Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Growth Performance Related Abstracts

21 Effects of Cinnamon, Garlic, and Yucca Extracts on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

Authors: Anguo Chen, Huajie Chen, Caimei Yang, Qihua Hong, Jun Feng


The experiment was conducted with 360 one-day-old Avian commercial broilers to study the effects of dietary cinnamon extract (CE), garlic extract (GE) and yucca extract (YE) on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers. The chickens were randomly divided equally into 4 treatment groups, each group with 3 replications, and received the same basal corn-bean diets included a starter from 1 d to 21 d and then a grower until 42 d, added with recommended dose 250 mg/kg CE, 25 mg/kg GE and 10 mg/kg YE to relevant group, respectively. The birds were kept in a stainless steel net coop each replication with 24 h light and were fed and drunk ad libitum. At 21 d and 42 d of age, 6 chicks were respectively picked out from every group and were bled to collect serum samples and intestinal samples for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADG) of CE, GE and YE group were increased by 7.20% (P<0.05), 3.43% (P>0.05) and 4.89% (P>0.05), feed gain ratio (F/G) was improved by 9.71% (P<0.05), 3.40% (P>0.05) and 3.40% (P>0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 21 d of age, the content of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum uric acid (SUA) and the activity of serum xanthine oxidase (SXO) in CE group were reduced by 35.17% (P<0.01), 13.73% (P<0.01) and 16.33% (P<0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 42 d of age, SUN and SUA level and SXO activity were lowered by 24.35% (P<0.01), 15.49% (P<0.05) and 23.09% (P<0.01), respectively. The SXO activity in CE group was decreased by 14.86% (P<0.01) and 15.34%(P<0.01) compare with GE and YE group, respectively. Also, adding CE, GE and YE into broiler diets resulted in lower UN and UA level of intestinal contents. It is clear that CE was more significantly decreased the SXO activity and SUA levels than GE and YE, especially at the latter period, thereby it may play a more important role in improving the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: Growth Performance, cinnamon extract, broiler, serum uric acid, serum xanthine oxidase

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20 Effect of Bactocellon White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Growth Performance and the Shrimp Survival to Vibrio paraheamolyticus

Authors: M. Soltani, K. Pakzad, A. Haghigh-Khiyabani, M. Alavi, R. Naderi, M. Castex


Effect of probiotic Bactocell (Pediococcus acidilactici) as a supplementary diet was studied on post-larvae 12-15 of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (150000 PL/0.5 h pond, average body weight=0.02 g) growth performance under farm condition for 102 days at water quality parameters consisting of temperature at 30.5-36οC, dissolved oxygen 4.1-6.6 mg/l, salinity 40-54 g/l, turbidity 35-110 cm, ammonia 0.1-0.8 mg/l and nitrite 0.1-0.9 mg/l. Also, the resistance level of the treated shrimps was assessed against a virulent strain of Vibrio paraheamolyticus as intramuscular injection route at 1.4 x 106 cells/shrimp. Significantly higher growth rate (11.3±1.54 g) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.1) were obtained in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ tone feed compared to other treatments of 250 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.8±2 g, 1.3), 500 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.3±1.7 g, 1.3) and untreated control (10.1±2 g, 1.4). Also, thermal growth coefficient (0.057%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.13) were significantly improved in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ton feed compare to other groups. Shrimps fed diet supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/tone feed showed significantly higher protein content (72.56%) in their carcass composition than treatments of 250 g/ton feed (65.9%), 500 g/ton feed (67.5%) and control group (65.9%), while the carcass contents of moisture, lipid and ash in all shrimp groups were not significantly affected by different concentrations of Bactocell. No mortality occurred in the experimentally infected shrimps fed with Bactocell at 500 g/tone feed after 7 hours post-challenge with V. parahemolyticus. The mortality levels of 100%, 40%, 50% and 70% were obtained in shrimps fed with 0.0, 500 g/tone feed, 350 g/ton feed and 250 g/ton feed, respectively 14 hours post-infection. Also, the cumulative mortalities were achieved in 100%, 92% and 81% in shrimps few with Bactocell at 500 g/ton feed, 250 g/ton feed and 350 g/ton feed, respectively.

