Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 114

Identity Related Abstracts

114 Zhou Enlai’s Impact to the Foreign Folicy of China

Authors: Nazira B. Boldurukova

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to give the information about life and social and diplomatic work of Zhou Enlai, to prove his identity in his impact to the history of the world; to show his place in the organization of internal and foreign policy and in the peaceful international relationships of China with other countries.

Keywords: Identity, diplomacy, China, foreign policy of China, politician, Zhou Enlai

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113 Fashion as Identity Architect: Sikhs in Perspective

Authors: Anupreet B. Dugal, Suruchi Mittar

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The research prospect explores fashion as a tool to effectively emancipate the Sikh identity. The study presents information on how fashion has played a critical and visible role in reflecting and helping to construct identities based on religiosity. It discusses the Sikh identity, its’ origin; its continuity and the contemporary ambivalence. Fashion has mostly, if not always been used as a means of establishing identity. This research creates a gateway to discuss the impact that fashion can have on the existing socio-cultural and religious models. The study focuses on the Sikhs, a small community of India with regard to their visual appearance. The research will be based on the case study of 1469, a store infusing Sikhism as a style quotient. Subsequently, in the research framework, a sample study would be conducted with Sikh youth (18-25 years old) hailing from New Delhi, the capital city of India. 1469 formulates a striking case study for examining the relationship between fashion and religious and personal identity.

Keywords: Identity, Textiles, Fashion, sikh identity

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112 Thai Arts and Culture the Formation of Thai Identity Letter Font Designed

Authors: Kreetha Thumcharoensathit

Abstract:

The purpose of the analysis of Thai Arts and Culture which concerning the formation of Thai identity letter font designed is to identify The Aumphawa local community identity so as to select the suitable letter font which can applicable to the computer software usage. The populated survey was from the group of local people who live in Aumphawa sub-district. The methodological is cluster sampling from 100 surveyed, those 50 were from people who have household registration done in Aumphawa sub-district and other from people who live outside. In order to analyze and design the Thai identity letter font computer software designed for both Thai and English language version, the analysis had been completed by compiling of document and field survey from local people’s opinion on their Arts and Culture identity. The out-put will be submitted to the experts for evaluation.

Keywords: Design, Identity, Thai arts, font

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111 Crisis of Sinti (Gypsy) Ethnicity and Identity

Authors: Rinaldo Diricchardi

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In this paper, author theoretically and empirically explores the ethnic identity of the descendants of the Indian travelers in Slovenia Sinti, who are in modern time, for the researchers, still a "tabula rasa". He investigates the extent to which Sinti ethnic particular identities (e.g. Sinti chiefs, Sinti’s individual political structure…), the Sinti language (dialect, which is topic and it is not allowed to be spoken in public), culture and habits still in the impact of anachronism, moreover, to what extent the community is still “tabula rasa” (to non–Sinti population). The relationships within the Sinti entity: "in se–intra se" is a mirror of duality of the relation of "extra se". Is it possible that the concepts of social/economical relationships are reflecting the Sinti community, moreover, the possible influence of minority from outside to inside? Is the stratification of their ethnicity and their language ethnicism? In addition, is the result of stratification of discourse still inherited and discounted the Indian caste system? In present article, author uses the word Gypsy with high respect and with a large measure of prudentiality, without negative connotations. At the first Gypsy World Congress in 1971 in London the Sinti did not accept unification with Romani, but Sinti and others Gypsies still keep the name Gypsy/Romanichals, Gypsy/Kale, Gypsy/Manouches, Gypsy/Manoesje, Gypsy/Xoraxano, Gypsy/Machaways and Gypsy/Kalderashe. In addition, all of the European documents taken into account respect and use the name Gypsy.

Keywords: Identity, Inclusion, Exclusion, Stratification, Sinti, Gypsy

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110 The Appearance of Identity in the Urban Landscape by Enjoying the Natural Factors

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Mehrdad Karimi

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This study has examined the appearance of identity in the urban landscape and its effects on the natural factors. For this purpose, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place dependence and social bond which totally constitute place attachment, measures it in three domains of cognitive (place identity), affective (emotional attachment) and behavioral (place dependence and social bond). In order to measure the natural factors, three components of the absolute elements, living entities, natural elements have been measured. The study is descriptive and the statistical population has been Yasouj, a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results in two level of descriptive and inferential statistics have been investigated. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. In this study, the variable of identity is in high level and the natural factors are also in high level. These results indicate a positive relationship between place identity and natural factors. Development of environment and reaching the quality level of the personality or identity will develop the individual and society.

