence of various risk factors that contribute to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases especially in the work environment. Research is required to establish how different environments affect different individuals as individuals interact with the environment on a number of levels. We need to ascertain the impact of selected food and nutrition environments (Information, organization, community, consumer) on food choice and dietary intake of the working adults as it is important to learn how these food environments influence the eating perceptions and health behaviour of the adults.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, India, Food Environment, Risk Factors, Prevalence, worksite

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157 Multidimensional Poverty and Child Cognitive Development

Authors: Bidyadhar Dehury, Sanjay Kumar Mohanty

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According to the Right to Education Act of India, education is the fundamental right of all children of age group 6-14 year irrespective of their status. Using the unit level data from India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we tried to understand the inter-relationship between the level of poverty and the academic performance of the children aged 8-11 years. The level of multidimensional poverty is measured using five dimensions and 10 indicators using Alkire-Foster approach. The weighted deprivation score was obtained by giving equal weight to each dimension and indicators within the dimension. The weighted deprivation score varies from 0 to 1 and grouped into four categories as non-poor, vulnerable, multidimensional poor and sever multidimensional poor. The academic performance index was measured using three variables reading skills, math skills and writing skills using PCA. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was used in the analysis. The outcome variable was ordinal. So the predicted probabilities were calculated using the ordinal logistic regression. The predicted probabilities of good academic performance index was 0.202 if the child was sever multidimensional poor, 0.235 if the child was multidimensional poor, 0.264 if the child was vulnerable, and 0.316 if the child was non-poor. Hence, if the level of poverty among the children decreases from sever multidimensional poor to non-poor, the probability of good academic performance increases.

Keywords: India, writing skills, multidimensional poverty, academic performance index, reading skills, math skills

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156 Healthcare Service Quality in Indian Context

Authors: Ganesh Nivrutti Akhade

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This paper attempts to develop a reliable and valid instrument of measuring Healthcare service quality in India, and also analyses the impact of demographic factor of respondent on healthcare service quality. In this research paper , extant literature survey, discussion with stakeholder of healthcare system such as patients, patients relative, administrators of hospitals, clinics, professionals and expert interviews were used to develop a attributes of healthcare service quality dimensions. A pilot study was conducted with a sample of 31 healthcare patients of private sector, public sector ,trust hospital ,primary health care centers and clinics was surveyed in the Nagpur Metropolitan Area. At the end fifteen dimensions—reliability, assurance, responsiveness, tangibility, empathy, affordability, respect, and caring, Attitude of staff, Technical competence, Appropriateness, Safety, continuity, Effectiveness, Availability, Financial support. This fifteen-dimensional model was validated through a content validity and construct validity. The proposed research model shows acceptable fit indices. Impact of these dimensions on the Overall Healthcare Service Quality and customer satisfaction are analyzed using multiple regression technique. Findings indicate that all dimensions carry significant impact on the Overall Healthcare Service Quality perceptions and customer satisfaction. However, availability and effectiveness dimensions carry the maximum impact on the Overall healthcare Service Quality .

Keywords: Healthcare, India, Service Quality, factor analysis (CFA), service quality dimensions

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155 Improving Human Resources Management in Indian Civil Service

Authors: Anant Deogaonkar, Archana Nanoty

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The term civil service plays a vital role in functioning of any government. In today’s modern era of globalization civil services essentially contribute for the success of the good governance system. The civil service in India refers to the body of government officials employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. The Indian Civil Services were created to foster the idea of unity in diversity with the expectation of giving continuity and change in administration independent of the political scenario and turmoil affecting the country. The civil service is an integral part of administration and the structures of administration to determine the way civil service functions. The concept of good governance necessarily precludes the effective human resource management ensuring the root level reach of the good governance. The serious matter of concern is the element of change. The civil service in general has maintained status quo instead of sweeping changes in social and economic scenario. One may disagree for this but it is a fact on the street that the Indian civil service was not able to deliver up to the expectations of the people and was lacking on the service front. The effective management of human resources at civil service needs to be prioritized and will form a key factor in successful delivery of the desired results may be in minimum duration. This paper focuses on the various ways of effective management of human resources in civil services. It also highlights the importance of improvement in human resource management in civil services with the detailed discussion of positives and negatives if any of the human resource management in civil services.

