Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 519

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geotechnical and Geological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

519 On the Numerical-Probability Approach for Deep Excavation Analysis: A Case Study

Authors: Komeil Valipourian

Abstract:

Urban advances and the growing need for developing infrastructures has increased the importance of deep excavations. In this study, after the introducing probability analysis as an important issue, an attempt has been made to apply it for deep excavation project of Bangkok’s Metro as a case study. For this, the numerical probability model has been developed based on the Finite Difference Method and Monte Carlo sampling approach. The results indicate that disregarding the issue of probability in this project will result in an inappropriate design of the retaining structure. Therefore, probabilistic redesign of the support is proposed and carried out as one of the applications of probability analysis. 50% reduction in flexural strength of the structure increases the failure probability just by 8% in the allowable range and helps improve economic conditions, while maintaining mechanical efficiency. With regard to the lack of efficient design in most deep excavations, by considering geometrical and geotechnical variability, an attempt was made to develop an optimum practical design standard for deep excavations based on failure probability. On this basis, a practical relationship is presented for estimating the maximum allowable horizontal displacement, which can help improve design conditions without developing the probability analysis.

Keywords: deep excavation, numerical probability modeling, allowable maximum displacement, finite difference method (FDM)

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518 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie, Jianjun Ma

Abstract:

A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.

Keywords: Rock Deformation, bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, elasto-plastic behavior

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517 Geophysical Methods and Machine Learning Algorithms for Stuck Pipe Prediction and Avoidance

Authors: Ammar Alali, Mahmoud Abughaban

Abstract:

Cost reduction and drilling optimization is the goal of many drilling operators. Historically, stuck pipe incidents were a major segment of non-productive time (NPT) associated costs. Traditionally, stuck pipe problems are part of the operations and solved post-sticking. However, the real key to savings and success is in predicting the stuck pipe incidents and avoiding the conditions leading to its occurrences. Previous attempts in stuck-pipe predictions have neglected the local geology of the problem. The proposed predictive tool utilizes geophysical data processing techniques and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to predict drilling activities events in real-time using surface drilling data with minimum computational power. The method combines two types of analysis: (1) real-time prediction, and (2) cause analysis. Real-time prediction aggregates the input data, including historical drilling surface data, geological formation tops, and petrophysical data, from wells within the same field. The input data are then flattened per the geological formation and stacked per stuck-pipe incidents. The algorithm uses two physical methods (stacking and flattening) to filter any noise in the signature and create a robust pre-determined pilot that adheres to the local geology. Once the drilling operation starts, the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML) live surface data are fed into a matrix and aggregated in a similar frequency as the pre-determined signature. Then, the matrix is correlated with the pre-determined stuck-pipe signature for this field, in real-time. The correlation used is a machine learning Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) algorithm, which selects relevant features from the class and identifying redundant features. The correlation output is interpreted as a probability curve of stuck pipe incidents prediction in real-time. Once this probability passes a fixed-threshold defined by the user, the other component, cause analysis, alerts the user of the expected incident based on set pre-determined signatures. A set of recommendations will be provided to reduce the associated risk. The validation process involved feeding of historical drilling data as live-stream, mimicking actual drilling conditions, of an onshore oil field. Pre-determined signatures were created for three problematic geological formations in this field prior. Three wells were processed as case studies, and the stuck-pipe incidents were predicted successfully, with an accuracy of 76%. This accuracy of detection could have resulted in around 50% reduction in NPT, equivalent to 9% cost saving in comparison with offset wells. The prediction of stuck pipe problem requires a method to capture geological, geophysical and drilling data, and recognize the indicators of this issue at a field and geological formation level. This paper illustrates the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed cross-disciplinary approach in its ability to produce such signatures and predicting this NPT event.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Hazard Prediction, drilling optimization, stuck pipe