Keywords: Identity, Landscape, Urban Landscape, Landscaping, Place Identity

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109 Negotiating Strangeness: Narratives of Forced Return Migration and the Construction of Identities

Authors: Cheryl-Ann Sarita Boodram

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Historically, the movement of people has been the subject of socio-political and economic regulatory policies which congeal to regulate human mobility and establish geopolitical and spatial identities and borderlands. As migratory practices evolved, so too has the problematization associated with movement, migration and citizenship. The emerging trends have led to active development of immigration technology governing human mobility and the naming of migratory practices. One such named phenomenon is ‘deportation’ or the forced removal of individuals from their adopted country. Deportation, has gained much attention within the human mobility landscape in the past twenty years following the September 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in New York. In a reactionary move, several metropolitan countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom enacted or reviewed immigration laws which further enabled the removal of foreign born criminals to the land of their birth in the global south. Existing studies fall short of understanding the multiple textures of the forced returned migration experiences and the social injustices resulting from deportation displacement. This study brings together indigenous research methodologies through the use of participatory action research and social work with returned migrants in Trinidad and Tobago to uncover the experiences of displacement of deported nationals. The study explores the experiences of negotiating life as a ‘stranger’ and how return has influenced the construction of identities of returned nationals. Findings from this study reveal that deportation has led to inequalities and facilitated ‘othering’ of this group within their own country of birth. The study further highlighted that deportation leads to circuits of dispossession, and perpetuates inequalities. This study provides original insights into the way returned migrants negotiate, map and embody ‘strangeness’ and manage their return to a soil they consider unfamiliar and alien.

Keywords: Identity, Displacement, otherness, stranger, alien geographies, deportation, negotiating strangeness, alien landscapes

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108 Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Injectable Gentamicin Generics Used in Veterinary Practice in Nigeria

Authors: F. A. Gberindyer, M. O.Abatan, A. B. Saba

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Background: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative aerobic bacteria organisms in human and animals. In Nigeria, there are arrays of multisource generic versions of injectable gentamicin sulphate in the drug markets. There is a high prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs in the third world countries with consequent effect on their therapeutic efficacy and safety. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate pharmaceutical equivalence of some of these generics used in veterinary practice in Nigeria. Methodology: About 20 generics of injectable gentamicin sulphate were sampled randomly across Nigeria but 15 were analyzed for identity and potency. Identity test was done using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and the spectral for each product compared with that of the USP reference standard for similarity. Microbiological assay using agar diffusion method with E. coli as a test organism on nutrient agar was employed and the respective diameters of bacterial inhibition zones obtained after 24 hour incubation at 37°C. The percent potency for each product was thereafter calculated and compared with the official specification. Result And Discussion: None of the generics is produced in any African country. About 75 % of the products are imported from China whereas 60 % of the veterinary generics are manufactured in Holland. Absorption spectra for the reference and test samples were similar. Percent potencies of all test products were within the official specification of 95-115 %. Nigeria relies solely on imported injectable gentamicin sulphate products. All sampled generic versions passed both identity and potency tests. Clinicians should ensure that drugs are used rationally since the converse could be contributing to the therapeutic failures reported for most of these generics. Bioequivalence study is recommended to ascertain their interchangeability when parenteral extra venous routes are indicated.

Keywords: Identity, gentamicin, generics, multisource, potency

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107 Being Authentic is the New “Pieces”: A Mixed Methods Study on Authenticity among African Christian Millennials

Authors: Victor Counted

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Staying true to self is complicated. In most cases, we might not fully come to terms with this realities. Just like any journey, a self-discovery experience with the ‘self’, is like a rollercoaster ride. The researcher attempts to engage the reader in an empirical study on authenticity tendencies of African Christian Millennials. Hence, attempting the all-important question: What does it actually mean to be true to self for the African youth? A comprehensive, yet an unfinished business that applies the authenticity theory in its exploratory navigations to uncover the “lived world” of the participants who were part of this study. Using a mixed methods approach, the researcher will exhaustively give account to the authenticity tendencies and experiences of the respondents in the study by providing the reader with a unique narrative for understanding what it means to be true to oneself in Africa. At the quantitative study, the participants recorded higher scores on the Authenticity Scale (AS) authentic living, while showing a significant correlation within the subscales. Hypotheses were tested at the quantitative phase, which statistically supported gender and church affiliation as possible predictors for the authenticity orientations of the participants, while being a Christian native and race/ethnicity were not impact factors statistically. The results helped the researcher to develop the objectives behind the qualitative study, where only fifteen AS-authentic living participants were interviewed to understand why they scored high on authentic living, in order to understand what it means to be authentic. The hallmark of the qualitative case study exploration was the common coping mechanism of splitting adopted by the respondents to deal with their self-crisis as they tried to remain authentic to self, whilst self-regulating and self-investing the self to discover ‘self’. Specifically, the researcher observed the concurrent utilization of some kind of the religious-self by the respondents to regulate their self crisis, as they relate with self fragmenting through different splitting stages in hope for some kind of redemption. It was an explanation that led to the conclusion that being authentic is the new pieces. Authenticity is in fragments. This proposition led the researcher to introduce a hermeneutical support-system that will enable future researchers engage more critically and responsibly with their “living human documents” in order to inspire timely solutions that resolve the concerns of authenticity and wellbeing among Millennials in Africa.