Keywords: Growth Performance, litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio paraheamolyticus, pediococcus acidilactici, bactocell

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19 Plant Water Relations and Forage Quality in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and Acacia saligna (Labill.) as Affected by Salinity Stress

Authors: Maher J. Tadros


This research was conducted to study the effect of different salinity concentrations on the plant water relation and forage quality on two multipurpose forest trees species seedlings Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit and Acacia saligna (Labill.). Five different salinity concentrations mixture between sodium chloride and calcium chloride (v/v, 1:1) were applied. The control (Distilled Water), 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ppm were used to water the seedlings for 3 months. The research results presented showed a marked variation among the two species in response to salinity. The Leucaena was able to withstand the highest level of salinity compared to Acacia all over the studied parameters except in the relative water content. Although all the morphological characteristics studied for the two species showed a marked decrease under the different salinity concentrations, except the shoot/root ratio that showed a trend of increase. The water stress measure the leaf water potential was more negative with as the relative water content increase under that saline conditions compared to the control. The forage quality represented by the crude protein and nitrogen content were low at 6000 ppm compared to the 8000 ppm in L. Leucocephala that increased compared that level in A. saligna. Also the results showed that growing both Leucaena and Acacia provide a good source of forage when that grow under saline condition which will be of great benefits to the agricultural sector especially in the arid and semiarid areas were these species can provide forage with high quality forage all year around when grown under irrigation with saline. This research recommended such species to be utilized and grown for forages under saline conditions.

Keywords: Forage Quality, Growth Performance, protein content, plant water relations, salinity stress, multipurpose trees

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18 Galawaste Meal as Dietary Supplement in Practical Diets for African Giant Catfish Clarias Gariepinus Burchell 1822 Fingerlings

Authors: G. O. Fakunmoju, F. A. Fakunmoju


The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth response of African giant catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with varying levels of Galawaste based diet, 300 clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean body weight 10 ± 0.1g were assigned to five (treatment levels in which Gala waste meal replaced maize at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% respectively in a completely randomized design. The trial fish were fed at 5% body weight daily for a period of 84 days. Data collected showed that body weight gain increased with an increase gala waste meal in the diet (P<0.05). The similar observation was recorded for feed intake but there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in feed conversion ratio among the treatments. All the fish fed the test ingredients performed better than the control groups hence, Gala waste meal could be recommended as a dietary supplement in the diet of African Giant Catfish.

Keywords: Growth Performance, Clarias gariepinus, Galawaste meal, replacement, diets

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17 Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Kernel Inclusion in Broiler Diet on Growth Performance, Organ Weight and Gut Morphometry

Authors: Olatundun Bukola Ezekiel, Adejumo Olusoji


A feeding trial was conducted with 100 two-weeks old broiler chicken to evaluate the influence of inclusion in broiler diets at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel (used to replace equal quantity of maize) on their performance, organ weight and gut morphometry. The birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, each treatment having four replicates consisting of five broilers in a completely randomized design. The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (23% CP). Weekly feed intake and changes in body weight were calculated and feed efficiency determined. At the end of the 28-day feeding trial, four broilers per treatment were selected and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance procedures of Statistical Analysis Software The treatment means were presented with group standard errors of means and where significant, were compared using the Duncan multiple range test of the same software. The results showed that broilers fed 2.5% neem kernel inclusion diets had growth performance statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Birds on 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets showed significant (P<0.05) increase in relative weight of liver. The absolute weight of spleen also increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds on 10 % neem kernel diet. More than 5 % neem kernel diets gave significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative weight of the kidney. The length of the small intestine significantly increased in birds fed 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets. Significant differences (P<0.05) did not occur in the length of the large intestine, right and left caeca. It is recommended that neem kernel can be included up to 2.5% in broiler chicken diet without any deleterious effects on the performance and physiological status of the birds.

Keywords: Growth Performance, broiler chicken, gut morphometry, neem kernel, organ weight

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16 The Effect of Using Levels of Red Tiger Shrimp Meal in Starter Broiler Diet upon Growth Performance

Authors: Mohammed I.A. Al-Neemi, Mohammed S.B., Al-Hlawee, Ilham N. Ezaddin, Soz A. Faris, Omer E. Fakhry, Heemen S. Mageed


