Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Graphene Related Abstracts

95 Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects

Authors: Bin Yu, Yang Xu, Nikhil Jain


The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h- BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h- BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: Graphene, interconnects, two-dimensional nanosheet, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
94 Graphene Based Electronic Device

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Ali Safari, Iman Rahbari, MohamadReza Kalhor


The semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved performance, or provide novel functionality for devices. Recently, graphene, as a true two-dimensional carbon material, has shown fascinating applications in electronics. In this paper detailed discussions are introduced for possible applications of grapheme Transistor in RF and digital devices.

Keywords: Graphene, Digital, GFET

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
93 Rheological and Thermomechanical Properties of Graphene/ABS/PP Nanocomposites

Authors: Marianna I. Triantou, Petroula A. Tarantili, Konstantina I. Stathi


In the present study, the incorporation of graphene into blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer with polypropylene (ABS/PP) was investigated focusing on the improvement of their thermomechanical characteristics and the effect on their rheological behavior. The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder and were characterized by measuring the MFI as well as by performing DSC, TGA and mechanical tests. The addition of graphene to ABS/PP blends tends to increase their melt viscosity, due to the confinement of polymer chains motion. Also, graphene causes an increment of the crystallization temperature (Tc), especially in blends with higher PP content, because of the reduction of surface energy of PP nucleation, which is a consequence of the attachment of PP chains to the surface of graphene through the intermolecular CH-π interaction. Moreover, the above nanofiller improves the thermal stability of PP and increases the residue of thermal degradation at all the investigated compositions of blends, due to the thermal isolation effect and the mass transport barrier effect. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of graphene improves the elastic modulus, because of its intrinsic mechanical characteristics and its rigidity, and this effect is particularly strong in the case of pure PP.

Keywords: Graphene, Polypropylene, blends, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer

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92 Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Ingy N. Bkrey, Ahmed A. Moniem


We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μ on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50 μ MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.

Keywords: Graphene, flexible, Graphene Oxide, electrode deposition, high power CO2 Laser, MnO2

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91 Defect Induced Enhanced Photoresponse in Graphene

Authors: Prarthana Gowda, Tushar Sakorikar, Siva K. Reddy, Darim B. Ferry, Abha Misra


Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope has demonstrated excellent electrical, mechanical and optical properties. A tunable band gap of grapheme demonstrated broad band absorption of light with a response time of picoseconds, however it suffers a fast recombination of the photo generated carriers. Many reports have explored to overcome this problem; in this presentation, we discuss defect induced enhanced photoresponse in a few layer graphene (FLG) due to exposure of infrared (IR) radiation. The two and four-fold enhancement in the photocurrent is achieved by addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) to an FLG surface and also creating the wrinkles in the FLG (WG) respectively. In our study, it is also inferred that the photo current generation is highly dependent on the morphological defects on the graphene. It is observed that the FLG (without defects) generates the photo current instantaneously, and after a prolonged exposure to the IR radiation decays the generation rate. Importantly, the presence of MWCNT on FLG enhances the stability and WG presented both stable as well as enhanced photo response.

Keywords: Graphene, multiwalled carbon nano tubes, wrinkled graphene, photo detector, photo current

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90 Nonlinear Optics of Dirac Fermion Systems