Keywords: Identity, Self, Authenticity, self-fragmentation, weak self integration, postmodern self, splitting

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106 Influences of Emerging Beauty Industry for Men on Construction of Masculinities of Male Students of Dhaka City

Authors: Abu Saleh Mohammad Sowad

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Back in history, muscular and strong male body has always been used to promulgate masculinity; for physically representing supreme manliness there were not many other options. This idealized male figure was proliferated mainly for spreading the notion of male superiority in relation to power and to give a strong base to the social construction of masculinity. This study targets to disclose the perception about the attributes masculinities among the male students of Dhaka city regarding male beautification. It is an attempt to unveil young men’s perspectives regarding their masculinities and beauty. Till the very recent past, beauty was always seen as sole feminine trait in Bangladeshi society. From history we can see men have always been assumed as the ambassador of roughness but in recent time the emergence of fashion-conscious men can be seen, who are slowly occupying a handsome position in the society. Concerning study attempts to bring out the way in which such changing trend of male beauty is perceived among the male students of Dhaka city. What could be the ideologies of these young men who are being involved with it? What is influencing them to be part of such arena which, to a great extent, is still considered as female domain? Is their perception about construction of masculinity is shifting from the so called idealized masculinity? The study tries to find out the answers.

Keywords: Identity, body, Bangladesh, masculinity, male beauty

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105 Battling with Patriarchy: Political Sexuality and Gender Democracy in Nigeria

Authors: Lenshie, Nsemba Edward

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This paper examines political sexuality as an identity construct, which imparts on democratic practices globally. The manifestation of political sexuality reflect on the dynamics of social, economic, cultural and political relations among different gender affecting a number of issues, such as the questions of citizenship, poverty alleviation, property rights, ownership and inheritance, rights to sexual consent, polygamous marriage, governance and representation among other issues. This paper is concerned with the aspect of political participation among different genders in Nigeria. This paper posit that political sexuality is an outcome of ‘sexuality differences’, which seeks to glorify and gratify the superiority of a particular sexuality over another. Political sexuality, therefore, motivate and exacerbate socio-cultural, economic, and political struggles among different sexualities. The paper asserts further that majority of women have been discriminated, sexually harassed, and are often denied certain rights and privileges in Nigeria. A few number of women who have found themselves at the corridors of government have used the Beijing protocol on Women to demand for ‘affirmative action’ to expand their political space. It contends that the ‘affirmative action’ in Nigeria is far from achieving it throughout the country. The paper conclude that women require more than just a ‘self-rediscovery’ to assertively demand for a more and proper inclusion in Nigeria’s democratic process.

Keywords: Politics, Identity, gender democracy, political sexuality

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104 Enigmatic Identity and Alienated Self: Existential Analysis of Paul Auster's the Brooklyn Follies

Authors: Sapna Bhargav

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Contemporary fiction is an intricate exercise where novelist acquires the role of a philosopher, a sociologist and a psychologist. The dilemma of fragmented self that a man experiences, is a crucial subject of contemporary fiction. Paul Auster's fiction is exemplary of the merger of Existentialism and Postmodernism, and while both of these movements insist on isolation of the self from all aspects of social affiliation, Auster's unique blend of these concepts presents man in a state which is not just alienated, but stranded in a desolate abyss, rendering even the release of death as questionable. The conundrums of the self is a compulsory consequence of the existentialist alienation that postmodern man is subjected to, and is further accentuated by the fact that existentialist freedom dictates that not only are one's actions not dictated by any form of external entity, but also the onus of one's destiny lies on an individual's own deeds. This paper will analyse Auster's The Brooklyn Follies from an Existentialist perspective, and will attempt to trace the alienation and identity conflicts of the Auster’s characters along with some of the common Austerian themes. An emphasis will be laid on the characters’ endeavour to reconstruct their lost self.

Keywords: Identity, Postmodernism, Self, Existentialism, Alienation

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103 The Impact of the Economic Crisis in the European Identity

Authors: Sofía Luna, Carla González Salamanca

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The 2008 economic crisis had huge implications in Europe. In this continent, the repercussions of the crisis were not only economic but also political and institutional. The economic stress has generated changes in the perception of the citizens, their attitude and the confidence placed in the political organizations. The lost of confidence is not only present in the debtor countries but it is also present in the European economic powers like Germany and France. This research explains how the economic crisis had an impact in the identity, population’s attitude and how this generated the rise of extreme right parties. In addition, it defines the different types of attitudes and support that exist towards these political and economic institutions. The results of this investigation show that the depression beside of its economic implications, it caused institutional, social and political difficulties for the Union. Moreover, the support and attitudes of the population were severely strained because the confidence in the political organization decreased. Furthermore, a rise in the otherness sentiment was shown. In other words, the distinction between “us” and “them” increased causing repercussions in the collective European identity. Additionally, there was a spread in national identities that caused the rise of the extreme right wing parties. In conclusion, the 2008 economic crisis caused not only economic stress but also it generated a political, social and institutional crisis in Europe.

