Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

hot forging Related Abstracts

6 Hot Forging Process Simulation of Outer Tie Rod to Reduce Forming Load

Authors: Young-Chul Park, Kyo Jin An, Bukyo Seo


The current trend in car market is increase of parts of automobile and weight in vehicle. It comes from improvement of vehicle performance. Outer tie rod is a part of component of steering system and it is lighter than the others. But, weight lightening is still required for improvement of car mileage. So, we have presented a model of aluminized outer tie rod, but the process of fabrication has to be checked to manufacture the product. Therefore, we have anticipated forming load, die stress and abrasion to use the program of forging interpretation in the part of hot forging process of outer tie rod in this study. Also, we have implemented the experiments design to use the table of orthogonal arrays to reduce the forming load.

Keywords: orthogonal array, forming load, hot forging, outer tie rod (OTR), multi–step forging

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5 Study on the Forging of AISI 1015 Spiral Bevel Gear by Finite Element Analysis

Authors: T. S. Yang, J. H. Liang


This study applies the finite element method (FEM) to predict maximum forging load, effective stress distribution, effective strain distribution, workpiece temperature temperature in spiral bevel gear forging of AISI 1015. Maximum forging load, effective stress, effective strain, workpiece temperature are determined for different process parameters, such as modules, number of teeth, helical angle and workpiece temperature of the spiral bevel gear hot forging, using the FEM. Finally, the prediction of the power requirement for the spiral bevel gear hot forging of AISI 1015 is determined.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, hot forging, spiral bevel gear

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4 Forgeability Study of Medium Carbon Micro-Alloyed Forging Steel

Authors: B. Singh, M. I. Equbal, P. Talukdar, R. K. Ohdar


Micro-alloyed steel components are used in automotive industry for the necessity to make the manufacturing process cycles shorter when compared to conventional steel by eliminating heat treatment cycles, so an important saving of costs and energy can be reached by reducing the number of operations. Micro-alloying elements like vanadium, niobium or titanium have been added to medium carbon steels to achieve grain refinement with or without precipitation strengthening along with uniform microstructure throughout the matrix. Present study reports the applicability of medium carbon vanadium micro-alloyed steel in hot forging. Forgeability has been determined with respect to different cooling rates, after forging in a hydraulic press at 50% diameter reduction in temperature range of 900-11000C. Final microstructures, hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength have been evaluated. The friction coefficients of different lubricating conditions, viz., graphite in hydraulic oil, graphite in furnace oil, DF 150 (Graphite, Water-Based) die lubricant and dry or without any lubrication were obtained from the ring compression test for the above micro-alloyed steel. Results of ring compression tests indicate that graphite in hydraulic oil lubricant is preferred for free forging and dry lubricant is preferred for die forging operation. Exceptionally good forgeability and high resistance to fracture, especially for faster cooling rate has been observed for fine equiaxed ferrite-pearlite grains, some amount of bainite and fine precipitates of vanadium carbides and carbonitrides. The results indicated that the cooling rate has a remarkable effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties at room temperature.

Keywords: hot forging, cooling rate, micro-alloyed, ring compression

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3 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, hot forging, hot rolling, hardness (HV), impact toughness (J), low alloy steels

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2 Effect of the Initial Billet Shape Parameters on the Final Product in a Backward Extrusion Process for Pressure Vessels

Authors: Joon-Hong Park, Young-Chul Park, Archana Thangavelu, Han-Ik Park


In this numerical study, we have proposed a method for evaluation of backward extrusion process of pressure vessel made up of steel. Demand for lighter and stiffer products have been increasing in the last years especially in automobile engineering. Through detailed finite element analysis, effective stress, strain and velocity profile have been obtained with optimal range. The process design of a forward and backward extrusion axe-symmetric part has been studied. Forging is mainly carried out because forged products are highly reliable and possess superior mechanical properties when compared to normal products. Performing computational simulations of 3D hot forging with various dimensions of billet and optimization of weight is carried out using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA) Optimization technique. The technique used in this study can be used for newly developed materials to investigate its forgeability for much complicated shapes in closed hot die forging process.

Keywords: Optimization, Finite Element Analysis, Taguchi method, hot forging, backward extrusion

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1 Recrystallization Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Nickel Base Superalloy AD730 Billet during Hot Forging at Subsolvus Temperatures

Authors: Marcos Perez, Christian Dumont, Olivier Nodin, Sebastien Nouveau


Nickel superalloys are used to manufacture high-temperature rotary engine parts such as high-pressure disks in gas turbine engines. High strength at high operating temperatures is required due to the levels of stress and heat the disk must withstand. Therefore it is necessary parts made from materials that can maintain mechanical strength at high temperatures whilst remain comparatively low in cost. A manufacturing process referred to as the triple melt process has made the production of cast and wrought (C&W) nickel superalloys possible. This means that the balance of cost and performance at high temperature may be optimized. AD730TM is a newly developed Ni-based superalloy for turbine disk applications, with reported superior service properties around 700°C when compared to Inconel 718 and several other alloys. The cast ingot is converted into billet during either cogging process or open die forging. The semi-finished billet is then further processed into its final geometry by forging, heat treating, and machining. Conventional ingot-to-billet conversion is an expensive and complex operation, requiring a significant amount of steps to break up the coarse as-cast structure and interdendritic regions. Due to the size of conventional ingots, it is difficult to achieve a uniformly high level of strain for recrystallization, resulting in non-recrystallized regions that retain large unrecrystallized grains. Non-uniform grain distributions will also affect the ultrasonic inspectability response, which is used to find defects in the final component. The main aim is to analyze the recrystallization behavior and microstructural evolution of AD730 at subsolvus temperatures from a semi-finished product (billet) under conditions representative of both cogging and hot forging operations. Special attention to the presence of large unrecrystallized grains was paid. Double truncated cones (DTCs) were hot forged at subsolvus temperatures in hydraulic press, followed by air cooling. SEM and EBSD analysis were conducted in the as-received (billet) and the as-forged conditions. AD730 from billet alloy presents a complex microstructure characterized by a mixture of several constituents. Large unrecrystallized grains present a substructure characterized by large misorientation gradients with the formation of medium to high angle boundaries in their interior, especially close to the grain boundaries, denoting inhomogeneous strain distribution. A fine distribution of intragranular precipitates was found in their interior, playing a key role on strain distribution and subsequent recrystallization behaviour during hot forging. Continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) mechanism was found to be operating in the large unrecrystallized grains, promoting the formation intragranular DRX grains and the gradual recrystallization of these grains. Evidences that hetero-epitaxial recrystallization mechanism is operating in AD730 billet material were found. Coherent γ-shells around primary γ’ precipitates were found. However, no significant contribution to the overall recrystallization during hot forging was found. By contrast, strain presents the strongest effect on the microstructural evolution of AD730, increasing the recrystallization fraction and refining the structure. Regions with low level of deformation (ε ≤ 0.6) were translated into large fractions of unrecrystallized structures (strain accumulation). The presence of undissolved secondary γ’ precipitates (pinning effect), prior to hot forging operations, could explain these results.

Keywords: hot forging, AD730 alloy, continuous dynamic recrystallization, γ’ precipitates

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