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516 Numerical Analysis of Shallow Footing Rested on Geogrid Reinforced Sandy Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The use of geosynthetic reinforcement within the footing soils is a very effective and useful method to avoid the construction of costly deep foundations. This study investigated the use of geosynthetics for soil improvement based on numerical modeling using FELA software. Pressure settlement behavior and bearing capacity ratio of foundation on geogrid reinforced sand is investigated and the effect of different parameters like as number of geogrid layers and vertical distance between elements in three different relative density soil is studied. The effects of geometrical parameters of reinforcement layers were studied for determining the optimal values to reach to maximum bearing capacity. The results indicated that the optimum range of the distance ratio between the reinforcement layers was achieved at 0.5 to 0.6 and after number of geogrid layers of 4, no significant effect on increasing the bearing capacity of footing on reinforced sandy with geogrid

Keywords: geogrid, reinforced sand, FELA software, distance ratio, number of geogrid layers

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515 Comparing the Effectiveness of the Crushing and Grinding Route of Comminution to That of the Mine to Mill Route in Terms of the Percentage of Middlings Present in Processed Lead-Zinc Ore Samples

Authors: Chinedu F. Anochie

Abstract:

The presence of gangue particles in recovered metal concentrates has been a serious challenge to ore dressing engineers. Middlings lower the quality of concentrates, and in most cases, drastically affect the smelter terms, owing to exorbitant amounts paid by Mineral Processing industries as treatment charge. Models which encourage optimization of liberation operations have been utilized in most ore beneficiation industries to reduce the presence of locked particles in valuable concentrates. Moreover, methods such as incorporation of regrind mills, scavenger, rougher and cleaner cells, to the milling and flotation plants has been widely employed to tackle these concerns, and to optimize the grade–recovery relationship of metal concentrates. This work compared the crushing and grinding method of liberation, to the mine to mill route, by evaluating the proportion of middlings present in selectively processed complex Pb-Zn ore samples. To establish the effect of size reduction operations on the percentage of locked particles present in recovered concentrates, two similar samples of complex Pb- Zn ores were processed. Following blasting operation, the first ore sample was ground directly in a ball mill (Mine to Mill Route of Comminution), while the other sample was manually crushed, and subsequently ground in the ball mill (Crushing and Grinding Route of Comminution). The two samples were separately sieved in a mesh to obtain the desired representative particle sizes. An equal amount of each sample that would be processed in the flotation circuit was then obtained with the aid of a weighing balance. These weighed fine particles were simultaneously processed in the flotation circuit using the selective flotation technique. Sodium cyanide, Methyl isobutyl carbinol, Sodium ethyl xanthate, Copper sulphate, Sodium hydroxide, Lime and Isopropyl xanthate, were the reagents used to effect differential flotation of the two ore samples. Analysis and calculations showed that the degree of liberation obtained for the ore sample which went through the conventional crushing and grinding route of comminution, was higher than that of the directly milled run off mine (ROM) ore. Similarly, the proportion of middlings obtained from the separated galena (PbS) and sphalerite (ZnS) concentrates, were lower for the crushed and ground ore sample. A concise data which proved that the mine to mill method of size reduction is not the most ideal technique for the recovery of quality metal concentrates has been established.

Keywords: comminution, middlings, degree of liberation, mine to mill

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514 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie

Abstract:

Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: Rock Mechanics, Carbon capture and storage, constitutive model, THM effects on rock

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513 Effect of Climate Change on Rainfall Induced Failures for Embankment Slopes in Timor-Leste

Authors: Kuo Chieh Chao, Thishani Amarathunga, Sangam Shrestha

Abstract:

Rainfall induced slope failures are one of the most damaging and disastrous natural hazards which occur frequently in the world. This type of sliding mainly occurs in the zone above the groundwater level in silty/sandy soils. When the rainwater begins to infiltrate into the vadose zone of the soil, the negative pore-water pressure tends to decrease and reduce the shear strength of soil material. Climate change has resulted in excessive and unpredictable rainfall in all around the world, resulting in landslides with dire consequences to human lives and infrastructure. Such problems could be overcome by examining in detail the causes for such slope failures and recommending effective repair plans for vulnerable locations by considering future climatic change. The selected area for this study is located in the road rehabilitation section from Maubara to Mota Ain road in Timor-Leste. Slope failures and cracks have occurred in 2013 and after repairs reoccurred again in 2017 subsequent to heavy rains. Both observed and future predicted climate data analyses were conducted to understand the severe precipitation conditions in past and future. Observed climate data were collected from NOAA global climate data portal. CORDEX data portal was used to collect Regional Climate Model (RCM) future predicted climate data. Both observed and RCM data were extracted to location-based data using ArcGIS Software. Linear scaling method was used for the bias correction of future data and bias corrected climate data were assigned to GeoStudio Software. Precipitations of wet seasons (December to March ) in 2007 to 2013 is higher than 2001-2006 period and it is more than nearly 40% higher precipitation than usual monthly average precipitation of 160mm.The results of seepage analyses which were carried out using SEEP/W model with observed climate, clearly demonstrated that the pore water pressure within the fill slope was significantly increased due to the increase of the infiltration during the wet season of 2013.One main Regional Climate Models (RCM) was analyzed in order to predict future climate variation under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs).In the projected period of 76 years ahead from 2014, shows that the amount of precipitation is considerably getting higher in the future in both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Critical pore water pressure conditions during 2014-2090 were used in order to recommend appropriate remediation methods. Results of slope stability analyses indicated that the factor of safety of the fill slopes was reduced from 1.226 to 0.793 during the dry season to wet season in 2013.Results of future slope stability which were obtained using SLOPE/W model for the RCP emissions scenarios depict that, the use of tieback anchors and geogrids in slope protection could be effective in increasing the stability of slopes to an acceptable level during the wet seasons. Moreover, methods and procedures like monitoring of slopes showing signs or susceptible for movement and installing surface protections could be used to increase the stability of slopes.

Keywords: Climate Change, Precipitation, unsaturated soil, seep/w, SLOPE/W

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512 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar

Abstract:

This is well known that the cemented sand is the one of the best approach for soil stabilization, In some case, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, Nano-particles and fiber can commercially be available and effectively used in soil stabilization especially in road construction this research is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil so that the effect of CaO content in zeolite texture on soil resistance were investigated. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures (3-10%) in which by removing cement paste if it could supply a basic environment pH > 10.5, we would see an improvement in the strength of soil samples and make calcined zeolites. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the calcined zeolite on drainage shear strength and California bearing ratio (CBR) with curing and without curing, and investigate their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and make comparative results by fall cone (cone penetrometer) by Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods and also the SEM images results have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without curing samples due to the grain-intermediate filling properties and the grain agglomeration properties, the fine zeolite particles increase the soil's strength a little bit, but in the curing state due to low capacity of alkaline material, it is unsuccessful in supplying the basic environment pH > 10.5 to perform a pozzolanic reaction, but we can see a relatively higher strength toward without curing state. also, the results Show that zeolites have no plastic behavior, it can be concluded that the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties which is better to combine with cement or lime and can achieve strong results much higher.

Keywords: Zeolite, SEM, CBR, California bearing ratio, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy silt

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511 Evaluation of Cast-in-Situ Pile Condition Using Pile Integrity Test

Authors: Mohammad I. Hossain, Omar F. Hamim

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study on a pile integrity test for assessing the integrity of piles as well as a physical dimension (e.g., cross-sectional area, length), continuity, and consistency of the pile materials. The recent boom in the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh has given rise to the building of high-rise commercial and residential infrastructures. The advantage of the pile integrity test lies in the fact that it is possible to get an approximate indication regarding the quality of the sub-structure before commencing the construction of the super-structure. This paper aims at providing a classification of cast-in-situ piles based on characteristic reflectograms obtained using the Sonic Integrity Testing program for the sub-soil condition of Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The piles have been classified as 'Pile Type-1', 'Pile Type-2', 'Pile Type-3', 'Pile type-4', 'Pile Type-5' or 'Pile Type-6' from the visual observations of reflections from the generated stress waves by striking the pile head with a handheld hammer. With respect to construction quality and integrity, piles have been further classified into three distinct categories, i.e., satisfactory, may be satisfactory, and unsatisfactory.