This objective of this study was to measure the effect of replacing different levels of animal protein concentrate with Red Tiger shrimp meal (RTSM: 60 % crude protein, 2400 M.E kcal/kg and the source of RTSM was imported from china) in the broiler starter diets. A total 300 broiler chicks (Ross-308) were randomly assigned in treatments dietary contained three different levels of RTSM (0.00, 4.16 and 8.32 %) in experimental diet with a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment included four replicates (floor pens) and 25 broilers in each replication (Pen). Therefore, floor space for each boilers was 900 cm2. Initially, the broilers where exposed to a continues lighting of 23:30 hours and dark period of 30 minutes in each 24 hours. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the broilers throughout the experimental period (1-21 days). The results of this study indicated that body weight (B.W.), body weight gain (B.W.G), conversion ratio of feed, protein and energy (F.CR, P.C.R and E.C.R) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased by complete substituting (RTSM) for animal protein concentration (third treatment). Mortality percentage significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased for third dietary treatment. No significant differences were found for feed, protein and energy intake among treatments during the experimental period (three weeks). In conclusion, (RTSM) could be included to 4.16% in the broiler starter diet or substitute the protein Red Tiger shrimp as alternative of protein animal protein concentrate as much as 50%.

Keywords: Growth Performance, broiler, red tiger shrimp, starter diet, animal protein concentrate

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15 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha, Hamada A. Ahmed


The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: Growth Performance, antioxidant, broiler, herbal additives, basil, chamomile

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14 Effect of Different By-Products on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Parameters of Growing Simmental Crossbred Cattle

Authors: Fei Wang, Jie Meng, Qingxiang Meng


China is rich in straw and by-product resources, whose utilization has always been a hot topic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding soybean straw and wine distiller’s grain as a replacement for corn stover on performance of beef cattle. Sixty Simmental×local crossbred bulls averaging 12 months old and 335.7 ± 39.1 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups (15 animals per group) and allocated to a diet with 40% maize stover (MSD), a diet with 40% wrapping package maize silage (PMSD), a diet with 12% soybean straw plus 28% maize stover (SSD) and a diet with 12% wine distiller’s grain plus 28% maize stover (WDD). Bulls were fed ad libitum an TMR consisting of 36.0% maize, 12.5% of DDGS, 5.0% of cottonseed meal, 4.0% of soybean meal and 40.0% of by-product as described above. Treatment period lasted for 22 weeks, consisting of 1 week of dietary adaptation. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for PMSD group than MSD and SSD groups during 0-7 week and 8-14week, and PMSD and WDD groups had higher (P < 0.05) DMI values than MSD and SSD groups during the whole period. Average daily gain (ADG) values were 1.56, 1.72, 1.68 and 1.58 kg for MSD, PMSD, SSD and WDD groups respectively, although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). The value of blood sugar concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for MSD group than WDD group, and the blood urea nitrogen concentration of SSD group was lower (P < 0.05) than MSD and WDD groups. No significant difference (P > 0.05) of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or total protein content was observed among the different groups. Ten bulls with similar body weight were selected at the end of feeding trial and slaughtered for measurement of slaughtering performance, carcass quality and meat chemical composition. SSD group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) shear force value and cooking loss than MSD and PMSD groups. The pH values of MSD and SSD groups were lower (P < 0.05) than PMSD and WDD groups. WDD group had a higher fat color brightness (L*) value than PMSD and SSD groups. There were no significant differences in dressing percentage, meat percentage, top grade meat weight, ribeye area, marbling score, meat color and meat chemical compositions among different dietary treatments. Based on these results, the packed maize stover silage showed a potential of improving the average daily gain and feed intake of beef cattle. Soybean straw had a significant effect on improving the tenderness and reducing cooking loss of beef. In general, soybean straw and packed maize stover silage would be beneficial to nitrogen deposition and showed a potential to substitute maize stover in beef cattle diets.

Keywords: Growth Performance, by-products, beef cattle, carcass quality

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13 Feeding Cost, Growth Performance, Meat and some Carcass Characteristics for Algerian “Hamra” Lambs