Keywords: Identity, Europe, Economic Crisis, otherness sentiment

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102 The Effects of Architectural Anatomy on Improving the Quality of Place Identity: Case Study of Shiraz Opera Hall

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Shamsoddin Hashemi

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This study has examined the effects of the architectural anatomy of opera hall on improving the quality of place identity. By measuring the effects of place identity on the inner aspects of human which are influenced by the physical and social environments it has investigated the results of a balance between internal and external environment. To assess the anatomical effects of urban landscape, two components of subjective landscape including perception and diversity and the component of objective landscape including form and order have been measured. The current survey is descriptive and the statistical population has been Shiraz which is a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results have been investigated in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. The results of this study indicate that between the dimensions of landscape, the component of the subjective landscape has the highest impact on the place identity and in the second place, an objective landscape has the impact on the place identity. Anatomical effects have an important role on improving the quality of place identity of Shiraz citizens and in order to enhance the place identity in the urban landscape it is also required that they will be inspired and operated.

Keywords: Perception, Identity, Urban Landscape, Place Identity, architectural anatomy

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101 Exploring Teachers’ Professional Identity in the Context of the Current Political Conflict in Palestine

Authors: Bihan Qaimari

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In many areas of the world there are political conflicts the consequences of which have an inevitable impact on the educational system. Palestine is one such country where the experience of political conflict, going back over many years, has had a devastating effect on the development and maintenance of a stable educational environment for children and their teachers. Up to now there have been few studies that have focussed on the effects of living and working in a war zone on the professional identity of teachers. The aim of this study is to explore how the formation of Palestinian teachers’ professional identity is affected by their experience of the current political conflict its impact on the school social culture. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of political violence on the formation of the professional identity of Palestinian teachers, a qualitative multiple case-study approach was adopted which draws on sociocultural theories of identity formation. An initial study was first conducted in six schools and this was followed by an in-depth study of teachers working in three further primary schools. Data sources included participant observation, a research diary, semi-structured group and individual interviews. Grounded theory, constant-comparative methods, and discourse analysis procedures were used to interpret the data. The findings suggest that the Palestinian primary school teachers negotiate multiple conflicting identities through their every day experiences of political conflict and the schools’ social culture. This tension is formed as a result of the historical cultural meaning that teachers construct about themselves and within the current unstable and unsettling conditions that exist in their country. In addition, the data indicate that the geographical location of the schools in relation of their proximity to the events of the political conflict also had an influence on the degree of tension inherent in teachers’ professional identity. The study makes significant theoretical, practical, and methodical contributions to the study of the formation of teachers’ professional identity in countries affected by political conflict.

Keywords: Identity, political conflict, Palestine, teacher's professional identity

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100 Healing the Scars of the Past: The Great Challenge and Failed Attempt of European Union to Create a Supranational Identity

Authors: David Martínez Rico, Juan Pablo Farid Cuéllar Martínez

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After more than half a century that the first treaty of European cooperation was created, the final result of a difficult and long historical process, which is the current European Union, is facing economical and social challenges. The barriers of policies differences and national sovereignties seem to be being defeated in the last and present decades. However, the last crisis of 2008 brought back problems as xenophobia and nationalism. In this ambit of identity, European Union has made many efforts to reinforce a European identity and leave behind the radical nationalisms which generated World Wars. Nevertheless, these social problems are increasing and becoming more present in the life of many Europeans. Even, in the last Euro Parliamentarian Elections of the present year, 2014, the extreme right parties, in favor of xenophobic and anti European ideals, got more seats and are increasing their presence in Euro Parliament. This essay approaches to this controversial topic of European identity. Taking as start point the nationalist divisions that are causing internal divergences in Europe, the authors of this research study the role and contributions of the Memorials of the fallen soldiers and heroes of World Wars, present in many cities as Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, to the impossibility to reach an European identity, it means that Europeans feel first part of Europe in place to feel first part of a nation. The objective of this essay is to reaffirm the thesis that establishes that the European Union won´t reach the longed supranational identity with just with the current strategies, because yet there are many cultural elements in its member states societies which exalt the heroes and soldiers of the past wars, increasing nationalism feelings. Besides, in it are promoted some interesting ideas that could change the course in this quest of a European social identity.

Keywords: Identity, Nationalism, memorials, European identity, proposals

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99 A Psycho-Education Strategy as a Method for Reconstructing Identity in the Context of Family Violence

Authors: Charlene Petersen, Herman Grobler, Karel Botha

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Restorative intervention with adolescents from a family violence context is a much needed resource given the limited access to mental health services in South Africa. In this research article the qualitative component which formed part of a mixed methods design of an overall research study, is discussed. A qualitative case study design was used. This article explores a psycho-education strategy, using a visual creative medium as a method for reconstructing identity in the context of family violence. The aim of this psycho-education strategy was to move away from interventions based on the biomedical model, but focused more on meaning-making about violent traumatic events adolescents have experienced, and to develop more positive, adaptive views about themselves in the present, and experience hope about the future. The research question that was asked was how the meaning, that adolescents from a specific community in South Africa give to family violence, contribute to defining their identity? Twelve participants were purposively selected for the study and included both male and female adolescents with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years from three secondary schools. The strategy was applied over five sessions with the intention to bring about awareness of different selves, identifying and naming the selves, and becoming aware of the configuration of identity that could lead to a redefined identity. The data were thematically and visually analyzed. Through the process of tailoring which forms the basis for reconstruction process, participants could identify the different selves, become aware of how they configure in the field. Through the process of tailoring the different self-parts, the sense of self became more self-cohesive and allowed the individual to become aware of the role of certain. Through identifying and naming the future self and resilient self the participants were able to accomplish some order and meaning in their lives. It provided them with a sense of predictability and an optimistic and hopefulness towards the future. The research findings indicated that this strategy can be used as a method for reconstructing identity in the context of family violence.