Keywords: cast-in-situ piles, characteristic reflectograms, pile integrity test, sonic integrity testing program

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510 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: relative density, Helical Piles, Optum G2, constant and various elastic modulus

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509 Guideline for Designing Strip Footing on Sand Mat Underlain by Thick Soft Clay Deposit

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, Sarwar Jahan M. Yasin

Abstract:

Shallow foundations on soft soils deposit without any ground improvement can undergo a high reduction in volume after consolidation and secondary settlement. For low and medium rise building projects on such soil condition, a deep foundation may not be economically feasible. In such cases, an alternative to deep foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a double layer foundation system in which the upper layer is untreated or cement treated compacted sand to reduce the settlement of underlying natural soft clay to a permissible level. This research work deals with the specific case of the settlement of a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5m width placed on the surface of a soil consisting of an untreated or cement treated sand layer overlying a thick, homogeneous bed of soft clay. The settlement of mentioned shallow foundation has been studied considered both the cases where the thickness of the sand layer is thin or thick compared to the footing width. It is assumed that the response of the clay layer is undrained for plastic loading stages and drained in consolidation stages, and the response of the sand layer is drained in all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0. A natural clay deposit of 15m thickness and 18m width has been modeled using Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep Model, and upper improvement layer has been modeled using only Hardening Soil Model. Ground water level is at top level of clay deposit that made the system fully saturated. Parametric study has been conducted to determine the effect of thickness, density, cementation of sand mat and density, shear strength of the soft clay layer on the settlement of strip foundation under uniformly distributed vertical load of varying value. A guideline has been established for designing shallow strip footing on sand mat over thick soft clay deposit through determining the thickness of sand mat for different material characteristics to avoid punching shear failure and to limit the settlement to an allowable level. A design guideline in form of design chart and design equation has been developed for footing pressure equivalent to medium rise residential or commercial building foundation with strip footing on soft inorganic NC soil of Bangladesh having void ratio from 1.0 to 1.45. For a specific value of settlement, such as permissible settlement of 50mm as per BNBC 2017, the design thickness of sand mat may be obtained using the proposed charts and equations.

Keywords: Ground improvement, soft clay, PLAXIS 2D, design guideline, primary and secondary settlement

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508 Flexural Behavior of Geocell Reinforced Subgrade with Demolition Waste as Infill Material

Authors: Mahima D, Sini T

Abstract:

The use of geocell in subgrade has been previously studied by various researchers in the past. It was observed that the infill material used could affect the performance of the geocell reinforced subgrade. So, the use of waste materials as infill in geocell reinforced subgrade may prove to be more effective, economical, and environment-friendly. The performance of demolition waste as an infill was studied using flexure testing, and we compared the results with that of the other infill materials; soil and sand. Flexural behaviour is very important to the geosynthetic application in pavements as it acts as a the geocell reinforcement acts as flexible layer embedded in pavements and leads to an improvement in stress distribution and reduction in stress on the soil subgrade. The flexural behaviour was determined using four-point bending tests and results were expressed in terms of modulus improvement factor (MIF) and load-deflection behaviour. The geocell reinforced subgrade with different infill materials was tested for flexural behaviour in a polywood-polywood three-layered beam model. The deflections of the three-layered model beam were measured for the corresponding load increments. Elastic modulus of the soil-geocell composite was calculated using closed-form solutions. Geocells were prepared from geonets with three different aspect ratios 0.45, 0.67, and 1. The demolition waste infilled geocell mattress with aspect ratio 0.67 showed improved flexural behavior with MIF of 2.67 followed by soil and sand. Owing to its improved flexural resistance as seen from the MIF and load-deflection behivour, crushed demolition waste can be effectively used as infill material for geocell reinforced subgrade, thereby reducing the difficulties in the management of demolition waste and improving the load distribution of weaker subgrade.