Authors: Meghit Boumediene Khaled, Kaddour Ziani


Forty Hamra single non-castrated male lambs were included in the present study. Traits analyzed were weighted at birth (BW) every 20 days. At 99.15±1.07 days old, the animals were weaned, then divided in two identical groups: control and experimental lambs (n=20) according to their live weight; 24.63±0.47 and 24.35±0.64 Kg respectively. During 59 days, two varieties of feed were given to assess the growth performance. The feeding system consisted of supplying a commercial concentrate (corn based) for control lambs. However, a similar amount of experimental concentrate (barley based) was given to the experimental ones. Both diets were supplemented with 200g straw of barley/animal/ration. 10 lambs fed with experimental concentrate were slaughtered at 37.85±0.78 Kg live weight. The growth performance, the diet cost, and some of the carcass and meat characteristics were evaluated. Chemical analysis of both given diets showed an elevated crude fibre content in the commercial concentrate. However, the experimental concentrate contained higher amounts of calcium. Both groups grew at a similar rate (p > 0.05) and showed the same final body weight. Concerning the cost of the given diet, a significant difference has been found (p ≤ 0.001), between both diets. This could affect the price of the produced meat. The dressing percentage was 46.65%, with 2.49% of carcass shrink. Furthermore, an interesting percentage of total muscle was obtained (63.73%) with a good carcass conformation scoring 9.56. Compared to other breed sheep, “Hamra” carcass could be considered as the most valuable economically.

Keywords: Meat, Growth Performance, carcass characteristics, feeding cost, Hamra lamb

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12 Effect of Ginger, Red Pepper, and Their Mixture in Diet on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Sarah Jorjani, Afshin Ghelichi, Mazyar Kamali


The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of addition of ginger and red pepper and their mixture in diet on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar fish). This study had been carried out for 8 weeks. For this reason 132 oscar fishes with intial weight of 2.44±0.26 (gr) were divided into 4 treatments with three replicate as compeletly randomize design test and fed by 100% Biomar diet (T1), Biomar + red pepper (55 mg/kg) (T2), Biomar + ginger (1%) (T3) and Biomar + mixture of red pepper and ginger (T4).The fish were fed in 5% of their body weight. The results showed T2 have significant differences in most of growth parameters in compare with other treatments, such as PBWI, SGR, PER and SR (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between treatments in FCR and FE (P > 0.05).

Keywords: Body Composition, Growth Performance, ginger, red pepper, oscar fish

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11 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: Haematology, Growth Performance, broilers, serum biochemistry

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10 Effects of Raw Bee Propolis and Water or Ethanol Extract of Propolis on Performance, Immune System and Some Blood Parameters on Broiler Bredeers

Authors: Hasan Alp Sahin, Ergin Ozturk


The effects of raw bee propolis (RP) and water (WEP) or ethanol (EEP) extract of propolis on growth performance, selected immune parameters (IgA, IgY and IgM) and some blood parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, trygliceride, total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status were determined. The study was conducted between 15th and 20th weeks (6 weeks) and used a total of 48 broiler breeder pullets (Ross-308). The broiler breeder in control group was fed diet without propolis whereas the birds in RP, WEP and EEP groups were fed diets with RP, WEP and EEP at the level of 1200, 400 and 400 ppm, respectively. All pullets were fed mash form diet with 15% crude protein and 2800 ME kcal/kg. All propolis forms had not a beneficial effect on any studied parameters compared to control group (P > 0.05). The results of the study indicated that both the level of the active matters supplied from the bee propolis has no enough beneficial effect on performance, some immune and blood parameters on broiler breeders or they did not have such a level that would cause a beneficial effect on these variables.

Keywords: Growth Performance, antioxidant, bee product, poultry breeders, immune parameters, blood chemistry

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9 Dietary Ergosan as a Supplemental Nutrient on Growth Performance, and Stress in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar, Mohammad Ali Yousefi, Zahra Roohi


In this study, the effects of different levels of Ergosan (control group (0), 2, 4 and 6 gr Ergosan per Kg diet) as a nutritional supplement were investigated on growth indices and stress in Zebrafish for 3 months. Larvae (4-day-old after hatching) were fed with experimental diet from the beginning of feeding until adult (adolescence) (average weight: 69.3 g, length: 5.1 cm). Different levels of Ergosan had no significant effect on rate survival (P < 0.05). The results showed that diet containing 6 gr Ergosan significantly caused the best FCR in Zebrafish (P < 0.05). By increasing the Ergosan diet, specific growth rate increased. Body weight gain and condition factor had significant differences (P < 0.05) as the highest and the lowest were observed in treatment 3 gr of Ergosan and control, respectively. The results showed that fish fed with experimental diet, had the highest resistance to environmental stresses compared to control, and the test temperature, oxygen, salinity and alkalinity samples containing 6 gr/kg, was significantly more resistance compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, to achieve high resistance to environmental stress and increase final biomass using 6 gr/kg Ergosan in diet fish Zebrafish.