Keywords: Identity, Family Violence, Self-Configuration, reconstructing identity, psycho-education strategy

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98 Relevance of History to National Development

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

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Achievement of one age serves as a starting point for the next generation. History explains the significance of past and present achievement which serves a guide principle for great minds to determine the next line of action in personal life which translate to national development. If history does this in human life, it is not out of place to accept history as a vanguard of national development. History remained the only relevant discipline which shapes the affairs of developed society. It gives adequate knowledge of great people in any society, how they used their ability and leadership prowess to develop their environment. As a result of this people use the idea of those heroes as guiding principle to determine the present issues. The custodian of identity is history, while identity builds confidence in man; it also makes man to master his environment for rapid development. Adequate developments of man’s environment translate to national development.

Keywords: History, Identity, national development, leadership prowess

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97 Identity Formation Towards Design Typology of Malay Traditional House in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Authors: Noor Hayati Binti Ismail, Mastor Bin Surat, Raja Nafida Binti Raja Shahminan, Shahrul Kamil Bin Yunus

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Traditional Malay house built in the various custom and culture for every state in Malaysia. Each state has its characteristics, design and different concepts that form the distinctive identity. The uniqueness of a traditional house design is a symbolize of Negeri Sembilan society. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the feature, a traditional Malay house in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This typology will describe five types of traditional Malay houses in Negeri Sembilan by briefly about the concept of a traditional Malay house design. The design represents a variety of purposes that are often associated with its own culture and customs practiced by the community. In addition, the design of long tapering roof with both ends of the roof went up a little bit architecture has become an identity of its own in Negeri Sembilan. The study involves several villages of traditional houses in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data collection was obtained through a process of observation, interviews, questionnaire and taking photos related. Through this research, We are expected to provide awareness and also a reference to the next generation of traditional houses in Malaysia especially in Negeri Sembilan. Identity and uniqueness of traditional houses Negeri Sembilan increasingly difficult to maintain and can be kept from being lost in their own land.

Keywords: Design, Identity, Typology, traditional Malay house

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96 Thematic Analysis of Ramayana Narrative Scroll Paintings: A Need for Knowledge Preservation

Authors: Shatarupa Thakurta Roy

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Along the limelight of mainstream academic practices in Indian art, exist a significant lot of habitual art practices that are mutually susceptible in their contemporary forms. Narrative folk paintings of regional India has successfully dispersed to its audience social messages through pulsating pictures and orations. The paper consists of images from narrative scroll paintings on ‘Ramayana’ theme from various neighboring states as well as districts in India, describing their subtle differences in style of execution, method, and use of material. Despite sharing commonness in the choice of subject matter, habitual and ceremonial Indian folk art in its formative phase thrived within isolated locations to yield in remarkable variety in the art styles. The differences in style took place district wise, cast wise and even gender wise. An open flow is only evident in the contemporary expressions as a result of substantial changes in social structures, mode of communicative devices, cross-cultural exposures and multimedia interactivities. To decipher the complex nature of popular cultural taste of contemporary India it is important to categorically identify its root in vernacular symbolism. The realization of modernity through European primitivism was rather elevated as a perplexed identity in Indian cultural margin in the light of nationalist and postcolonial ideology. To trace the guiding factor that has still managed to obtain ‘Indianness’ in today’s Indian art, researchers need evidences from the past that are yet to be listed in most instances. They are commonly created on ephemeral foundations. The artworks are also found in endangered state and hence, not counted much friendly for frequent handling. The museums are in dearth of proper technological guidelines to preserve them. Even though restoration activities are emerging in the country, the existing withered and damaged artworks are in threat to perish. An immediacy of digital achieving is therefore envisioned as an alternative to save this cultural legacy. The method of this study is, two folded. It primarily justifies the richness of the evidences by conducting categorical aesthetic analysis. The study is supported by comments on the stylistic variants, thematic aspects, and iconographic identities alongside its anthropological and anthropomorphic significance. Further, it explores the possible ways of cultural preservation to ensure cultural sustainability that includes technological intervention in the form of digital transformation as an altered paradigm for better accessibility to the available recourses. The study duly emphasizes on visual description in order to culturally interpret and judge the rare visual evidences following Feldman’s four-stepped method of formal analysis combined with thematic explanation. A habitual design that emerges and thrives within complex social circumstances may experience change placing its principle philosophy at risk by shuffling and altering with time. A tradition that respires in the modern setup struggles to maintain timeless values that operate its creative flow. Thus, the paper hypothesizes the survival and further growth of this practice within the dynamics of time and concludes in realization of the urgency to transform the implicitness of its knowledge into explicit records.

