Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Glucose Related Abstracts

21 Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose, HbA1C and Lipid Variables in Individuals with Newly Onset Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

Abstract:

Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It influences glucose metabolism by potentiating the action as taking part in insulin signal amplification mechanism. A placebo-controlled single blind, prospective study was carried out to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile in newly onset patients with type-2 diabetes. Total 40 newly onset type-2 diabetics were selected and after one month stabilization further randomly divided into two groups viz. study group and placebo group. The study group received 9 gm brewer’s yeast (42 μ Cr) daily and the other placebo group received yeast devoid of chromium for 3 months. Subjects were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile were analyzed at beginning and completion of the study. Results revealed that fasting blood glucose level significantly reduced in the subjects consuming yeast supplemented with chromium (197.65±6.68 to 103.68±6.64 mg/dl; p<0.001). HbA1C values improved significantly from 9.51±0.26% to 6.86±0.28%; p<0.001 indicating better glycaemic control. In experimental group total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels were also significantly reduced from 199.66±3.11 to 189.26±3.01 mg/dl; p<0.02, 144.94±8.31 to 126.01±8.26; p<0.05 and 119.19±1.71 to 99.58±1.10; p<0.001 respectively. These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: Chromium, Glucose, type-2 diabetes, HbA1C

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20 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Sumaeth Chavadej, Erdogan Gulari

Abstract:

The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: Glucose, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, corncob, microbial pretreatment

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19 Protective Effect of Wheat Grass (Triticum Durum) against Oxidative Damage Induced by Lead: Study of Some Biomarkers and Histological Few Organs in Males Wistar Rats

Authors: Mansouri Ouarda, Abdennour Cherif, Saidi Malika

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, many anthropogenic activities have caused environmental, considerable and overall changes. The lead represents a very dangerous disruptive for the functioning of the body. In this context the current study aims at evaluating a natural therapy by the use of the plant grass in wheat (Triticum durum) against the toxicity of lead in rat wistar male. The rats were divided into three groups: the control group, the group treated with 600 mg /kg food of lead only (Pb) is the group treated with the combination of 600 mg/kg of food and 9g/rat /day of the plant grass in wheat (Pb-bl). The duration of the treatment is 6 weeks. The results of the biometrics of the organs (thyroid, kidney, testis and epididymis) show no significant difference between the three groups. The dosage of a few parameters and hormonal biochemical shows a decrease in the concentration of the hormone T3 and TSH levels among the group pb alone compared to the control and Pb-Bl. These results have been confirmed by the study of histological slices. A morphological changes represented by a shrinking volume of vesicles with the group treated with Pb alone. A return to the normal state of the structure of the follicles was observed. The concentration in serum testosterone, urea and creatinine was significantly increased among the group treated by Pb only in relation to the control and Pb-Bl. whereas the rate of glucose did not show any significant difference. The histology study of the kidney, testis and epididymal weights show no modification at the group Pb-bl comparing to the control. The parenchyma of the kidney shows a dilation of tubes distal and proximal causing a tubular nephropathy for the batch processed by Pb only. The testicles have marked a destruction or absence of germ cells and the light of some seminiferous are almost empty. Conclusion: The supplementation of the plant Triticum durum has caused a considerable improvement which ensures the return of parameters investigated in the normal state.

Keywords: Glucose, creatinine, testosterone, histological sections, TSH

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18 Anti-Diabetic Effect of Withania somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Tehreem Fiayyaz, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Imran Mirza

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of W. somnifera (WS) for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg, p.o) and WS root powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of WS in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous (AWS) and ethanol extracts (EWS) (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively orally for three weeks (day 1-20 o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was given metformin (200 mg/kg) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3 as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). WS (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. These results indicate that metformin (reference control), (AWS) and (EWS) significantly antagonized the diabetic effects of alloxan.