Keywords: Demolition Waste, flexural behavior, geocell, modulus improvement factor

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507 Review of Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Saleem Akhtar, BILAL SHOAIB, Munib Ahmad, Syed Romat Ali Shah, Shahan Sadiqui

Abstract:

Classification is a data mining technique, which is recognizedon Machine Learning (ML) algorithm. It is used to classifythe individual articlein a knownofinformation into a set of predefinemodules or group. Web mining is also a portion of that sympathetic of data mining methods. The main purpose of this paper to analysis and compare the performance of Naïve Bayse Algorithm, Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN)and Support Vector Machine (SVM). This paper consists of different ML algorithm and their advantages and disadvantages and also define research issues.

Keywords: Data Mining, Web mining, classification, ML Algorithms

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506 Ground Surface Temperature History Prediction Using Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network Architecture

Authors: Venkat S. Somayajula

Abstract:

Ground surface temperature history prediction model plays a vital role in determining standards for international nuclear waste management. International standards for borehole based nuclear waste disposal require paleoclimate cycle predictions on scale of a million forward years for the place of waste disposal. This research focuses on developing a paleoclimate cycle prediction model using Bayesian long-short term memory (LSTM) neural architecture operated on accumulated borehole temperature history data. Bayesian models have been previously used for paleoclimate cycle prediction based on Monte-Carlo weight method, but due to limitations pertaining model coupling with certain other prediction networks, Bayesian models in past couldn’t accommodate prediction cycle’s over 1000 years. LSTM has provided frontier to couple developed models with other prediction networks with ease. Paleoclimate cycle developed using this process will be trained on existing borehole data and then will be coupled to surface temperature history prediction networks which give endpoints for backpropagation of LSTM network and optimize the cycle of prediction for larger prediction time scales. Trained LSTM will be tested on past data for validation and then propagated for forward prediction of temperatures at borehole locations. This research will be beneficial for study pertaining to nuclear waste management, anthropological cycle predictions and geophysical features

Keywords: Bayesian Long-Short Term memory neural network, Borehole Temperature, Ground surface temperature history, Paleoclimate cycle

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505 Stability Analysis of Slopes during Pile Driving

Authors: Yeganeh Attari, Gudmund Reidar Eiksund, Hans Peter Jostad

Abstract:

In Geotechnical practice, there is no standard method recognized by the industry to account for the reduction of safety factor of a slope as an effect of soil displacement and pore pressure build-up during pile installation. Pile driving disturbs causes large strains and generates excess pore pressures in a zone that can extend many diameters from the installed pile, resulting in a decrease of the shear strength of the surrounding soil. This phenomenon may cause slope failure. Moreover, dissipation of excess pore pressure set-up may cause weakening of areas outside the volume of soil remoulded during installation. Because of complex interactions between changes in mean stress and shearing, it is challenging to predict installation induced pore pressure response. Furthermore, it is a complex task to follow the rate and path of pore pressure dissipation in order to analyze slope stability. In cohesive soils it is necessary to implement soil models that account for strain softening in the analysis. In the literature, several cases of slope failure due to pile driving activities have been reported, for instance, a landslide in Gothenburg that resulted in a slope failure destroying more than thirty houses and Rigaud landslide in Quebec which resulted in loss of life. Up to now, several methods have been suggested to predict the effect of pile driving on total and effective stress, pore pressure changes and their effect on soil strength. However, this is still not well understood or agreed upon. In Norway, general approaches applied by geotechnical engineers for this problem are based on old empirical methods with little accurate theoretical background. While the limitations of such methods are discussed, this paper attempts to capture the reduction in the factor of safety of a slope during pile driving, using coupled Finite Element analysis and cavity expansion method. This is demonstrated by analyzing a case of slope failure due to pile driving in Norway.