Authors: Vipin Kumar, Girish S. Setlur


Graphene has been recognized as a promising 2D material with many new properties. However, pristine graphene is gapless which hinders its direct application towards graphene-based semiconducting devices. Graphene is a zero-gapp and linearly dispersing semiconductor. Massless charge carriers (quasi-particles) in graphene obey the relativistic Dirac equation. These Dirac fermions show very unusual physical properties such as electronic, optical and transport. Graphene is analogous to two-level atomic systems and conventional semiconductors. We may expect that graphene-based systems will also exhibit phenomena that are well-known in two-level atomic systems and in conventional semiconductors. Rabi oscillation is a nonlinear optical phenomenon well-known in the context of two-level atomic systems and also in conventional semiconductors. It is the periodic exchange of energy between the system of interest and the electromagnetic field. The present work describes the phenomenon of Rabi oscillations in graphene based systems. Rabi oscillations have already been described theoretically and experimentally in the extensive literature available on this topic. To describe Rabi oscillations they use an approximation known as rotating wave approximation (RWA) well-known in studies of two-level systems. RWA is valid only near conventional resonance (small detuning)- when the frequency of the external field is nearly equal to the particle-hole excitation frequency. The Rabi frequency goes through a minimum close to conventional resonance as a function of detuning. Far from conventional resonance, the RWA becomes rather less useful and we need some other technique to describe the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. In conventional systems, there is no second minimum - the only minimum is at conventional resonance. But in graphene we find anomalous Rabi oscillations far from conventional resonance where the Rabi frequency goes through a minimum that is much smaller than the conventional Rabi frequency. This is known as anomalous Rabi frequency and is unique to graphene systems. We have shown that this is attributable to the pseudo-spin degree of freedom in graphene systems. A new technique, which is an alternative to RWA called asymptotic RWA (ARWA), has been invoked by our group to discuss the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. Experimentally accessible current density shows different types of threshold behaviour in frequency domain close to the anomalous Rabi frequency depending on the system chosen. For single layer graphene, the exponent at threshold is equal to 1/2 while in case of bilayer graphene, it is computed to be equal to 1. Bilayer graphene shows harmonic (anomalous) resonances absent in single layer graphene. The effect of asymmetry and trigonal warping (a weak direct inter-layer hopping in bilayer graphene) on these oscillations is also studied in graphene systems. Asymmetry has a remarkable effect only on anomalous Rabi oscillations whereas the Rabi frequency near conventional resonance is not significantly affected by the asymmetry parameter. In presence of asymmetry, these graphene systems show Rabi-like oscillations (offset oscillations) even for vanishingly small applied field strengths (less than the gap parameter). The frequency of offset oscillations may be identified with the asymmetry parameter.

Keywords: Graphene, Bilayer graphene, Rabi oscillations, Dirac fermion systems

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89 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang


The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: Graphene, Molecular Dynamics, Interface, Silicon, Schottky barriers

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88 NFC Kenaf Core Graphene Paper: In-situ Method Application

Authors: M. Z. Shazana, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, I. Rushdan, M. Jani


Ultrasonic probe were using to produce nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) kenaf core. NFC kenaf core and graphene was mixed using in-situ method with the 5V voltage for 24 hours. The resulting NFC graphene paper was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra and thermogavimetric analysis (TGA). The properties of NFC kenaf core graphene paper are compared with properties of pure NFC kenaf core paper.

Keywords: Graphene, NFC, kenaf core, in-situ method

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87 Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application

Authors: Juree Hong, Sanggeun Lee, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee


We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.

Keywords: Graphene, metal nanoparticle, galvanic displacement reaction, hydrogen sensor

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86 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault


In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: Graphene, Silicon Carbide, Deposition, Quantum Hall Effect, chemical vapor

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85 Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Ali Safari, Hamed Sarbazi


Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with numerous impressive properties. It is a promising material for future high-speed nanoelectronics due to its intrinsic superior carrier mobility and very high saturation velocity. These exceptional carrier transport properties suggest that graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) can potentially outperform other FET technologies. In this paper, detailed discussions are introduced for Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers.

Keywords: Graphene, microwave FETs, microwave amplifiers, transistors

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84 Preparation and Properties of PP/EPDM Reinforced with Graphene

Authors: M. Haghnegahdar, G. Naderi, M. H. R. Ghoreishy


Polypropylene(PP)/Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) samples (80/20) containing 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 (expressed in mass fraction) graphene were prepared using melt compounding method to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability as well as electrical resistance of samples. X-Ray diffraction data confirmed that graphene platelets are well dispersed in PP/EPDM. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength and hardness demonstrated increasing trend by graphene loading which exemplifies substantial reinforcing nature of this kind of nano filler and it's good interaction with polymer chains. At the same time it is found that thermo-oxidative degradation of PP/EPDM nanocomposites is noticeably retarded with the increasing of graphene content. Electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposite was dramatically changed by forming electrical percolation threshold and leads to change electrical behavior from insulator to semiconductor. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: Graphene, Microstructure, nanocomposite, Mechanical Properties