Keywords: Diabetes, Blood, Glucose, Rabbits, Sugar, serum

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17 Effect of Withania Somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Musadiq Idris, Tehreem Fayyaz

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of W. somniferafor anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Rabbits were acclimatized for a week to standard laboratory temperature. Animals were fed according to a strict schedule (8 am, 3 pm and 10 pm) with green fodder (Medicago sativa) and tap water ad libitum. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each in a random manner. Body weights and physical activities of all rabbits were recorded before start of experiments. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg,p.o) and Withaniasomniferaroot powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg,i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of Withaniasomnifera in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous and ethanol extracts (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively by oral route for three weeks (day 1-20o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was treated with metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3, with a maximum increase (215.3 mg/dl) in animals of toxic control (TC) group (3) on day 21 of the experiment as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). Effects of different doses (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) of W. somnifera root powder (WS) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration as compared to toxic control group, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. Metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) (reference control), aqueous extract (AWS) and ethanol extract (EWS) of W. somnifera (equivalent to 100 mg/kg W.somnifera root, p.o) antagonized the effects of alloxan as compared to toxic control group. These results indicate that the W. somnifera possess significant anti –diabetic activity.

Keywords: Diabetes, Blood, Glucose, Rabbits, Sugar, serum

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16 The Effect of Withania Somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Musadiq Idris, Tehreem Fayyaz

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of withania somnifera for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Rabbits were acclimatized for a week to standard laboratory temperature. Animals were fed according to a strict schedule (8 am, 3 pm and 10 pm) with green fodder (Medicago sativa) and tap water ad libitum. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each in a random manner. Body weights and physical activities of all rabbits were recorded before start of experiments. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg, p.o) and Withania somniferaroot powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of Withania somnifera in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous and ethanol extracts (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively by oral route for three weeks (day 1-20o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was treated with metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3, with a maximum increase (215.3 mg/dl) in animals of toxic control (TC) group (3) on day 21 of the experiment as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). Effects of different doses (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) of W. somnifera root powder (WS) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration as compared to toxic control group, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. Metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) (reference control), aqueous extract (AWS) and ethanol extract (EWS) of W. somnifera (equivalent to 100 mg/kg W.somnifera root, p.o) antagonized the effects of alloxan as compared to toxic control group. These results indicate that the W. somnifera possess significant anti–diabetic activity.

Keywords: Diabetes, Blood, Glucose, Rabbits, Sugar, serum

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15 Coffee Consumption Has No Acute Effects on Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men: A Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial

Authors: Caio E. G. Reis, Sara Wassell, Adriana L. Porto, Angélica A. Amato, Leslie J. C. Bluck, Teresa H. M. da Costa

Abstract:

Background: Multiple epidemiologic studies have consistently reported association between increased coffee consumption and a lowered risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. However, the mechanisms behind this finding have not been fully elucidated. Objective: We investigate the effect of coffee (caffeinated and decaffeinated) on glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity using the stable isotope minimal model protocol with oral glucose administration in healthy men. Design: Fifteen healthy men underwent 5 arms randomized crossover single-blinding (researchers) clinical trial. They consumed decaffeinated coffee, caffeinated coffee (with and without sugar), and controls – water (with and without sugar) followed 1 hour by an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g of available carbohydrate) with intravenous labeled dosing interpreted by the two compartment minimal model (225 minutes). One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment were used to compare the effects of the tested beverages on glucose metabolism parameters. Results: Decaffeinated coffee resulted in 29% and 85% higher insulin sensitivity compared with caffeinated coffee and water, respectively, and the caffeinated coffee showed 15% and 60% higher glucose effectiveness compared with decaffeinated coffee and water, respectively. However, these differences were not significant (p > 0.10). In overall analyze (0 – 225 min) there were no significant differences on glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity, and glucose and insulin area under the curve between the groups. The beneficial effects of coffee did not seem to act in the short-term (hours) on glucose metabolism parameters mainly on insulin sensitivity indices. The benefits of coffee consumption occur in the long-term (years) as has been shown in the reduction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus risk in epidemiological studies. The clinical relevance of the present findings is that there is no need to avoid coffee as the drink choice for healthy people. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate that the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with or without sugar has no acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy men. Further researches, including long-term interventional studies, are needed to fully elucidate the mechanisms behind the coffee effects on reduced risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Keywords: insulin, Glucose, coffee, diabetes Mellitus type 2

