Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Human-Machine Interface Related Abstracts

3 Parametric Study of Ball and Socket Joint for Bio-Mimicking Exoskeleton

Authors: Ravi Prakash, Basant Singh Sikarwar, Mukesh Roy, Ayush Goyal, Priya Ranjan


More than 11% of people suffer from weakness in the bone resulting in inability in walking or climbing stairs or from limited upper body and limb immobility. This motivates a fresh bio-mimicking solution to the design of an exo-skeleton to support human movement in the case of partial or total immobility either due to congenital or genetic factors or due to some accident or due to geratological factors. A deeper insight and detailed understanding is required into the workings of the ball and socket joints. Our research is to mimic ball and socket joints to design snugly fitting exoskeletons. Our objective is to design an exoskeleton which is comfortable and the presence of which is not felt if not in use. Towards this goal, a parametric study is conducted to provide detailed design parameters to fabricate an exoskeleton. This work builds up on real data of the design of the exoskeleton, so that the designed exo-skeleton will be able to provide required strength and support to the subject.

Keywords: Exoskeleton, Human-Machine Interface, Wearable Robotics, joints, ball joint, bio-mimicking, socket joint, artificial limb, patient rehabilitation

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2 Hand Gesture Interpretation Using Sensing Glove Integrated with Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Aqsa Ali, Aleem Mushtaq, Attaullah Memon, Monna


In this paper, we present a low cost design for a smart glove that can perform sign language recognition to assist the speech impaired people. Specifically, we have designed and developed an Assistive Hand Gesture Interpreter that recognizes hand movements relevant to the American Sign Language (ASL) and translates them into text for display on a Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT LCD) screen as well as synthetic speech. Linear Bayes Classifiers and Multilayer Neural Networks have been used to classify 11 feature vectors obtained from the sensors on the glove into one of the 27 ASL alphabets and a predefined gesture for space. Three types of features are used; bending using six bend sensors, orientation in three dimensions using accelerometers and contacts at vital points using contact sensors. To gauge the performance of the presented design, the training database was prepared using five volunteers. The accuracy of the current version on the prepared dataset was found to be up to 99.3% for target user. The solution combines electronics, e-textile technology, sensor technology, embedded system and machine learning techniques to build a low cost wearable glove that is scrupulous, elegant and portable.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Human-Machine Interface, American sign language, assistive hand gesture interpreter, sensing glove

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1 Development of an Automatic Control System for ex vivo Heart Perfusion

Authors: Pengzhou Lu, Liming Xin, Payam Tavakoli, Zhonghua Lin, Roberto V. P. Ribeiro, Mitesh V. Badiwala


Ex vivo Heart Perfusion (EVHP) has been developed as an alternative strategy to expand cardiac donation by enabling resuscitation and functional assessment of hearts donated from marginal donors, which were previously not accepted. EVHP parameters, such as perfusion flow (PF) and perfusion pressure (PP) are crucial for optimal organ preservation. However, with the heart’s constant physiological changes during EVHP, such as coronary vascular resistance, manual control of these parameters is rendered imprecise and cumbersome for the operator. Additionally, low control precision and the long adjusting time may lead to irreversible damage to the myocardial tissue. To solve this problem, an automatic heart perfusion system was developed by applying a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and a Programmable-Logic-Controller (PLC)-based circuit to control PF and PP. The PLC-based control system collects the data of PF and PP through flow probes and pressure transducers. It has two control modes: the RPM-flow mode and the pressure mode. The RPM-flow control mode is an open-loop system. It influences PF through providing and maintaining the desired speed inputted through the HMI to the centrifugal pump with a maximum error of 20 rpm. The pressure control mode is a closed-loop system where the operator selects a target Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) to control PP. The inputs of the pressure control mode are the target MAP, received through the HMI, and the real MAP, received from the pressure transducer. A PID algorithm is applied to maintain the real MAP at the target value with a maximum error of 1mmHg. The precision and control speed of the RPM-flow control mode were examined by comparing the PLC-based system to an experienced operator (EO) across seven RPM adjustment ranges (500, 1000, 2000 and random RPM changes; 8 trials per range) tested in a random order. System’s PID algorithm performance in pressure control was assessed during 10 EVHP experiments using porcine hearts. Precision was examined through monitoring the steady-state pressure error throughout perfusion period, and stabilizing speed was tested by performing two MAP adjustment changes (4 trials per change) of 15 and 20mmHg. A total of 56 trials were performed to validate the RPM-flow control mode. Overall, the PLC-based system demonstrated the significantly faster speed than the EO in all trials (PLC 1.21±0.03, EO 3.69±0.23 seconds; p < 0.001) and greater precision to reach the desired RPM (PLC 10±0.7, EO 33±2.7 mean RPM error; p < 0.001). Regarding pressure control, the PLC-based system has the median precision of ±1mmHg error and the median stabilizing times in changing 15 and 20mmHg of MAP are 15 and 19.5 seconds respectively. The novel PLC-based control system was 3 times faster with 60% less error than the EO for RPM-flow control. In pressure control mode, it demonstrates a high precision and fast stabilizing speed. In summary, this novel system successfully controlled perfusion flow and pressure with high precision, stability and a fast response time through a user-friendly interface. This design may provide a viable technique for future development of novel heart preservation and assessment strategies during EVHP.

Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Human-Machine Interface, Programmable Logic Controller, Automatic Control System, ex-vivo heart perfusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 46