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83 Graphene Transistor Employing Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride as Substrate and Gate Insulator

Authors: Bin Yu, Nikhil Jain


We explore the potential of using ultra-thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as both supporting substrate and gate dielectric for graphene-channel field effect transistors (GFETs). Different from commonly used oxide-based dielectric materials which are typically amorphous, very rough in surface, and rich with surface traps, h-BN is layered insulator free of dangling bonds and surface states, featuring atomically smooth surface. In a graphene-channel-last device structure with local buried metal gate electrode (TiN), thin h-BN multilayer is employed as both supporting “substrate” and gate dielectric for graphene active channel. We observed superior carrier mobility and electrical conduction, significantly improved from that in GFETs with SiO2 as substrate/gate insulator. In addition, we report excellent dielectric behavior of layered h-BN, including ultra-low leakage current and high critical electric field for breakdown.

Keywords: Graphene, Tunneling, hexagonal boron nitride, field-effect transistors, dielectric strength

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82 First Principle study of Electronic Structure of Silicene Doped with Galium

Authors: Mauludi Ariesto Pamungkas, Wafa Maftuhin


Gallium with three outer electrons commonly are used as dopants of silicon to make it P type and N type semiconductor respectively. Silicene, one-atom-thick silicon layer is one of emerging two dimension materials after the success of graphene. The effects of Gallium doping on electronic structure of silicine are investigated by using first principle calculation based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation and norm conserving pseudopotential method implemented in ABINIT code. Bandstructure of Pristine silicene is similar to that of graphene. Effect of Ga doping on bandstructure of silicene depend on the position of Ga adatom on silicene

Keywords: Graphene, density functional theory (DFT), silicene, effects of Gallium doping

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81 Two-Dimensional Nanostack Based On Chip Wiring

Authors: Bin Yu, Nikhil Jain


The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h-BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: Graphene, interconnects, two-dimensional nanosheet, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure

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80 Semiconductor Nanofilm Based Schottky-Barrier Solar Cells

Authors: Bin Yu, Mariyappan Shanmugam


Schottky-barrier solar cells are demonstrated employing 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 semiconductor nanofilms as photo-active material candidates synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Large area MoS2 and WS2 nanofilms are stacked by layer transfer process to achieve thicker photo-active material studied by atomic force microscopy showing a thickness in the range of ~200 nm. Two major vibrational active modes associated with 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 are studied by Raman spectroscopic technique to estimate the quality of the nanofilms. Schottky-barrier solar cells employed MoS2 and WS2 active materials exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 1.8 % and 1.7 % respectively. Fermi-level pinning at metal/semiconductor interface, electronic transport and possible recombination mechanisms are studied in the Schottky-barrier solar cells.

Keywords: Graphene, Solar Cell, two-dimensional nanosheet, hexagonal boron nitride, Schottky barrier

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79 Dielectric Behavior of 2D Layered Insulator Hexagonal Boron Nitride

Authors: Bin Yu, Yang Xu, Nikhil Jain


Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been used as a substrate and gate dielectric for graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). Using a graphene/h-BN/TiN (channel/dielectric/gate) stack, key material properties of h-BN were investigated i.e. dielectric strength and tunneling behavior. Work function difference between graphene and TiN results in spontaneous p-doping of graphene through a multi-layer h-BN flake. However, at high levels of current stress, n-doping of graphene is observed, possibly due to the charge transfer across the thin h-BN multi layer. Neither Direct Tunneling (DT) nor Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling (FNT) was observed in TiN/h-BN/Au hetero structures with h-BN showing two distinct volatile conduction states before breakdown. Hexagonal boron nitride emerges as a material of choice for gate dielectrics in GFETs because of robust dielectric properties and high tunneling barrier.

Keywords: Graphene, Tunneling, hexagonal boron nitride, conduction, transistors, dielectric strength

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78 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

Authors: Ali Moafi, Kourosh Kalantarzadeh, Richard Kaner, Parviz Parvin, Ebrahim Asl Soleimani, Dougal McCulloch


In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.