Keywords: Governance, Human Resources Management, India, civil services

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154 An Evaluation of Drivers in Implementing Sustainable Manufacturing in India: Using DEMATEL Approach

Authors: S. Luthra, A. Haleem, D. Garg

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Due to growing concern about environmental and social consequences throughout the world, a need has been felt to incorporate sustainability concepts in conventional manufacturing. This paper is an attempt to identify and evaluate drivers in implementing sustainable manufacturing in Indian context. Nine possible drivers for successful implementation of sustainable manufacturing have been identified from extensive review. Further, Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach has been utilized to evaluate and categorize these identified drivers for implementing sustainable manufacturing in to the cause and effect groups. Five drivers (Societal Pressure and Public Concerns; Regulations and Government Policies; Top Management Involvement, Commitment and Support; Effective Strategies and Activities towards Socially Responsible Manufacturing and Market Trends) have been categorized into the cause group and four drivers (Holistic View in Manufacturing Systems; Supplier Participation; Building Sustainable culture in Organization; and Corporate Image and Benefits) have been categorized into the effect group. “Societal Pressure and Public Concerns” has been found the most critical driver and “Corporate Image and Benefits” as least critical or the most easily influenced driver to implementing sustainable manufacturing in Indian context. This paper may surely help practitioners in better understanding of these drivers and their priorities towards effective implementation of sustainable manufacturing.

Keywords: Sustainable Manufacturing, India, Drivers, decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)

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153 Work Related and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders among Workers in an Automated flexible Assembly Line in India

Authors: Rohin Rameswarapu, Sameer Valsangkar

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Background: Globally, musculoskeletal disorders are the largest single cause of work-related illnesses accounting for over 33% of all newly reported occupational illnesses. Risk factors for MSD need to be delineated to suggest means for amelioration. Material and methods: In this current cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MSDs among workers in an electrical company assembly line, the socio-demographic and job characteristics associated with MSD were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. A quantitative assessment of the physical risk factors through the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool, and measurement of psychosocial risk factors through a Likert scale was obtained. Statistical analysis was conducted using Epi-info software and descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square and unpaired t test were obtained. Results: A total of 263 workers consented and participated in the study. Among these workers, 200 (76%) suffered from MSD. Most of the workers were aged between 18–27 years and majority of the workers were women with 198 (75.2%) of the 263 workers being women. A chi square test was significant for association between male gender and MSD with a P value of 0.007. Among the MSD positive group, 4 (2%) had a grand score of 5, 10 (5%) had a grand score of 6 and 186 (93%) had a grand score of 7 on RULA. There were significant differences between the non-MSD and MSD group on five out of the seven psychosocial domains, namely job demand, job monotony, co-worker support, decision control and family and environment domains. Discussion: The current cross-sectional study demonstrates a high prevalence of MSD among assembly line works with inherent physical and psychosocial risk factors and recommends that not only physical risk factors, addressing psychosocial risk factors through proper ergonomic means is also essential to the well-being of the employee.

Keywords: Occupational Health, Musculoskeletal Disorders, India, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA)

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152 An Integrated Multisensor/Modeling Approach Addressing Climate Related Extreme Events

Authors: H. M. El-Askary, S. A. Abd El-Mawla, M. Allali, M. M. El-Hattab, M. El-Raey, A. M. Farahat, M. Kafatos, S. Nickovic, S. K. Park, A. K. Prasad, C. Rakovski, W. Sprigg, D. Struppa, A. Vukovic