Keywords: stress, Growth Performance, Danio rerio, Ergosan

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8 Growth Performance and Economy of Production of Pullets Fed on Different Energy Based Sources

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, A. Ogunbameru, F. P. Agbaye, R. O. Odunukan


This experiment was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the growth performance and economics of pullets fed on different dietary energy sources. A total of 300 Harco black was used for this experiment. The birds were completely randomized and divided into four diet treatment groups. Each treatment group had three replicates of twenty-five birds per replicate. Four diets containing maize, spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit was formulated to represent diet 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Diet 1 containing maize is the control, while diet 2, 3, and 4 contains spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit waste meal at 100% replacement for maize on weight for weight basis. Performance indices on Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economy of production were measured. Blood samples were also collected for heamatology and serum biochemistry assessment. The result of the experiment indicated that different dietary energy source fed to birds significantly (P < 0.05) affect feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The best cost of feed per kilogram of body weight gain was obtained in Spaghetti based diet (₦559.30). However, the best performance were obtained from diet 1(maize), it can be concluded that spaghetti as a replacement for maize in diet of pullet is most economical and profitable for production without any deleterious effects attached. Blood parameters of birds were not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by the use of the dietary energy sources used in this experiment.

Keywords: Hematology, Growth Performance, biscuit, noodles, serum biochemistry, profit, spaghetti

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7 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Allium Hookeri Root and Processed Sulfur on the Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs

Authors: Lee, Nayeon, Won-Young, Cho, Hyun Joo, Jang, Chi-Ho


This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation of the Allium hookeri root, and processed sulfur, on the growth performance of guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were fed a control diet (CON), as well as the control diet including 1% freeze-dried Allium hookeri root (AH), or 0.1% processed sulfur (S), or including both the freeze-dried Allium hookeri root and the processed sulfur (AHS). The weight of perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in the AH were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05). The serum cholesterols levels of the AH and the AHS were significantly lower than the S (p < 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid content in the serum of the AH and AHS groups showed a tendency to decrease, the total monounsaturated fatty acid increased. The results of this study suggested that dietary consumption of Allium hookeri root may help to decrease fat accumulation, lower serum cholesterol levels, and control serum free fatty acid contents in the guinea pigs.

Keywords: Dietary Supplementation, Growth Performance, Guinea pig, Allium hookeri, processed sulfur

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6 The Effect of a Probiotic: Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and Its Products on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance of Orange-Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides

Authors: Mei-Ying Huang, Huei-Jen Ju, Liang-Wei Tseng, Chin-Jung Hsu


The aim of this study was to investigate a probiotic, Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide and dextran, on growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune responses, and pathogen resistance of spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The grouper were fed control and diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (I + B4), and dextran (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (D + B4) for 8 weeks. The result showed that final weights and percent weight gains of the grouper fed diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 and I + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes in the grouper fed with I + B4 were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05), too. After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, the enzyme activities of antiprotease and lysozyme as well as of respiratory burst of the fish fed with I + B4 and D + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The grouper fed with the both diets also had higher survival rates than that of the control group after the challenge. Overall, the study indicated that feeding diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide, and dextran could be an effective method for enhancing the growth performance and disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper.

Keywords: Growth Performance, dextran, orange-spotted grouper, probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, isomaltooligosaccharide, pathogen resistance

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5 Effects of Different Dietary Crude Fiber Levels on the Growth Performance of Finishing Su-Shan Pigs