Keywords: Aesthetic, Identity, paradigm, implicitness

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95 Self in Networks: Public Sphere in the Era of Globalisation

Authors: Sanghamitra Sadhu

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A paradigm shift from capitalism to information technology is discerned in the era globalisation. The idea of public sphere, which was theorized in terms of its decline in the wake of the rise of commercial mass media has now emerged as a transnational or global sphere with the discourse being dominated by the ‘network society’. In other words, the dynamic of globalisation has brought about ‘a spatial turn’ in the social and political sciences which is also manifested in the public sphere, Especially the global public sphere. The paper revisits the Habermasian concept of the public sphere and focuses on the various social networking sites with their plausibility to create a virtual global public sphere. Situating Habermas’s notion of the bourgeois public sphere in the present context of global public sphere, it considers the changing dimensions of the public sphere across time and examines the concept of the ‘public’ with its shifting transformation from the concrete collective to the fluid ‘imagined’ category. The paper addresses the problematic of multimodal self-portraiture in the social networking sites as well as various online diaries/journals with an attempt to explore the nuances of the networked self.

Keywords: Identity, Globalisation, Public Sphere, Autonomy, network society, self-fashioning

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94 Unveiling the Indonesian Identity through Proverbial Expressions: The Relation of Meaning between Authority and Globalization

Authors: Prima Gusti Yanti, Fairul Zabadi

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The purpose of the study is to find out relation of moral massage with the authority ang globalization in proverb. Proverb is one of the many forms of cultural identity of the Indonesian/Malay people fulled with moral values. The values contained within those proverbs are beneficial not only to the society, but also to those who held power amidst on this era of globalization. The method being used is qualitative research by using content analysis which is done by describing and uncovering the forms and meanings of proverbs used within Indonesia Minangkabau society. Sources for this study’s data were extracted from a Minangkabau native speaker in the subdistrict of Tanah Abang, Jakarta. Said sources were retrieved through a series of interviews with the Minangkabau native speaker, whose speech is still adorned with idiomatic expressions. The research findings show that there existed 30 proverbs or idiomatic expressions in the Minangkabau language that are often used by its indigenous people. The thirty data contain moral values that are closely interwoven with the matter of power and globalization. Analytical results show that there are fourteen moral values contained within proverbs reflect a firm connection between rule and power in globalization; such as: responsible, brave, togetherness and consensus,tolerance, politeness, thorough and meticulous,honest and keeping promise, ingenious and learning, care, self-correction, be fair, alert, arbitrary, self-awareness. Structurally, proverbs possess an unchangeably formal construction; symbolically, proverbs possess meanings that are clearly decided through ethnographic communicative factors along with situational and cultural contexts. Values contained within proverbs may be used as a guide in social management, be it between fellow men, men between nature, or even men between their Creator. Therefore, the meanings and values contained within the morals of proverbs could also be utilized as a counsel for those who rule and in charge of power in order to stem the tides of globalization that had already spread into sectoral, territorial and educational continuums.

Keywords: Identity, Globalization, continuum, proverb, rule-power

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93 A Discourse on the Rhythmic Pattern Employed in Yoruba Sakara Music of Nigeria

Authors: Oludare Olupemi Ezekiel

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This research examines the rhythmic structure of Sakara music by tracing its roots and analyzing the various rhythmic patterns of this neo-traditional genre, as well as the contributions of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, using these as a model for understanding and establishing African rhythms. Biography of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, interviews and participant observational methods were used to elicit information. Samples of the genre which were chosen at random were transcribed, notated and analyzed for academic use and documentation. The research affirmed that rhythms such as the Hemiola, Cross-rhythm, Clave or Bell rhythm, Percussive, Speech and Melodic rhythm and other relevant rhythmic theories were prevalent and applicable to Sakara music, while making important contributions to musical scholarship through its analysis of the music. The analysis and discussions carried out in the research pointed towards a conclusion that the Yoruba musicians are guided by some preconceptions and sound musical considerations in making their rhythmic patterns, used as compositional techniques and not mere incidental occurrence. These rhythmic patterns, with its consequential socio-cultural connotations, enhance musical values and national identity in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that musicologists need to carry out more research into this and other neo-traditional genres in order to advance the globalisation of African music.

Keywords: Identity, Globalisation, Compositional Techniques, neo-traditional, rhythmic theory, Sakara music

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92 Gender Identity: Omani College Students Negotiate Their Cultural Expectations

Authors: Mohammed Alkharusi

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This study addresses issues of gender identity faced by female and male Omani students studying at educational higher institutions. The study interviewed 16 male and female students to understand how cultural expectations of gender influence these students’ communication, and as a result how these students negotiate their gender identity to facilitate communication practices (or not) with the opposite sex. The context, focus, and theoretical underpinnings of the study are presented. Given that the researcher is also an Omani Arab, methodological and ethical challenges (e.g., recruiting and engaging with participants, and conducting semi-structured face-to-face interviews) will be discussed reflexively. The analysis found that students continued to following cultural expectations. They kept minimum interaction with the opposite sex that was illustrated by preferring to work with the same sex in group assignments only, avoiding sitting alone with the opposite sex, and not participating in academic activities. In the social context, the students started negotiating their gender identity and adopted communication practices that facilitated their social communication with the opposite sex. For example, they accepted to work with the opposite sex in different social mixed activities. In conclusion, students desired to maintain their cultural expectations but adopted certain communication practices to interact with the opposite sex.