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A clear distinction between weather and climate is a necessity because while they are closely related, there are still important differences. Climate change is identified when we compute the statistics of the observed changes in weather over space and time. In this work we will show how the changing climate contribute to the frequency, magnitude and extent of different extreme events using a multi sensor approach with some synergistic modeling activities. We are exploring satellite observations of dust over North Africa, Gulf Region and the Indo Gangetic basin as well as dust versus anthropogenic pollution events over the Delta region in Egypt and Seoul through remote sensing and utilize the behavior of the dust and haze on the aerosol optical properties. Dust impact on the retreat of the glaciers in the Himalayas is also presented. In this study we also focus on the identification and monitoring of a massive dust plume that blew off the western coast of Africa towards the Atlantic on October 8th, 2012 right before the development of Hurricane Sandy. There is evidence that dust aerosols played a non-trivial role in the cyclogenesis process of Sandy. Moreover, a special dust event "An American Haboob" in Arizona is discussed as it was predicted hours in advance because of the great improvement we have in numerical, land–atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events. Therefore we performed a full numerical simulation to that event using the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME–DREAM after generating a mask of the potentially dust productive regions using land cover and vegetation data obtained from satellites. Climate change also contributes to the deterioration of different marine habitats. In that regard we are also presenting some work dealing with change detection analysis of Marine Habitats over the city of Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt. The motivation for this work came from the fact that coral reefs at Hurghada have undergone significant decline. They are damaged, displaced, polluted, stepped on, and blasted off, in addition to the effects of climate change on the reefs. One of the most pressing issues affecting reef health is mass coral bleaching that result from an interaction between human activities and climatic changes. Over another location, namely California, we have observed that it exhibits highly-variable amounts of precipitation across many timescales, from the hourly to the climate timescale. Frequently, heavy precipitation occurs, causing damage to property and life (floods, landslides, etc.). These extreme events, variability, and the lack of good, medium to long-range predictability of precipitation are already a challenge to those who manage wetlands, coastal infrastructure, agriculture and fresh water supply. Adding on to the current challenges for long-range planning is climate change issue. It is known that La Niña and El Niño affect precipitation patterns, which in turn are entwined with global climate patterns. We have studied ENSO impact on precipitation variability over different climate divisions in California. On the other hand the Nile Delta has experienced lately an increase in the underground water table as well as water logging, bogging and soil salinization. Those impacts would pose a major threat to the Delta region inheritance and existing communities. There has been an undergoing effort to address those vulnerabilities by looking into many adaptation strategies.

Keywords: Modeling, North Africa, Remote Sensing, Climate extremes, India, Sea Level Rise, Coral Reefs, long range transport, dust storms, Gulf Region, California

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151 Digital Library in India: Importance and Problem Issues in Present Days: A Conceptual Study

Authors: Mehtab Alam Ansari, Shamim Aktar Munshi

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The purpose of this paper is to find out the importance of digital libraries in Indian educational system, and also different types of problems faced by the digital library in modern age. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches along with review of related literature. The conceptual and textual information related to the present study were collected from primary and secondary sources of information such as books and National and International journals etc. Websites were also used for collecting information. The study finds out that due to high demand of information resources so many digital libraries are established in India, e.g. IGNCA digital library, Digital Library of India, Archives of Indian Labour, Digital Library of Library and Information Science etc, and also it found that it is very helpful to the modern civilization. The digital library movement in India is rapidly increasing and the traditional libraries are now on their way to digitization in a phased manner. But digital library in India has failed to spread its root in each and every part. So many problems are facing to develop the digital libraries in present days. This study briefly explained the services, impact, and problems of digital libraries in Indian.

Keywords: Education, Information Technology, Digital Libraries, India

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150 Patriarchy in Caste Society and Control over Women’s Sexuality in India

Authors: Renu Singh

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The caste system in Indian society plays an important role in subjugation of women. It creates divides and controls over women’s sexuality in various ways. This paper attempts to look into various modes in which the institution of caste makes some forms of sexuality as socially “acceptable” norms, while deems others as obscene, immoral and against social ethos. Based on a review of existing literature in this area this paper attempts to understand the notion of sexuality in Indian context. It tries to understand how the emergence of norms and values of sexual behaviour has been entwined with the evolution of caste system and the subjugation of many sections of Indian society. It also attempts to trace the internalisation of patriarchal values in Indian society, and the role played by the colonial rulers in creating and maintaining stringent division of space into public and private ones. It is argued here that brahmanical patriarchy, which is a unique phenomenon of the Indian Subcontinent, plays a crucial role in subjugating and controlling women in general and their sexuality in particular. It also creates a divide among women of different castes. Furthermore, the process of colonisation played an important role in shaping the discourse of sexuality in its present form. There were contradictions as well as consensus between the colonial rulers over the questions of regulation of the private domain, as in introducing reform legislation in the nineteenth century informed the debate on sexuality in postcolonial India. The process of emergence of the dichotomous notions of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ sexuality, and the resistance to any ‘deviation’ from the ‘normal’ sexuality is located, not merely in the ‘passive’ evolution of society, but in the actual politics of it.

