Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Groundwater Quality Related Abstracts

10 Water Quality at a Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine Sludge Entrenchment Site

Authors: Babatunde Femi Bakare


Groundwater quality was evaluated at a site for three years after the site was used for entrenchment of Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine sludge. Analysis performed on the soil characteristics at the entrenchment site indicated that, the soils at the entrenchment site are predominantly sandy. Depth of the water table at the entrenchment site was found to be approximately five meters. Five monitoring boreholes were dug along the perimeter of the sludge trenches and water samples taken from these monitoring boreholes were analyzed for pH, conductivity, sodium ions, chloride ions, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia, and bacteriological analysis. The results obtained from the analysis conducted were compared with the South African Bureau of Standards for drinking water and it was found that the parameters analyzed falls below the specified range. The data obtained from this study indicate that, given the relatively high sludge loading rates, poor soil quality, and the duration of the groundwater quality monitoring, it is unlikely that contamination of groundwater at the entrenchment site will be a major concern. However, caution is advised in extrapolating these results to other locations.

Keywords: Contamination, Groundwater Quality, boreholes, entrenchment, VIP latrines

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9 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan


Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: Salinity, Groundwater Quality, irrigation water quality, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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8 Vulnerability Assessment of Groundwater Quality Deterioration Using PMWIN Model

Authors: M. Arshad, A. Shakoor


The utilization of groundwater resources in irrigation has significantly increased during the last two decades due to constrained canal water supplies. More than 70% of the farmers in the Punjab, Pakistan, depend directly or indirectly on groundwater to meet their crop water demands and hence, an unchecked paradigm shift has resulted in aquifer depletion and deterioration. Therefore, a comprehensive research was carried at central Punjab-Pakistan, regarding spatiotemporal variation in groundwater level and quality. Processing MODFLOW for window (PMWIN) and MT3D (solute transport model) models were used for existing and future prediction of groundwater level and quality till 2030. The comprehensive data set of aquifer lithology, canal network, groundwater level, groundwater salinity, evapotranspiration, groundwater abstraction, recharge etc. were used in PMWIN model development. The model was thus, successfully calibrated and validated with respect to groundwater level for the periods of 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) and model efficiency (MEF) for calibration and validation period were calculated as 0.89 and 0.98, respectively, which argued a high level of correlation between the calculated and measured data. For solute transport model (MT3D), the values of advection and dispersion parameters were used. The model used for future scenario up to 2030, by assuming that there would be no uncertain change in climate and groundwater abstraction rate would increase gradually. The model predicted results revealed that the groundwater would decline from 0.0131 to 1.68m/year during 2013 to 2030 and the maximum decline would be on the lower side of the study area, where infrastructure of canal system is very less. This lowering of groundwater level might cause an increase in the tubewell installation and pumping cost. Similarly, the predicted total dissolved solids (TDS) of the groundwater would increase from 6.88 to 69.88mg/L/year during 2013 to 2030 and the maximum increase would be on lower side. It was found that in 2030, the good quality would reduce by 21.4%, while marginal and hazardous quality water increased by 19.28 and 2%, respectively. It was found from the simulated results that the salinity of the study area had increased due to the intrusion of salts. The deterioration of groundwater quality would cause soil salinity and ultimately the reduction in crop productivity. It was concluded from the predicted results of groundwater model that the groundwater deteriorated with the depth of water table i.e. TDS increased with declining groundwater level. It is recommended that agronomic and engineering practices i.e. land leveling, rainwater harvesting, skimming well, ASR (Aquifer Storage and Recovery Wells) etc. should be integrated to meliorate management of groundwater for higher crop production in salt affected soils.