Keywords: Communication, Gender, Identity, Negotiation, cultural expectations

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91 Studying in Private Muslim Schools in Australia: Implications for Identity, Religiosity, and Adjustment

Authors: Hisham Motkal Abu-Rayya, Maram Hussein Abu-Rayya

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Education in religious private schools raises questions regarding identity, belonging and adaptation in multicultural Australia. This research project aimed at examined cultural identification styles among Australian adolescent Muslims studying in Muslim schools, adolescents’ religiosity and the interconnections between cultural identification styles, religiosity, and adaptation. Two Muslim high school samples were recruited for the purposes of this study, one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Sydney and one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants filled in a survey measuring themes of the current study. Findings revealed that the majority of Australian adolescent Muslims showed a preference for the integration identification style (55.2%); separation was less prevailing (26.9%), followed by assimilation (9.7%) and marginalisation (8.3%). Supporting evidence suggests that the styles of identification were valid representation of the participants’ identification. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that while adolescents’ preference for integration of their cultural and Australian identities was advantageous for a range of their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation measures, marginalisation was consistently the worst. Further hierarchical regression analyses showed that adolescent Muslims’ religiosity was better for a range of their adaptation measures compared to their preference for an integration acculturation style. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: Identity, Multiculturalism, Adaptation, religious school education

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90 Difference and Haeccities: On the Religious Foundations of Deleuze’s Philosophy of Difference

Authors: Tony See

Abstract:

Although much has been devoted to Deleuze’s ethics of difference, relatively little has been focused on how his political perspective is informed by his appropriation of religious ideas and theological concepts. The bulk of the scholarly works have examined his political views with the assumption that they have little or nothing to do with his ideas of religions at all. This is in spite of the fact that Deleuze has drawn heavily from religious and theological thinkers such as Duns Scotus, Spinoza and Nietzsche. This dimension can also be traced in Deleuze’s later works, when he collaborated with Felix Guattari in creating an anti-Oedipal philosophy of difference after May 68. This paper seeks to reverse the tendency in contemporary scholarship ignore Deleuze’s ‘religious’ framework in his understanding of the ethical and the political. Towards this aim, we will refer to key texts in Deleuze’s corpus such as Expressionism in Philosophy, A Thousand Plateaus and others.

Keywords: Identity, Religion, Theology, difference, haeccities

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89 We Cannot Cross Our Limits: Sexuality and Desire in Urban Pakistani Youth's Gendered Performance

Authors: Shirin Zubair

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Keeping in view the segregation of space(s) experienced by young women and men at puberty in Pakistan and the socially constructed and performative aspect of gender identity by Western theorists of gender and self, this paper will explore Pakistani youth’s differential, gendered performances. Specifically focused on Pakistani youth’s perceptions and experiences of sexuality, extramarital and same-sex relationships in constructing and performing gendered identities as manifested through their talk, the research will also draw upon recent theories of space in cultural studies and postcolonial discourses. The data cited has been culled from two different studies conducted at universities in the city of Multan. Informal, unstructured group discussions of women and men aged between twenty and twenty nine years of age were recorded separately among groups of friends and cohorts studying at two different universities. The findings clearly show both young women and men doing the boundary work in identity construction in private and public spaces: talking of sexuality, sexual desire and sexual relationships, women tend to safely couch their articulations in euphemisms: distance themselves from the Western concepts of sexual liberation ; while young men’s exhibitionism in boasting of their sexual prowess and sexual encounters as well as the use of sexually explicit and tabooed words frequently in their intimate conversations shows a clear departure from and a contestation of the normative public discourses. Further the findings illustrate that young men conform to the patriarchal ideologies by constructing heterosexual identities whereas young women initiate discourse on same-sex relationships. The data also reveals that the private identities of these young Pakistanis are different from their public identities, as it is in their intimate conversations and private (or safe) spaces that they talk about their pre-marital sexual activities and love affairs. These intimate and safe spaces thus emerge as subversion and contestation of their public identity, as sex and sexuality are tabooed subjects in public discourses.

Keywords: Gender, Identity, Sexuality, Performance

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88 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan

Abstract:

The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Identity, Memory, Argumentation, Arab contemporary poetry

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87 Portuguese Teachers in Bilingual Schools in Brazil: Professional Identities and Intercultural Conflicts