Keywords: Control, Regulation, Sexuality, India, caste, brahmanical patriarchy

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149 Spatio-Temporal Risk Analysis of Cancer to Assessed Environmental Exposures in Coimbatore, India

Authors: Janani Selvaraj, M. Prashanthi Devi, P. B. Harathi

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Epidemiologic studies conducted over several decades have provided evidence to suggest that long-term exposure to elevated ambient levels of particulate air pollution is associated with increased mortality. Air quality risk management is significant in developing countries and it highlights the need to understand the role of ecologic covariates in the association between air pollution and mortality. Several new methods show promise in exploring the geographical distribution of disease and the identification of high risk areas using epidemiological maps. However, the addition of the temporal attribute would further give us an in depth idea of the disease burden with respect to forecasting measures. In recent years, new methods developed in the reanalysis were useful for exploring the spatial structure of the data and the impact of spatial autocorrelation on estimates of risk associated with exposure to air pollution. Based on this, our present study aims to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the lung cancer cases in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu in relation to air pollution risk areas. A spatio temporal moving average method was computed using the CrimeStat software and visualized in ArcGIS 10.1 to document the spatio temporal movement of the disease in the study region. The random walk analysis performed showed the progress of the peak cancer incidences in the intersection regions of the Coimbatore North and South taluks that include major commercial and residential regions like Gandhipuram, Peelamedu, Ganapathy, etc. Our study shows evidence that daily exposure to high air pollutant concentration zones may lead to the risk of lung cancer. The observations from the present study will be useful in delineating high risk zones of environmental exposure that contribute to the increase of cancer among daily commuters. Through our study we suggest that spatially resolved exposure models in relevant time frames will produce higher risks zones rather than solely on statistical theory about the impact of measurement error and the empirical findings.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Cancer, India, spatio-temporal analysis

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148 Spatial Variability of Soil Metal Contamination to Detect Cancer Risk Zones in Coimbatore Region of India

Authors: Janani Selvaraj, M. Prashanthi Devi, P. B. Harathi, Aarthi Mariappan

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Anthropogenic modification of the urban environment has largely increased in the recent years in order to sustain the growing human population. Intense industrial activity, permanent and high traffic on the roads, a developed subterranean infrastructure network, land use patterns are just some specific characteristics. Every day, the urban environment is polluted by more or less toxic emissions, organic or metals wastes discharged from specific activities such as industrial, commercial, municipal. When these eventually deposit into the soil, the physical and chemical properties of the surrounding soil is changed, transforming it into a human exposure indicator. Metals are non-degradable and occur cumulative in soil due to regular deposits are a result of permanent human activity. Due to this, metals are a contaminant factor for soil when persistent over a long period of time and a possible danger for inhabitant’s health on prolonged exposure. Metals accumulated in contaminated soil may be transferred to humans directly, by inhaling the dust raised from top soil, or by ingesting, or by dermal contact and indirectly, through plants and animals grown on contaminated soil and used for food. Some metals, like Cu, Mn, Zn, are beneficial for human’s health and represent a danger only if their concentration is above permissible levels, but other metals, like Pb, As, Cd, Hg, are toxic even at trace level causing gastrointestinal and lung cancers. In urban areas, metals can be emitted from a wide variety of sources like industrial, residential, commercial activities. Our study interrogates the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil in relation to their permissible levels and their association with the health risk to the urban population in Coimbatore, India. Coimbatore region is a high cancer risk zone and case records of gastro intestinal and respiratory cancer patients were collected from hospitals and geocoded in ArcGIS10.1. The data of patients pertaining to the urban limits were retained and checked for their diseases history based on their diagnosis and treatment. A disease map of cancer was prepared to show the disease distribution. It has been observed that in our study area Cr, Pb, As, Fe and Mg exceeded their permissible levels in the soil. Using spatial overlay analysis a relationship between environmental exposure to these potentially toxic elements in soil and cancer distribution in Coimbatore district was established to show areas of cancer risk. Through this, our study throws light on the impact of prolonged exposure to soil contamination in soil in the urban zones, thereby exploring the possibility to detect cancer risk zones and to create awareness among the exposed groups on cancer risk.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, India, Soil Contamination, Cancer Risk