Keywords: Groundwater Management, Groundwater Quality, PMWIN, MT3D model

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7 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes Using Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: L. Belkhiri, L. Mouni, A. Tiri, T.S. Narany


In the present study, the self-organizing map (SOM) clustering technique was applied to identify homogeneous clusters of hydrochemical parameters in El Milia plain, Algeria, to assess the quality of groundwater for potable and agricultural purposes. The visualization of SOM-analysis indicated that 35 groundwater samples collected in the study area were classified into three clusters, which showed progressive increase in electrical conductivity from cluster one to cluster three. Samples belonging to cluster one are mostly located in the recharge zone showing hard fresh water type, however, water type gradually changed to hard-brackish type in the discharge zone, including clusters two and three. Ionic ratio studies indicated the role of carbonate rock dissolution in increases on groundwater hardness, especially in cluster one. However, evaporation and evapotranspiration are the main processes increasing salinity in cluster two and three.

Keywords: Self-Organizing Maps, drinking water, Groundwater Quality, irrigation water

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6 Impact Assessment of Phosphogypsum on the Groundwater of Sfax-Agareb Aquifer, in Southeast of Tunisia

Authors: Moncef Gueddari, Samira Melki


In Tunisia, solid wastes storage continue to be uncontrolled. It is eliminated by land raising without any protection measurement against water table and soil contamination. Several industries are located in Sfax area, especially those of the Tunisian Chemical Group (TCG) for the enrichment and transformation of phosphate. The activity of the TCG focuses primarily on the production of chemical fertilizers and phosphoric acid, by transforming natural phosphates. This production generates gaseous emissions, liquid discharges and huge amounts of phosphogypsum (PG) stored directly on the soil surface. Groundwater samples were collected from Tunisian Chemical Group (TCG) site, to assess the effects of phosphogypsum leatchate on groundwater quality. The measurements of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Al, Fe, Zn and F) and stable isotopes of the water molecule (¹⁸O, ²H) were determined in groundwater samples and are reported. The moderately high concentrations of SO₄⁼, Ortho-P, NH₄⁺ Al and F⁻ in groundwater particularly near to the phosphogypsum storage site, likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. The effect of distance of the piezometers from the pollution source was also investigated. The isotopic data of water molecule, showed that the waters of the Sfax-Agreb aquifer amount to recent-evaporation induced rainfall.

Keywords: Pollution, Groundwater Quality, Stable Isotopes, Tunisia, phosphogypsum leatchate, Sfax-Agareb

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5 Assessment of Groundwater Chemistry and Quality Characteristics in an Alluvial Aquifer and a Single Plane Fractured-Rock Aquifer in Bloemfontein, South Africa

Authors: Modreck Gomo


The evolution of groundwater chemistry and its quality is largely controlled by hydrogeochemical processes and their understanding is therefore important for groundwater quality assessments and protection of the water resources. A study was conducted in Bloemfontein town of South Africa to assess and compare the groundwater chemistry and quality characteristics in an alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifers. 9 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes drilled into the two aquifer systems during a once-off sampling exercise. Samples were collected through low-flow purging technique and analysed for major ions and trace elements. In order to describe the hydrochemical facies and identify dominant hydrogeochemical processes, the groundwater chemistry data are interpreted using stiff diagrams and principal component analysis (PCA), as complimentary tools. The fitness of the groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation uses is also assessed. Results show that the alluvial aquifer is characterised by a Na-HCO3 hydrochemical facie while fractured-rock aquifer has a Ca-HCO3 facie. The groundwater in both aquifers originally evolved from the dissolution of calcite rocks that are common on land surface environments. However the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer further goes through another evolution as driven by cation exchange process in which Na in the sediments exchanges with Ca2+ in the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical type to result in the Na-HCO3 hydrochemical type. Despite the difference in the hydrogeochemical processes between the alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifer, this did not influence the groundwater quality. The groundwater in the two aquifers is very hard as influenced by the elevated magnesium and calcium ions that evolve from dissolution of carbonate minerals which typically occurs in surface environments. Based on total dissolved levels (600-900 mg/L), groundwater quality of the two aquifer systems is classified to be of fair quality. The negative potential impacts of the groundwater quality for domestic uses are highlighted.