Keywords: Graphene, Graphene Oxide, TEM, in situ Raman Spectroscopy, EELS, atomic hydrogen

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77 Photo Electrical Response in Graphene Based Resistive Sensor

Authors: F. Bouanis, H. C. Woo, C. S. Cojocaur


Graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, is an interesting potential optoelectronic material because of graphene’s high carrier mobility, zero bandgap, and electron–hole symmetry. Graphene can absorb light and convert it into a photocurrent over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet to visible and infrared regimes. Over the last several years, a variety of graphene-based photodetectors have been reported, such as graphene transistors, graphene-semiconductor heterojunction photodetectors, graphene based bolometers. It is also reported that there are several physical mechanisms enabling photodetection: photovoltaic effect, photo-thermoelectric effect, bolometric effect, photogating effect, and so on. In this work, we report a simple approach for the realization of graphene based resistive photo-detection devices and the measurements of their photoelectrical response. The graphene were synthesized directly on the glass substrate by novel growth method patented in our lab. Then, the metal electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on it, with an electrode length and width of 1.5 mm and 300 μm respectively, using Co to fabricate simple graphene based resistive photosensor. The measurements show that the graphene resistive devices exhibit a photoresponse to the illumination of visible light. The observed re-sistance response was reproducible and similar after many cycles of on and off operations. This photoelectrical response may be attributed not only to the direct photocurrent process but also to the desorption of oxygen. Our work shows that the simple graphene resistive devices have potential in photodetection applications.

Keywords: Optoelectronics, Graphene, resistive sensor, photoresponse

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76 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: Y. Seki, İ. Şen, K. Sever, M. Sarikanat, Z. Yenier


It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: Graphene, Electrical Conductivity, chitosan, viscoelastic properties

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75 Luminescent Functionalized Graphene Oxide Based Sensitive Detection of Deadly Explosive TNP

Authors: Diptiman Dinda, Shyamal Kumar Saha


In the 21st century, sensitive and selective detection of trace amounts of explosives has become a serious problem. Generally, nitro compound and its derivatives are being used worldwide to prepare different explosives. Recently, TNP (2, 4, 6 trinitrophenol) is the most commonly used constituent to prepare powerful explosives all over the world. It is even powerful than TNT or RDX. As explosives are electron deficient in nature, it is very difficult to detect one separately from a mixture. Again, due to its tremendous water solubility, detection of TNP in presence of other explosives from water is very challenging. Simple instrumentation, cost-effective, fast and high sensitivity make fluorescence based optical sensing a grand success compared to other techniques. Graphene oxide (GO), with large no of epoxy grps, incorporate localized nonradiative electron-hole centres on its surface to give very weak fluorescence. In this work, GO is functionalized with 2, 6-diamino pyridine to remove those epoxy grps. through SN2 reaction. This makes GO into a bright blue luminescent fluorophore (DAP/rGO) which shows an intense PL spectrum at ∼384 nm when excited at 309 nm wavelength. We have also characterized the material by FTIR, XPS, UV, XRD and Raman measurements. Using this as fluorophore, a large fluorescence quenching (96%) is observed after addition of only 200 µL of 1 mM TNP in water solution. Other nitro explosives give very moderate PL quenching compared to TNP. Such high selectivity is related to the operation of FRET mechanism from fluorophore to TNP during this PL quenching experiment. TCSPC measurement also reveals that the lifetime of DAP/rGO drastically decreases from 3.7 to 1.9 ns after addition of TNP. Our material is also quite sensitive to 125 ppb level of TNP. Finally, we believe that this graphene based luminescent material will emerge a new class of sensing materials to detect trace amounts of explosives from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Graphene, functionalization, fluorescence quenching, FRET, nitroexplosive detection

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74 The Study on Mechanical Properties of Graphene Using Molecular Mechanics

Authors: I-Ling Chang, Jer-An Chen


The elastic properties and fracture of two-dimensional graphene were calculated purely from the atomic bonding (stretching and bending) based on molecular mechanics method. Considering the representative unit cell of graphene under various loading conditions, the deformations of carbon bonds and the variations of the interlayer distance could be realized numerically under the geometry constraints and minimum energy assumption. In elastic region, it was found that graphene was in-plane isotropic. Meanwhile, the in-plane deformation of the representative unit cell is not uniform along armchair direction due to the discrete and non-uniform distributions of the atoms. The fracture of graphene could be predicted using fracture criteria based on the critical bond length, over which the bond would break. It was noticed that the fracture behavior were directional dependent, which was consistent with molecular dynamics simulation results.