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147 Partial Purification and Characterization of a Low Molecular Weight and Industrially Important Chitinase and a Chitin Deacetylase Enzyme from Streptomyces Chilikensis RC1830, a Novel Strain Isolated from Chilika Lake, India

Authors: Lopamudra Ray, Malla Padma, Dibya Bhol, Samir Ranjan Mishra, A. N. Panda, Gurdeep Rastogi, T. K. Adhya, Ajit Kumar Pattnaik, Mrutyunjay Suar, Vishakha Raina

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Chilika Lake is the largest coastal estuarine brackish water lagoon in Asia situated on the east coast of India and is a designated Ramsar site. In the current study, several chitinolytic microorganisms were isolated and screened by appearance of clearance zone on 0.5% colloidal chitin agar plate. A strain designated as RC 1830 displayed maximum colloidal chitin degradation by release of 112 μmol/ml/min of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in 48h. The strain was taxonomically identified by polyphasic approach based on a range of phenotypic and genotypic properties and was found to be a novel species named Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830. The organism was halophilic (12% NaCl w/v), alkalophilic (pH10) and was capable of hydrolyzing chitin, starch, cellulose, gelatin, casein, tributyrin and tween 80. The partial purification of chitinase enzymes from RC1830 was performed by DEAE Sephacel anion exchange chromatography which revealed the presence of a very low molecular weight chitinase(10.5kD) which may be a probable chitobiosidase enzyme. The study reports the presence of a low MW chitinase (10.5kD) and a chitin decaetylase from a novel Streptomyces strain RC1830 isolated from Chilika Lake. Previously chitinases less than 20.5kD have not been reported from any other Streptomyces species. The enzymes was characterized with respect to optimum pH, temperature, and substrate specificity and temperature stability.

Keywords: India, chitinases, chitobiosidase, Chilika Lake

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146 Pre-Service Teacher Education Reforms in India and Pakistan: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Jyoti Sharma

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India and Pakistan are two strategically important neighboring countries in Asia-Pacific region. Since independence of more than six decades, both, India and Pakistan have transverse different paths, India as a Sovereign, Democratic, Republic Country and Pakistan as Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The advent of democracy in India and Islamic republic in Pakistan resulted in new hopes, aspirations and demands on education. During the six decades after Independence, teacher education in both countries has come a long way from its initial bleak stature to gain an identity as a complex network of institutions and programs. The present paper takes a close look into the paradigm shift in teacher education programs in India and Pakistan and how much the shift is influenced by constitutional frameworks of each country.

Keywords: Pakistan, India, pre-service teachers, teacher education reforms

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145 Gifted Disadvantage in Education Safety Net: A Reality Check: A Case Study From India

Authors: Jyoti Sharma

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Although notion of giftedness is a reality, yet it swings along the pendulum of equality and excellence. At times, nurturance of gifted abilities becomes a struggle of better catchment of resources and facilities. Those from affluent setup are blessed with better support system whereas gifted children from disadvantaged group suffer from submissive upbringing. In developing countries like India, with diverse demographic profiles, socio-cultural diversity and economic disparity, the very concept of equality in education face severe challenge. The present paper presents the dichotomy of ideology of equality and excellence in education practices. It highlights the need of wider vision, better policy making and decentralized implementation services to allow gifted children to enjoy what they are; dream what they can be; and promote what they will be.

Keywords: India, gifted, disadvantaged, education safety net

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144 Spatial Variation in Urbanization and Slum Development in India: Issues and Challenges in Urban Planning