Keywords: Groundwater Quality, alluvial aquifer, fractured-rock aquifer, hydrogeochemical processes

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4 Identification of Suitable Sites for Rainwater Harvesting in Salt Water Intruded Area by Using Geospatial Techniques in Jafrabad, Amreli District, India

Authors: Pandurang Balwant, Ashutosh Mishra, Jyothi V., Abhay Soni, Padmakar C., Rafat Quamar, Ramesh J.


The sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers has become one of the major environmental concerns. Although, it is a natural phenomenon but, it can be induced with anthropogenic activities like excessive exploitation of groundwater, seacoast mining, etc. The geological and hydrogeological conditions including groundwater heads and groundwater pumping pattern in the coastal areas also influence the magnitude of seawater intrusion. However, this problem can be remediated by taking some preventive measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge. The present study is an attempt to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting in salt intrusion affected area near coastal aquifer of Jafrabad town, Amreli district, Gujrat, India. The physico-chemical water quality results show that out of 25 groundwater samples collected from the study area most of samples were found to contain high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with major fractions of Na and Cl ions. The Cl/HCO3 ratio was also found greater than 1 which indicates the salt water contamination in the study area. The geophysical survey was conducted at nine sites within the study area to explore the extent of contamination of sea water. From the inverted resistivity sections, low resistivity zone (<3 Ohm m) associated with seawater contamination were demarcated in North block pit and south block pit of NCJW mines, Mitiyala village Lotpur and Lunsapur village at the depth of 33 m, 12 m, 40 m, 37 m, 24 m respectively. Geospatial techniques in combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) considering hydrogeological factors, geographical features, drainage pattern, water quality and geophysical results for the study area were exploited to identify potential zones for the Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater harvesting suitability model was developed in ArcGIS 10.1 software and Rainwater harvesting suitability map for the study area was generated. AHP in combination of the weighted overlay analysis is an appropriate method to identify rainwater harvesting potential zones. The suitability map can be further utilized as a guidance map for the development of rainwater harvesting infrastructures in the study area for either artificial groundwater recharge facilities or for direct use of harvested rainwater.

Keywords: Groundwater Quality, Rainwater Harvesting, analytical hierarchy process, seawater intrusion

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3 Assessment of Groundwater Aquifer Impact from Artificial Lagoons and the Reuse of Wastewater in Qatar

Authors: H. Aljabiry, L. Bailey, S. Young


Qatar is a desert with an average temperature 37⁰C, reaching over 40⁰C during summer. Precipitation is uncommon and mostly in winter. Qatar depends on desalination for drinking water and on groundwater and recycled water for irrigation. Water consumption and network leakage per capita in Qatar are amongst the highest in the world; re-use of treated wastewater is extremely limited with only 14% of treated wastewater being used for irrigation. This has led to the country disposing of unwanted water from various sources in lagoons situated around the country, causing concern over the possibility of environmental pollution. Accordingly, our hypothesis underpinning this research is that the quality and quantity of water in lagoons is having an impact on the groundwater reservoirs in Qatar. Lagoons (n = 14) and wells (n = 55) were sampled for both summer and winter in 2018 (summer and winter). Water, adjoining soil and plant samples were analysed for multiple elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Organic and inorganic carbon were measured (CN analyser) and the major anions were determined by ion chromatography. Salinization in both the lagoon and the wells was seen with good correlations between Cl⁻, Na⁺, Li, SO₄, S, Sr, Ca, Ti (p-value < 0.05). Association of heavy metals was observed of Ni, Cu, Ag, and V, Cr, Mo, Cd which is due to contamination from anthropological activities such as wastewater disposal or spread of contaminated dust. However, looking at each elements none of them exceeds the Qatari regulation. Moreover, gypsum saturation in the system was observed in both the lagoon and wells water samples. Lagoons and the water of the well are found to be of a saline type as well as Ca²⁺, Cl⁻, SO₄²⁻ type evidencing both gypsum dissolution and salinization in the system. Moreover, Maps produced by Inverse distance weighting showed an increasing level of Nitrate in the groundwater in winter, and decrease chloride and sulphate level, indicating recharge effect after winter rain events. While E. coli and faecal bacteria were found in most of the lagoons, biological analysis for wells needs to be conducted to understand the biological contamination from lagoon water infiltration. As a conclusion, while both the lagoon and the well showed the same results, more sampling is needed to understand the impact of the lagoons on the groundwater.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Water management, Wetlands, Treated Wastewater, Groundwater Quality, lagoon