Keywords: Graphene, fracture, Molecular Mechanics, energy minimization

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73 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Fawad Inam, Kostandinos Katsamangas


Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, Surfactants, Dispersion, de-wrinkling, scanning electronic microscopy

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72 A Phenomenological Expression for Self-Attractive Energy of Singlelayer Graphene Sheets

Authors: C. Q. Ru, Bingjie Wu


The present work studies several reasonably expected candidate integral forms for self-attractive potential energy of a free monolayer graphene sheet. The admissibility of a specific integral form for ripple formation is verified, while all others most of the candidate integral forms are rejected based on the non-existence of stable periodic ripples. Based on the selected integral form of self-attractive potential energy, some mechanical behavior, including ripple formation and buckling, of a free monolayer grapheme sheet are discussed in details

Keywords: Graphene, ripples, monolayer, van der Waals energy

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71 Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Composites with Application for Sustainable Energy

Authors: Bogdan S. Vasile, Ecaterina Andronescu, Daniel F. Sava, Anton Ficai, Georgeta Voicu


The energy crisis and environmental contamination are very serious problems, therefore searching for better and sustainable renewable energy is a must. It is predicted that the global energy demand will double until 2050. Solar water splitting and photocatalysis are considered as one of the solutions to these issues. The use of oxide semiconductors for solar water splitting and photocatalysis started in 1972 with the experiments of Fujishima and Honda on TiO2 electrodes. Since then, the evolution of nanoscience and characterization methods leads to a better control of size, shape and properties of materials. Although the past decade advancements are astonishing, for these applications the properties have to be controlled at a much finer level, allowing the control of charge-carrier lives, energy level positions, charge trapping centers, etc. Graphene has attracted a lot of attention, since its discovery in 2004, due to the excellent electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties that it possesses. These properties make it an ideal support for photocatalysts, thus graphene composites with oxide semiconductors are of great interest. We present in this work the synthesis and characterization of graphene-related materials and oxide semiconductors and their different composites. These materials can be used in constructing devices for different applications (batteries, water splitting devices, solar cells, etc), thus showing their application flexibility. The synthesized materials are different morphologies and sizes of TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3 that are obtained through hydrothermal, sol-gel methods and graphene oxide which is synthesized through a modified Hummer method and reduced with different agents. Graphene oxide and the reduced form could also be used as a single material for transparent conductive films. The obtained single materials and composites were characterized through several methods: XRD, SEM, TEM, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN, XPS and BET adsorption/desorption isotherms. From the results, we see the variation of the properties with the variation of synthesis parameters, size and morphology of the particles.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Composites, Graphene, Hydrothermal

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70 High Sensitive Graphene-Based Strain Sensors for SHM of Composite Laminates

Authors: A. Rinaldi, A. Proietti, C. Aquarelli, F. Marra, A. Tamburrano, M. Ciminello, M. S. Sarto


A new type of high sensitive piezoresistive sensors based on graphene was developed within the SARISTU project for application on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The new sensor consists of a graphene-based film, obtained through the spray deposition of a colloidal suspension of Multi-Layer Graphene (MLGs) nano platelets over a substrate. MLGs are produced by liquid exfoliation of thermally expanded Graphite Intercalation Compound. An array of 8 sensors is produced by spray deposition over an aeronautical CFRC plate of dimensions 550 mm (length) × 550 mm (width) × 3 mm (thickness). Electromechanical tests were performed in order to assess the sensitivity of the new piezoresistive sensors, which are characterized by an isotropic response. In the quasi-static characterizations, the CFRC plate was clamped on one side and loaded on the opposite one. The local strain map of the plate was then obtained from displacement measurements and numerical analysis. The dynamic tests were performed lying the plate over an anti-vibration table and actuating a piezoelectric element located in the middle of the sensing array. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the sensors possess a good repeatability and a high constant gauge factor (~200) in the applied strain range 0.001%-0.02%. Moreover, they can follow dynamics up to 400 kHz and for this reason they are good candidates for Lamb-wave analysis.