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14 Coffee Consumption and Glucose Metabolism: a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

Authors: Caio E. G. Reis, Teresa H. M. da Costa, Jose G. Dórea

Abstract:

Objective: Epidemiological data shows an inverse association of coffee consumption with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the clinical effects of coffee consumption on the glucose metabolism biomarkers remain controversial. Thus, this paper reviews clinical trials that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on glucose metabolism. Research Design and Methods: We identified studies published until December 2014 by searching electronic databases and reference lists. We included randomized clinical trials which the intervention group received caffeinated and/or decaffeinated coffee and the control group received water or placebo treatments and measured biomarkers of glucose metabolism. The Jadad Score was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies whereas studies that scored ≥ 3 points were considered for the analyses. Results: Seven clinical trials (total of 237 subjects) were analyzed involving adult healthy, overweight and diabetic subjects. The studies were divided in short-term (1 to 3h) and long-term (2 to 16 weeks) duration. The results for short-term studies showed that caffeinated coffee consumption may increase the area under the curve for glucose response, while for long-term studies caffeinated coffee may improve the glycemic metabolism by reducing the glucose curve and increasing insulin response. These results seem to show that the benefits of coffee consumption occur in the long-term as has been shown in the reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in epidemiological studies. Nevertheless, until the relationship between long-term coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus is better understood and any mechanism involved identified, it is premature to make claims about coffee preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The findings suggest that caffeinated coffee may impairs glucose metabolism in short-term but in the long-term the studies indicate reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. More clinical trials with comparable methodology are needed to unravel this paradox.

Keywords: insulin, Glucose, coffee, diabetes Mellitus type 2

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13 Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Ghrelin on Serum Glucose and Insulin Levels in Turkey

Authors: Habib Aghdam Shahryar

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was investigation on the effect of intraperipheral (IP) injection of ghrelin on serum insulin and glucose levels in native turkey. Seventy-two 28 day (d)-old native turkey were assigned into three treatments and four replicate for 40 days experimental rearing period: group 1, intact without any injection, group 2, injected 50 ng ghrelin/kg body weight (BW), and group 3, injected 100 ng ghrelin/kg BW. Intraperitoneal injection of rat ghrelin was conducted on d 28 and before the onset of the experimental rearing period. Blood samples were taken 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection. The result showed glucose concentrations have been affected by administered ghrelin and significant between groups (P<0.01). Injection of ghrelin at G 100 increased glucose level of serum in 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection (276.6 and 260.0 mg/dl, respectively). Also, by increasing the dose of injected ghrelin, insulin levels than the control group showed an increase (P < 0.001). This study suggests roles of ghrelin in serum biochemical regulation may show a different effect of ghrelin on blood parameters in avian species.

Keywords: Turkey, insulin, Glucose, ghrelin injection

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12 The Effect of 6 Weeks Endurance Swimming Training on Blood Glucose and Cardiac Tissue Antioxidants in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Kh. Dehkordi, R. Sharifi Gholam, S. Arshadi

Abstract:

Objective: Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and possibly causes various forms of tissue damage inpatients with diabetes. Antioxidants defend against the harmful effect of free radicals, which are associated with heart disease, cancer, arthritis, aging and many other diseases1). Antioxidants are very stable molecules capable of neutralizing free radicals by donating an electron to them.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming training, fenugreek seed extract and glibenclamide on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidants activity in diabetic rats. Design: For this purpose, fifty male wistar rats were divided into five groups, two groups of control rats (diabetic control [DC] and healthy control [HC]), one group of endurance swimming training (EST), one group of fenugreek seed extract highdose (F1, 1.74 g/kg b.w), one group of fenugreek seed extract middle dose (F2, 0.87 g/kg b.w), one group of glibenclamide (G, 0.5 mg/kg b.w). Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by streptozotocine (STZ), data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey test. Significance level was 0.05. Results: All of the groups' exception of HC showed significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.05), but the diabetic control and swimming training group exhibited a more decrease. All of the groups have shown a significant decrease in plasma glucose than DC group (P < 0.05) but this reduction was more in G group than DC no HC group. S, G and HC groups have shown significant increase in cardiac antioxidant than DC group (P < 0.05) but there wasn't significant difference in other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that regular swimming training lead to decrease in plasma glucose and enhanced cardiac antioxidants in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Cardiac, Antioxidants, Swimming, Glucose

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11 Study on the Effect of Vitamin D on the Biochemical Parameters in Cyprinus carpio

Authors: Mojdeh Chelemal Dezfoul Nejad, Mehrzad Mesbah, Ali Mohammadzadeh Shobeagar

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to characterize the different levels of dietary vitamin D on some of biochemical parameters of Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 180 pieces of Cyprinus carpio with an average weight of 20-25 grams were divided into four treatments and each treatment was divided into three replications and treatments were fed at three different doses (1000 IU, 3000 IU, 5000 IU) of vitamin D for 60 days. The fish were fed 3% of their wet b.wt. per day for a 60 days period. Blood samples were obtained from six fish of each tank at the end of experiment. Based on the results significant difference was observed on the mean amount of total protein, urea, glucose and cholesterol between treatments (p < 0.05). But, there was no significant difference in the mean amount of triglyceride and albumin with the different diets designed for this experiment (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio, Glucose, biochemical parameters, vitamin D

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10 Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Ounassa Adjroud

Abstract:

Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats with a special focus on biochemical parameters. K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 30 mg/L/day) for 20 consecutive days. The Biochemical parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc.) treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 25 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7 to Wistar albino rats induced a slight change in plasma glucose levels during the experiment period. On the contrary, a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed with 50 mg/kg mainly on days 3 (-26%) and 21 (-48%) after treatment compared to controls females rats. On the other hand, the higher dose provoked a significant increase in plasma glucose concentrations on days 6 (+31%) and 21 (+60%). similarly, the lower dose of chromium had no effect on the plasma urea levels. Conversely, a significant increase (122%) in this parameter was obtained during the first three days after treatment. In addition, a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed with 50 mg/kg mainly on days 3 (-26%) and 21 (-48%) after treatment. On the other hand, the higher dose provoked a significant increase in plasma glucose concentrations on days 6 (+31%) and 21 (+60%). similarly, the lower dose of chromium had no effect on the plasma urea levels. Conversely, a significant increase in this parameter (122%) was obtained during the first three days after treatment. In addition, administration of 100 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7 by s.c markedly augmented the levels of plasma urea on days 3 (62%) and 6 (121%). Administration of 30 mg/L/day of K2Cr2O7 in the drinking water induced a significant augmentation in both of plasma glucose (27%) and urea (126%) during the first ten days of treatment. These results suggested that K2Cr2O7 administered subcutaneously or in the drinking water may induce harmful effects on biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Glucose, urea, potassium dichromate, Wistar albino rat

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9 Spatio-Temporal Properties of p53 States Raised by Glucose

Authors: Md. Jahoor Alam

Abstract:

Recent studies suggest that Glucose controls several lifesaving pathways. Glucose molecule is reported to be responsible for the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). In the present work, a p53-MDM2-Glucose model is developed in order to study spatiotemporal properties of the p53 pathway. The systematic model is mathematically described. The model is numerically simulated using high computational facility. It is observed that the variation in glucose concentration level triggers the system at different states, namely, oscillation death (stabilized), sustain and damped oscillations which correspond to various cellular states. The transition of these states induced by glucose is phase transition-like behaviour. Further, the amplitude of p53 dynamics with the variation of glucose concentration level follows power law behaviour, As(k) ~ kϒ, where, ϒ is a constant. Further Stochastic approach is needed for understanding of realistic behaviour of the model. The present model predicts the variation of p53 states under the influence of glucose molecule which is also supported by experimental facts reported by various research articles.