Authors: Antonieta Heyden Megale

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With the advent of globalization, the social, cultural and linguistic situation of the whole world has changed. In this scenario, the teaching of English, in Brazil, has become a booming business and the belief that this language is essential to a successful life is played by the media that sees it as a commodity and spares no effort to sell it. In this context, it has become evident the growth of bilingual and international schools that have English and Portuguese as languages of instruction. According to federal legislation, all schools in the country must follow the Curriculum guidelines proposed by the Ministry of Education of Brazil. It is then mandatory that, in addition to the specific foreign curriculum an international school subscribes to, it must also teach all subjects of the official minimum curriculum and these subjects have to be taught in Portuguese. It is important to emphasize that, in these schools, English is the most prestigious language. Therefore, firstly, Brazilian teachers who teach Portuguese in such contexts find themselves in a situation in which they teach in a low-status language. Secondly, because such teachers’ actions are guided by a different cultural matrix, which differs considerably from Anglo-Saxon values and beliefs, they often experience intercultural conflict in their workplace. Taking it consideration, this research, focusing on the trajectories of a specific group of Brazilian teachers of Portuguese in international and bilingual schools located in the city of São Paulo, intends to analyze how they discursively represent their own professional identities and practices. More specifically the objectives of this research are to understand, from the perspective of the investigated teachers, how they (i) rebuilt narratively their professional careers and explain the factors that led them to an international or to an immersion bilingual school; (ii) position themselves with respect to their linguistic repertoire; (iii) interpret the intercultural practices they are involved with in school and (v) position themselves by foregrounding categories to determine their membership in the group of Portuguese teachers. We have worked with these teachers’ autobiographical narratives. The autobiographical approach assumes that the stories told by teachers are systems of meaning involved in the production of identities and subjectivities in the context of power relations. The teachers' narratives were elicited by the following trigger: "I would like you to tell me how you became a teacher in a bilingual/international school and what your impressions are about your work and about the context in which it is inserted". These narratives were produced orally, recorded, and transcribed for analysis. The teachers were also invited to draw their "linguistic portraits". The theoretical concepts of positioning and the indexical cues were taken into consideration in data analysis. The narratives produced by the teachers point to intercultural conflicts related to their expectations and representations of others, which are never neutral or objective truths but discursive constructions.

Keywords: Identity, Narrative, bilingual schools, interculturality

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86 De-Securitizing Identity: Narrative (In)Consistency in Periods of Transition

Authors: Katerina Antoniou

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When examining conflicts around the world, it is evident that the majority of intractable conflicts are steeped in identity. Identity seems to be not only a causal variable for conflict, but also a catalytic parameter for the process of reconciliation that follows ceasefire. This paper focuses on the process of identity securitization that occurs between rival groups of heterogeneous collective identities – ethnic, national or religious – as well as on the relationship between identity securitization and the ability of the groups involved to reconcile. Are securitized identities obstacles to the process of reconciliation, able to hinder any prospects of peace? If the level to which an identity is securitized is catalytic to a conflict’s discourse and settlement, then which factors act as indicators of identity de-securitization? The level of an in-group’s identity securitization can be estimated through a number of indicators, one of which is narrative. The stories, views and stances each in-group adopts in relation to its history of conflict and relation with their rival out-group can clarify whether that specific in-group feels victimized and threatened or safe and ready to reconcile. Accordingly, this study discusses identity securitization through narrative in relation to intractable conflicts. Are there conflicts around the world that, despite having been identified as intractable, stagnated or insoluble, show signs of identity de-securitization through narrative? This inquiry uses the case of the Cyprus conflict and its partitioned societies to present official narratives from the two communities and assess whether these narratives have transformed, indicating a less securitized in-group identity for the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Specifically, the study compares the official historical overviews presented by each community’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs website and discusses the extent to which the two official narratives present a securitized collective identity. In addition, the study will observe whether official stances by the two communities – as adopted by community leaders – have transformed to depict less securitization over time. Additionally, the leaders’ reflection of popular opinion is evaluated through recent opinion polls from each community. Cyprus is currently experiencing renewed optimism for reunification, with the leaders of its two communities engaging in rigorous negotiations, and with rumors calling for a potential referendum for reunification to be taking place even as early as within 2016. Although leaders’ have shown a shift in their rhetoric and have moved away from narratives of victimization, this is not the case for the official narratives used by their respective ministries of foreign affairs. The study’s findings explore whether this narrative inconsistency proves that Cyprus is transitioning towards reunification, or whether the leaders are risking sending a securitized population to the polls to reject a potential reunification. More broadly, this study suggests that in the event that intractable conflicts might be moving towards viable peace, in-group narratives--official narratives in particular--can act as indicators of the extent to which rival entities have managed to reconcile.

Keywords: Identity, Conflict, Narrative, reconciliation

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85 Narrating Irish Identity: Retrieving ‘Irishness’ in the Works of William Butler Yeats and Seamus Heaney

Authors: Rafik Massoudi

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Irish identity continues to be discussed in various fields including social science, culture, literary humanities as well as political debates. In this context, Irishness had been usurped for a long time by the hegemonic power of the British Empire. That is why, Irish writers, in general, and Seamus Heaney along with William Butler Yeats, in particular, endeavored to retrieve this lost identity by shedding light on Irish history, folklore, communal traditions, landscape, indigenous people, language as well as culture. In this context, we may speak of a decolonizing attempt that allowed these writers to represent the autonomous Irish subjectivity by establishing an ethical relationship based on an extraordinary approach to the represented alterity. This article, indeed, places itself within the arena of postmodern, postcolonial discussions of the issue of identity and, particularly, of Irishness.

Keywords: Identity, Postcolonialism, Irishess, narration

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