Authors: Mala Mukherjee

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Background: India is urbanizing very fast and urbanisation in India is treated as one of the most crucial components of economic growth. Though the pace of urbanisation (31.6 per cent in 2011) is however slower and lower than the average for Asia but the absolute number of people residing in cities and towns has increased substantially. Rapid urbanization leads to urban poverty and it is well represented in slums. Currently India has four metropolises and 53 million plus cities. All of them have significant slum population but the standard of living and success of slum development programmes varies across regions. Objectives: Objectives of the paper are to show how urbanisation and slum development varies across space; to show spatial variation in the standard of living in Indian slums; to analyse how the implementation of slum development policies like JNNURM, Rajiv Awas Yojana varies across cities and bring different results in different regions and what are the factors responsible for such variation. Data Sources and Methodology: Census 2011 data on urban population and slum households and amenities have been used for analysing the regional variation of urbanisation in 53 million plus cities of India. Special focus has been put on Kolkata Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques like z-score and PCA have been employed to work out Standard of Living Deprivation score for all the slums of 53 metropolises. ARC-GIS software is used for making maps. Standard of living has been measured in terms of access to basic amenities, infrastructure and assets like drinking water, sanitation, housing condition, bank account, and so on. Findings: 1. The first finding reveals that migration and urbanization is very high in Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Bangaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kolkata; but slum population is high in Greater Mumbai (50% population live in slums), Meerut, Faridabad, Ludhiana, Nagpur, Kolkata etc. Though the rate of urbanization is high in southern and western states but the percentage of slum population is high in northern states (except Greater Mumbai). 2. Standard of Living also varies widely. Slums of Greater Mumbai and North Indian Cities score fairly high in the index indicating the fact that standard of living is high in those slums compare to the slums in eastern India (Dhanbad, Jamshedpur, Kolkata). Therefore, though Kolkata have relatively lesser percentage of slum population compare to north and south Indian cities but the standard of living in Kolkata’s slums is deplorable. 3. It is interesting to note that even within Kolkata Metropolitan Area slums located in the southern and eastern municipal towns like Rajpur-Sonarpur, Pujali, Diamond Harbour, Baduria and Dankuni have lower standard of living compare to the slums located in the Hooghly Industrial belt like Titagarh, Rishrah, Srerampore etc. Slums of the Hooghly Industrial Belt are older than the slums located in eastern and southern part of the urban agglomeration. 4. Therefore, urban development and emergence of slums should not be the only issue of urban governance but standard of living should be the main focus. Slums located in the main cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata get more attention from the urban planners and similarly, older slums in a city receives greater political attention compare to the slums of smaller cities and newly emerged slums of the peripheral parts.

Keywords: Urbanisation, India, slum, spatial variation

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143 The Influence of the Islamic State (IS) on India: Recent Developments and Challenges

Authors: Alvite Singh Ningthoujam

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The most recent terror phenomenon, which is also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), or Islamic State (IS), has its influence felt in South Asia. This dreaded Sunni militant group, today, has become a concern in India as well. Already affected by various terror activities in the country, the influence of the IS on the radicalised Muslim youths in India has been watched closely by the security agencies. There had already been a few IS-related incidents in India due to which this issue has emerged as a threat or challenge to India’s internal security. The rapid radicalisation of youths in a few states where there are sizeable Muslim populations has gone, to some extent, in favour of the IS, particularly in the terror outfit’s recruitment process. What has added to the worry of the Indian security agencies is the announcement of the Al-Qaeda leader, Ayman al-Zawahari, of the creation of the Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent. In fact, this is a worrisome factor as both the militant groups, that is, al-Qaeda and ISIS, have a similar objective to target India and to turn this South Asian country as one of the recruiting grounds for extremists. There is also a possibility that an Indian Mujahedeen (IM) man was believed to be instrumental in recruiting for the ISIS poor Muslims in a few Indian states. If this nexus between ISIS and India’s home-grown terror groups manages to establish a robust link, then the headache of combating such amalgamated force will be a hard task for Indian security agencies. In the wake of the above developments, this paper would seek to analyse the developing trend in India in regard to IS. It would also bring out the reasons as to why further penetration of the IS influence on India would be a grave concern in the internal security of the country. The last section of the paper would highlight the steps that have been taken by the Indian government to tackle this menace effectively.

Keywords: Security, India, muslim, Islamic State

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142 Measuring Ecological Footprint: Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Binita Shah, Seema Unnikrishnan

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In the recent time, an increasing interest in the analysis and efforts to reduce the environmental impacts generated by man-made activities has been seen widely being discussed and implemented by the society. The industrial processes are expressing their concern and showing keen interest in redesigning and amending the operation process leading to better environmental performance by upgrading technologies and adjusting the financial inputs. There are various tools available for the assessment of process and production of goods on the environment. Most methods look at a particular impact on the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely accepted and scientifically founded methodologies to assess the overall environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper looks at the tools used in India for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: Ecological Footprint, Life Cycle Assessment, India, measuring sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 488