Keywords: Glucose, P53, oscillation, temporal behavior

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8 Non Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of Glucose Using Manganese Doped Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Anju Joshi, C. N. Tharamani

Abstract:

Diabetes is one of the leading cause of death at present and remains an important concern as the prevalence of the disease is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose the accurate levels of glucose for developing an efficient therapeutic for diabetes. Due to the availability of convenient and compact self-testing, continuous monitoring of glucose is feasible nowadays. Enzyme based electrochemical sensing of glucose is quite popular because of its high selectivity but suffers from drawbacks like complicated purification and immobilization procedures, denaturation, high cost, and low sensitivity due to indirect electron transfer. Hence, designing a robust enzyme free platform using transition metal oxides remains crucial for the efficient and sensitive determination of glucose. In the present work, manganese doped nickel oxide nanoparticles (Mn-NiO) has been synthesized onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a simple microwave assisted approach for non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The morphology and structure of the synthesized nanostructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). We demonstrate that the synthesized nanostructures show enormous potential for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose with high sensitivity and selectivity. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry studies suggest superior sensitivity and selectivity of Mn-NiO decorated carbon nanotubes towards the non-enzymatic determination of glucose. A linear response between the peak current and the concentration of glucose has been found to be in the concentration range of 0.01 μM- 10000 μM which suggests the potential efficacy of Mn-NiO decorated carbon nanotubes for sensitive determination of glucose.

Keywords: Diabetes, Glucose, Mn-NiO decorated carbon nanotubes, non-enzymatic

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7 Usage of Cyanobacteria in Battery: Saving Money, Enhancing the Storage Capacity, Making Portable, and Supporting the Ecology

Authors: Saddam Husain Dhobi, Bikrant Karki

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is save money, balance ecosystem of the terrestrial organism, control global warming, and enhancing the storage capacity of the battery with requiring weight and thinness by using Cyanobacteria in the battery. To fulfill this purpose of paper we can use different methods: Analysis, Biological, Chemistry, theoretical and Physics with some engineering design. Using this different method, we can produce the special type of battery that has the long life, high storage capacity, and clean environment, save money so on and by using the byproduct of Cyanobacteria i.e. glucose. Cyanobacteria are a special type of bacteria that produces different types of extracellular glucoses and oxygen with the help of little sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and can survive in freshwater, marine and in the land as well. In this process, O₂ is more in the comparison to plant due to rapid growth rate of Cyanobacteria. The required materials are easily available in this process to produce glucose with the help of Cyanobacteria. Since CO₂, is greenhouse gas that causes the global warming? We can utilize this gas and save our ecological balance and the byproduct (glucose) C₆H₁₂O₆ can be utilized for raw material for the battery where as O₂ escape is utilized by living organism. The glucose produce by Cyanobateria goes on Krebs's Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle, in which glucose is complete, oxidizes and all the available energy from glucose molecule has been release in the form of electron and proton as energy. If we use a suitable anodes and cathodes, we can capture these electrons and protons to produce require electricity current with the help of byproduct of Cyanobacteria. According to "Virginia Tech Bio-battery" and "Sony" 13 enzymes and the air is used to produce nearly 24 electrons from a single glucose unit. In this output power of 0.8 mW/cm, current density of 6 mA/cm, and energy storage density of 596 Ah/kg. This last figure is impressive, at roughly 10 times the energy density of the lithium-ion batteries in your mobile devices. When we use Cyanobacteria in battery, we are able to reduce Carbon dioxide, Stop global warming, and enhancing the storage capacity of battery more than 10 times that of lithium battery, saving money, balancing ecology. In this way, we can produce energy from the Cyanobacteria and use it in battery for different benefits. In addition, due to the mass, size and easy cultivation, they are better to maintain the size of battery. Hence, we can use Cyanobacteria for the battery having suitable size, enhancing the storing capacity of battery, helping the environment, portability and so on.