Authors: Li Bixia, Ren Shouwen, Fu Yanfeng, Tu Feng, Xiaoming Fang, Xueming Wang


The utilization of dietary crude fiber in different breed pigs is not the same. Su-shan pigs are a new breed formed by crossing Taihu pigs and Yorkshire pigs. In order to understand the resistance of Su-shan pigs to dietary crude fiber, 150 Su-shan pigs with 60 kg of average body weight and similar body conditions were allocated to three groups randomly, and there are 50 pigs in each group. The percentages of dietary crude fiber were 8.35%, 9.10%, and 11.39%, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 15 pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered. The results showed as follows: average daily gain of the 9.10% group was higher than that of the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group; there was a significant difference between the 9.10% group and the 8.35% group (p < 0.05. Levels of urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in the 9.10% group were significantly higher than those in the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group (p < 0.05). Ratios of meat to fat in the 9.10% group and the 11.39% group were significantly higher than that in the 8.35% group (p < 0.05). Lean percentage of 9.10% group was higher than that of 8.35% group and 11.39% group, but there was no significant difference in three groups (p > 0.05). The weight of small intestine and large intestine in the 11.39% group was higher than that in the 8.35% group, and the 9.10% group and the difference reached a significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing dietary crude fiber properly could reduce fat percentage, and improve the ratio of meat to fat of finishing Su-shan pigs. The digestion and metabolism of dietary crude fiber promoted the development of stomach and intestine of finishing Su-shan pig.

Keywords: Growth Performance, Su-shan pigs, dietary crude fiber, serum biochemical indexes

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4 Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats

Authors: M. Amir, Saeed Ahmed, Tamoor Abbas, M. S. Iqbal, D. Hussain


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.

Keywords: Growth Performance, digestibility, yeast culture, beetle goat

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3 A Study of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic, Meat Quality and Association of Polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II Gene with Fat Accumulation in the Female Broiler, Thai Native and Betong Chickens (KU Line)

Authors: W. Loongyai, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, A. Kayan


Both Betong chicken (KU Line) and Thai Native chickens were the high quality of the meat and low carcass fat compared to broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and association of polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene with fat accumulation in the female broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens at 4-14 weeks. The chickens were used and reared under the same environment and management (100 chicks per breed). The results showed that body weight (BW) of broiler chickens was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01) through all the experiment. At 4-8 weeks of age, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens was significantly better than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01), then increased at week 8-14. The percentage of breast, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat of broiler chickens was significantly greater than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01). However, Thai Native chickens showed the highest percentage of liver (P < 0.01) when compared to other breeds. In addition, the percentage of wing of Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than broiler chickens. Meat quality was also determined and found that, pH of breast meat left from slaughter 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24) of broiler was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01) whereas the percentage of drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss and shear force was not significantly different between breeds. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to genotype the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene in the broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens. The results found that, the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6 loci was not associated with fat accumulation in those studied population.

Keywords: Meat Quality, Growth Performance, broiler chickens, carcass characteristic, ApoVLDL-II gene, Betong (KU line) chickens, Thai native chickens

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2 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin


In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: Hematology, Immunity, Body Composition, Growth Performance, spirulina powder, Astronotus ocellatus

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1 Comparison of Zinc Amino Acid Complex and Zinc Sulfate in Diet for Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer)

Authors: Kanokwan Sansuwan, Orapint Jintasataporn, Srinoy Chumkam


Asian seabass is one of the economically important fish of Thailand and other countries in the Southeast Asia. Zinc is an essential trace metal to fish and vital to various biological processes and function. It is required for normal growth and indispensable in the diet. Therefore, the artificial diets offered to intensively cultivated fish must possess the zinc content required by the animal metabolism for health maintenance and high weight gain rates. However, essential elements must also be in an available form to be utilized by the organism. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the application of different zinc forms, including organic Zinc (zinc amino acid complex) and inorganic Zinc (zinc sulfate), as feed additives in diets for Asian seabass. Three groups with five replicates of fish (mean weight 22.54 ± 0.80 g) were given a basal diet either unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with 50 mg Zn kg−¹ sulfate (ZnSO₄) or Zinc Amino Acid Complex (ZnAA) respectively. Feeding regimen was initially set at 3% of body weight per day, and then the feed amount was adjusted weekly according to the actual feeding performance. The experiment was conducted for 10 weeks. Fish supplemented with ZnAA had the highest values in all studied growth indicators (weight gain, average daily growth and specific growth rate), followed by fish fed the diets with the ZnSO₄, and lowest in fish fed the diets with the control. Lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of fish supplemented with ZnAA were significantly higher compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Fish supplemented with ZnSO₄ exhibited significant increase in digestive enzyme activities (protease, pepsin and trypsin) compared with ZnAA and the control (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed for RNA and protein in muscle (P > 0.05). The results of the present work suggest that ZnAA are a better source of trace elements for Asian seabass, based on growth performance and immunity indices examined in this study.

Keywords: Growth Performance, Asian seabass, zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA), zinc sulfate (ZnSO₄)

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