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2 Groundwater Quality in the Rhiss-Nekor Plain, Morocco: Impacts of Human Activities

Authors: Ali Ait Boughrous, Said Benyoussef, Hossain El Ouarghi, Moulay Abdelazize Aboulhassan, Samah Aitbnichou, Said Benguamra


The Rhiss-Nekor aquifer represents a primary water source for the central Rif region. Many operating structures were built for irrigation and drinking water supply. Because of the vulnerability of this aquifer, a thorough knowledge of the environment is needed to evaluate and protect resources. This work aims at the quality assessment of the water table of the plain Ghiss-Nekor and determination of pollution sources in order to establish a map of the web. The plain-Rhiss Nekor, with an area of 100 km2, is located on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. It has a particular geological structure resulting from the opening of a graben at the end of the Tertiary, which is filled by the accumulation of hundreds of meters of sediment, generating considerable heterogeneity in deposits. This heterogeneity gives various hydrodynamic properties within the aquifer of the plain. The analysis of the water quality of twenty water points, well distributed over the plain, showed high natural salinity linked to the geological nature of the area. This salinity increases in the littoral area by the seawater intrusion phenomenon. This is accentuated by overexploitation of the ground water due to the growing demand. Some wells, located inland, are characterized by organic pollution caused by wastewater seepage from septic tanks and lost wells widespread in the region.

Keywords: Groundwater Quality, marine intrusion, anthropogenic factors, Rhiss-Nekor aquifer

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1 Hydrogeochemical Assessment, Evaluation and Characterization of Groundwater Quality in Ore, South-Western, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo


One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is to have sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. In line with this objective, an assessment of groundwater quality was carried out in Odigbo Local Government Area of Ondo State in November – February, 2019 to assess the drinking, domestic and irrigation uses of the water. Samples from 30 randomly selected ground water sources; 16 shallow wells and 14 from boreholes and analyzed using American Public Health Association method for the examination of water and wastewater. Water quality index calculation, and diagrams such as Piper diagram, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox diagram have been used to assess the groundwater in conjunction with irrigation indices such as % sodium, sodium absorption ratio, permeability index, magnesium ratio, Kelly ratio, and electrical conductivity. In addition statistical Principal component analysis were used to determine the homogeneity and source(s) influencing the chemistry of the groundwater. The results show that all the parameters are within the permissible limit of World Health Organization. The physico-chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicates that the dominant major cations are in decreasing order of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and the dominant anions are HCO-3, Cl-, SO-24, NO-3. The values of water quality index varies suggest a Good water (WQI of 50-75) accounts for 70% of the study area. The dominant groundwater facies revealed in this study are the non-carbonate alkali (primary salinity) exceeds 50% (zone 7); and transition zone with no one cation-anion pair exceeds 50% (zone 9), while evaporation; rock–water interaction, and precipitation; and silicate weathering process are the dominant processes in the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater. The study indicates that waters were found within the permissible limits of irrigation indices adopted, and plot on excellent category on Wilcox plot. In conclusion, the water in the study area are good/suitable for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes with low equivalent salinity concentrate and moderate electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Groundwater Quality, Water-Rock Interaction, equivalent salinity concentration, hydrochemical facies

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