Keywords: anode, cathode, Glucose, storage capacity, byproduct, cyanobacteri

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6 Fabrication of Glucose/O₂ Microfluidic Biofuel Cell with Double Layer of Electrodes

Authors: ashutosh sharma, Haroon Khan, Chul Min Kim, Sung Yeol Kim, Sanket Goel, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Gyu Man Kim

Abstract:

Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) have drawn the attention of researchers due to its demanding application in medical implants. In EBFCs, electricity is produced with the help of redox enzymes. In this study, we report the fabrication of membraneless EBFC with new design of electrodes to overcome microchannel related limitations. The device consists of double layer of electrodes on both sides of Y-shaped microchannel to reduce the effect of oxygen depletion layer and diffusion of fuel and oxidant at the end of microchannel. Moreover, the length of microchannel was reduced by half keeping the same area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) electrodes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils were used to pattern MWCNT electrodes on etched Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass. PDMS casting was used to fabricate microchannel of the device. Both anode and cathode were modified with glucose oxidase and laccase. Furthermore, these enzymes were covalently bound to carboxyl MWCNTs with the help of EDC/NHS. Glucose used as fuel was oxidized by glucose oxidase at anode while oxygen was reduced to water at the cathode side. The resulted devices were investigated with the help of polarization curves obtained from Chronopotentiometry technique by using potentiostat. From results, we conclude that the performance of double layer EBFC is improved 15 % as compared to single layer EBFC delivering maximum power density of 71.25 µW cm-2 at a cell potential of 0.3 V and current density of 250 µA cm-2 at micro channel height of 450-µm and flow rate of 25 ml hr-1. However, the new device was stable only for three days after which its power output was rapidly dropped by 75 %. This work demonstrates that the power output of membraneless EBFC is improved comparatively, but still efforts will be needed to make the device stable over long period of time.

Keywords: Microfluidic, Glucose, MWCNT, EBFC

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5 Electrophoretic Deposition of Ultrasonically Synthesized Nanostructured Conducting Poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Co-Poly(1-naphthylamine) Film for Detection of Glucose

Authors: Vaibhav Budhiraja, Chandra Mouli Pandey

Abstract:

The ultrasonic synthesis of nanostructured conducting copolymer is an effective technique to synthesize polymer with desired chemical properties. This tailored nanostructure, shows tremendous improvement in sensitivity and stability to detect a variety of analytes. The present work reports ultrasonically synthesized nanostructured conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine)-co-poly(1-naphthylamine) (POPD-co-PNA). The synthesized material has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed random copolymerization, while UV-visible studies reveal the variation in polaronic states upon copolymerization. High crystallinity was achieved via ultrasonic synthesis which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the controlled morphology of the nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry shows that POPD-co-PNA has rather high electrochemical activity. This behavior was explained on the basis of variable orientations adopted by the conducting polymer chains. The synthesized material was electrophoretically deposited at onto indium tin oxide coated glass substrate which is used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. The fabricated bioelectrode was further used for detection of glucose by crosslinking of glucose oxidase in the PODP-co-PNA film. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.72, charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 21.77 s⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient 7.354 × 10⁻¹⁵ cm²s⁻¹.