Keywords: Graphene, strain sensor, spray deposition, lamb-wave analysis

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69 Graphene-Based Nanobiosensors and Lab on Chip for Sensitive Pesticide Detection

Authors: Martin Pumera


Graphene materials are being widely used in electrochemistry due to their versatility and excellent properties as platforms for biosensing. Here we present current trends in the electrochemical biosensing of pesticides and other toxic compounds. We explore two fundamentally different designs, (i) using graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials as an electrochemical platform and (ii) using these nanomaterials in the laboratory on chip design, together with paramagnetic beads. More specifically: (i) We explore graphene as transducer platform with very good conductivity, large surface area, and fast heterogeneous electron transfer for the biosensing. We will present the comparison of these materials and of the immobilization techniques. (ii) We present use of the graphene in the laboratory on chip systems. Laboratory on the chip had a huge advantage due to small footprint, fast analysis times and sample handling. We will show the application of these systems for pesticide detection and detection of other toxic compounds.

Keywords: Biosensing, Graphene, Chip Design

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68 Study on the Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of HIPS/Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: Mehdi Sharif, Amirhosein Rostampour


In this article, a series of high impact polystyrene/graphene (HIPS/Gr) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing method and their morphology and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated as a function of graphene content. SEM images and X-Ray diffraction data confirm that the graphene platelets are well dispersed in HIPS matrix for the nanocomposites with Gr contents up to 5.0 wt%. Mechanical properties analysis demonstrates that yielding strength and initial modulus of HIPS/Gr nanocomposites are highly improved with the increment of Gr content compared to pure HIPS.

Keywords: Morphology, Graphene, nanocomposite, dynamic mechanical properties

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67 Molecular Dynamics Study on Mechanical Responses of Circular Graphene Nanoflake under Nanoindentation

Authors: Jeong-Won Kang


Graphene, a single-atom sheet, has been considered as the most promising material for making future nanoelectromechanical systems as well as purely electrical switching with graphene transistors. Graphene-based devices have advantages in scaled-up device fabrication due to the recent progress in large area graphene growth and lithographic patterning of graphene nanostructures. Here we investigated its mechanical responses of circular graphene nanoflake under the nanoindentation using classical molecular dynamics simulations. A correlation between the load and the indentation depth was constructed. The nanoindented force in this work was applied to the center point of the circular graphene nanoflake and then, the resonance frequency could be tuned by a nanoindented depth. We found the hardening or the softening of the graphene nanoflake during its nanoindented-deflections, and such properties were recognized by the shift of the resonance frequency. The calculated mechanical parameters in the force vs deflection plot were in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical works. This proposed schematics can detect the pressure via the deflection change or/and the resonance frequency shift, and also have great potential for versatile applications in nanoelectromechanical systems.

Keywords: Graphene, Molecular Dynamics, pressure sensor, circular graphene nanoflake

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66 Synthesis, Characterization of Pd Nanoparticle Supported on Amine-Functionalized Graphene and Its Catalytic Activity for Suzuki Coupling Reaction

Authors: Surjyakanta Rana, Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda


Synthesis of well distributed Pd nanoparticles (3 – 7 nm) on organo amine-functionalized graphene is reported, which demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards Suzuki coupling reaction. The active material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and HRTEM. FT-IR revealed that the organic amine functional group was successfully grafted onto the graphene oxide surface. The formation of palladium nanoparticles was confirmed by XPS, TEM and HRTEM techniques. The catalytic activity in the coupling reaction was superb with 100% conversion and 98 % yield and also activity remained almost unaltered up to six cycles. Typically, an extremely high turnover frequency of 185,078 h-1 is observed in the C-C Suzuki coupling reaction using organo di-amine functionalized graphene as catalyst.

Keywords: Graphene, Di-amine, Pd nanoparticle, suzuki coupling

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