Keywords: Conducting, Ultrasonic, Glucose, electrophoretic, poly (o-phenylenediamine), poly (1-naphthylamine)

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4 Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Detection of Glucose in Disposable Paper-Based Sensor Using a Graphene and Cobalt Phthalocyanine Composite

Authors: Orawon Chailapakul, Weena Siangproh, Sudkate Chaiyo, Kurt Kalcher

Abstract:

In the present work, a simple and sensitive non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in disposable paper-based sensor was developed at ionic liquid/graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite (IL/G/CoPc) modified electrode. The morphology of the fabricated composite was characterized and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy results confirmed that the G/CoPc composite formed via the strong π–π interaction between CoPc and G. Amperometric i-t technique was used for the determination of glucose. The response of glucose was linear over the concentration ranging from 10 µM to 1.5 mM. The response time of the sensor was found as 30 s with a limit of detection of 0.64 µM (S/N=3). The fabricated sensor also exhibited its good selectivity in the presence of common interfering species. In addition, the fabricated sensor exhibited its special advantages such as low working potential, good sensitivity along with good repeatability and reproducibility for the determination of glucose.

Keywords: Glucose, electrochemical detection, paper-based sensor, ionic liquid/graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite

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3 Rapid Plasmonic Colorimetric Glucose Biosensor via Biocatalytic Enlargement of Gold Nanostars

Authors: Masauso Moses Phiri

Abstract:

Frequent glucose monitoring is essential to the management of diabetes. Plasmonic enzyme-based glucose biosensors have the advantages of greater specificity, simplicity and rapidity. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid plasmonic colorimetric glucose biosensor based on biocatalytic enlargement of AuNS guided by GOx. Gold nanoparticles of 18 nm in diameter were synthesized using the citrate method. Using these as seeds, a modified seeded method for the synthesis of monodispersed gold nanostars was followed. Both the spherical and star-shaped nanoparticles were characterized using ultra-violet visible spectroscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The feasibility of a plasmonic colorimetric assay through growth of AuNS by silver coating in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by several control and optimization experiments. Conditions for excellent sensing such as the concentration of the detection solution in the presence of 20 µL AuNS, 10 mM of 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), ammonia and hydrogen peroxide were optimized. Using the optimized conditions, the glucose assay was developed by adding 5mM of GOx to the solution and varying concentrations of glucose to it. Kinetic readings, as well as color changes, were observed. The results showed that the absorbance values of the AuNS were blue shifting and increasing as the concentration of glucose was elevated. Control experiments indicated no growth of AuNS in the absence of GOx, glucose or molecular O₂. Increased glucose concentration led to an enhanced growth of AuNS. The detection of glucose was also done by naked-eye. The color development was near complete in ± 10 minutes. The kinetic readings which were monitored at 450 and 560 nm showed that the assay could discriminate between different concentrations of glucose by ± 50 seconds and near complete at ± 120 seconds. A calibration curve for the qualitative measurement of glucose was derived. The magnitude of wavelength shifts and absorbance values increased concomitantly with glucose concentrations until 90 µg/mL. Beyond that, it leveled off. The lowest amount of glucose that could produce a blue shift in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maxima was found to be 10 – 90 µg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.12 µg/mL. This enabled the construction of a direct sensitivity plasmonic colorimetric detection of glucose using AuNS that was rapid, sensitive and cost-effective with naked-eye detection. It has great potential for transfer of technology for point-of-care devices.

Keywords: Glucose, glucose oxidase, plasmonic, gold nanostars, colorimetric

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2 Implication of Fractal Kinetics and Diffusion Limited Reaction on Biomass Hydrolysis

Authors: Sibashish Baksi, Ujjaini Sarkar, Sudeshna Saha

Abstract:

In the present study, hydrolysis of Pinus roxburghi wood powder was carried out with Viscozyme, and kinetics of the hydrolysis has been investigated. Finely ground sawdust is submerged into 2% aqueous peroxide solution (pH=11.5) and pretreated through autoclaving, probe sonication, and alkaline peroxide pretreatment. Afterward, the pretreated material is subjected to hydrolysis. A chain of experiments was executed with delignified biomass (50 g/l) and varying enzyme concentrations (24.2–60.5 g/l). In the present study, 14.32 g/l of glucose, along with 7.35 g/l of xylose, have been recovered with a viscozyme concentration of 48.8 g/l and the same condition was treated as optimum condition. Additionally, thermal deactivation of viscozyme has been investigated and found to be gradually decreasing with escalated enzyme loading from 48.4 g/l (dissociation constant= 0.05 h⁻¹) to 60.5 g/l (dissociation constant= 0.02 h⁻¹). The hydrolysis reaction is a pseudo first-order reaction, and therefore, the rate of the hydrolysis can be expressed as a fractal-like kinetic equation that communicates between the product concentration and hydrolytic time t. It is seen that the value of rate constant (K) increases from 0.008 to 0.017 with augmented enzyme concentration from 24.2 g/l to 60.5 g/l. Greater value of K is associated with stronger enzyme binding capacity of the substrate mass. However, escalated concentration of supplied enzyme ensures improved interaction with more substrate molecules resulting in an enhanced de-polymerization of the polymeric sugar chains per unit time which eventually modifies the physiochemical structure of biomass. All fractal dimensions are in between 0 and 1. Lower the value of fractal dimension, more easily the biomass get hydrolyzed. It can be seen that with increased enzyme concentration from 24.2 g/l to 48.4 g/l, the values of fractal dimension go down from 0.1 to 0.044. This indicates that the presence of more enzyme molecules can more easily hydrolyze the substrate. However, an increased value has been observed with a further increment of enzyme concentration to 60.5g/l because of diffusional limitation. It is evident that the hydrolysis reaction system is a heterogeneous organization, and the product formation rate depends strongly on the enzyme diffusion resistances caused by the rate-limiting structures of the substrate-enzyme complex. Value of the rate constant increases from 1.061 to 2.610 with escalated enzyme concentration from 24.2 to 48.4 g/l. As the rate constant is proportional to Fick’s diffusion coefficient, it can be assumed that with a higher concentration of enzyme, a larger amount of enzyme mass dM diffuses into the substrate through the surface dF per unit time dt. Therefore, a higher rate constant value is associated with a faster diffusion of enzyme into the substrate. Regression analysis of time curves with various enzyme concentrations shows that diffusion resistant constant increases from 0.3 to 0.51 for the first two enzyme concentrations and again decreases with enzyme concentration of 60.5 g/l. During diffusion in a differential scale, the enzyme also experiences a greater resistance during diffusion of larger dM through dF in dt.

Keywords: Glucose, viscozyme, fractal kinetics, thermal deactivation

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1 Comparative Electrochemical Studies of Enzyme-Based and Enzyme-less Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposite as Glucose Biosensor

Authors: Ambuj Tripathi, Chetna Tyagi. G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, D. K. Avasthi

Abstract:

Graphene oxide provides a good host matrix for preparing nanocomposites due to the different functional groups attached to its edges and planes. Being biocompatible, it is used in therapeutic applications. As enzyme-based biosensor requires complicated enzyme purification procedure, high fabrication cost and special storage conditions, we need enzyme-less biosensors for use even in a harsh environment like high temperature, varying pH, etc. In this work, we have prepared both enzyme-based and enzyme-less graphene oxide-based biosensors for glucose detection using glucose-oxidase as enzyme and gold nanoparticles, respectively. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the successful synthesis of the working electrodes. Electrochemical measurements were performed for both the working electrodes using a 3-electrode electrochemical cell. Cyclic voltammetry curves showed the homogeneous transfer of electron on the electrodes in the scan range between -0.2V to 0.6V. The sensing measurements were performed using differential pulse voltammetry for the glucose concentration varying from 0.01 mM to 20 mM, and sensing was improved towards glucose in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles in graphene oxide nanocomposite played an important role in sensing glucose in the absence of enzyme, glucose oxidase, as evident from these measurements. The selectivity was tested by measuring the current response of the working electrode towards glucose in the presence of the other common interfering agents like cholesterol, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and urea. The enzyme-less working electrode also showed storage stability for up to 15 weeks, making it a suitable glucose biosensor.

Keywords: nanocomposite, electrochemical, Glucose, Graphene Oxide, gold nanoparticles, enzyme-less

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