Keywords: Slope Failure, pile driving, excess pore pressure, cavity expansion method

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504 Liquefaction Potential Assessment Using Screw Driving Testing and Microtremor Data: A Case Study in the Philippines

Authors: Arturo Daag

Abstract:

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) is enhancing its liquefaction hazard map towards a detailed probabilistic approach using SDS and geophysical data. Target sites for liquefaction assessment are public schools in Metro Manila. Since target sites are in highly urbanized-setting, the objective of the project is to conduct both non-destructive geotechnical studies using Screw Driving Testing (SDFS) combined with geophysical data such as refraction microtremor array (ReMi), 3 component microtremor Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), and ground penetrating RADAR (GPR). Initial test data was conducted in liquefaction impacted areas from the Mw 6.1 earthquake in Central Luzon last April 22, 2019 Province of Pampanga. Numerous accounts of liquefaction events were documented areas underlain by quaternary alluvium and mostly covered by recent lahar deposits. SDS estimated values showed a good correlation to actual SPT values obtained from available borehole data. Thus, confirming that SDS can be an alternative tool for liquefaction assessment and more efficient in terms of cost and time compared to SPT and CPT. Conducting borehole may limit its access in highly urbanized areas. In order to extend or extrapolate the SPT borehole data, non-destructive geophysical equipment was used. A 3-component microtremor obtains a subsurface velocity model in 1-D seismic shear wave velocity of the upper 30 meters of the profile (Vs30). For the ReMi, 12 geophone array with 6 to 8-meter spacing surveys were conducted. Microtremor data were computed through the Factor of Safety, which is the quotient of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR). Complementary GPR was used to study the subsurface structure and used to inferred subsurface structures and groundwater conditions.

Keywords: Liquefaction, microtremor, ground penetrating radar, screw drive testing

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503 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. AlarcóN, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul

Abstract:

Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: Modelling, finite element, Helical Piles, Tropical Soil, Uplift Capacity

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502 Comparison between Sabkha Soil in Eastern and Western Provinces of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wagdi M. Hamid, Abdulmohsin W. Dhowian

Abstract:

Sabkha soil is a saline problematic soil that forms under hot and arid climates. It has a very low strength at its natural condition, low bearing capacity, high amount of salt and high compressibility. Several studies over the last decades have been carried out to deeply understand the characteristics and behavior of sabkha soil and to enhance its properties. In this paper, a comparative study is conducted to distinguish between sabkha soil of Western and Eastern provinces in Saudi Arabia which is located along the coast of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, respectively. The main differences between the two types of sabkha soil is in the particle size. In the Western province, the particles are finer, less permeable, and contains more silt and clay size particles as compared to Eastern sabkha which is mostly medium size sand material. Therefore, treatment of sabkha soil would be imperative depending on type of sand and load conditions prior to construction.

Keywords: Stabilization, foundation, sabkha, problematic soil

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501 Microthermometry of Carbonated Rocks of the Hondita-Lomagorda Formations, the Tiger Cave Sector, Municipality of Yaguara, Colombia

Authors: Camila Lozano-Vivas, Camila Quevedo-Villamil, Ingrid Munoz-Quijano, Diego Loaiza

Abstract:

Colombia's limited oil reserves make the finding of new fields of extraction or the potentiate of the existing ones a more important task to do every day; the exploration projects that allow to have a better knowledge of the oil basins are essential. The upper Magdalena Valley basin - VSM, whose reserves are limited, has been one of the first basins for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in Colombia. The Hondita and Lomagorda formations were deposited in the Late Cretaceous Middle Albian to the Coniacian and are characterized by being the hydrocarbon-generating rocks in the VSM basin oil system along with the Shale de Bambucá; therefore multiple studies have been made. In the oil industry, geochemical properties are used to understand the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of hydrocarbons and, in general, the evolution of the basin containing them. One of the most important parameters to understand this evolution is the formation temperature of the oil system. For this reason, a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions was carried out to recognize formation temperatures and to determine certain basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature, pressure, density and salinity of the fluid at the time of entrapment, providing evidence on the history of different events in different geological environments in the evolution of a sedimentary basin. Prior to this study, macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analyses of the samples collected in the field were performed. The results of the mentioned properties of the fluid inclusions in the different samples analyzed have salinities ranging from 20.22% to 26.37% eq. by weight NaCl, similar densities found in the ranges of 1.05 to 1.16 g/cc and an average homogenization temperature at 142.92°C, indicating that, at the time of their entanglement, the rock was in the window of generation of medium hydrocarbons –light with fragile characteristics of the rock that would make it useful to treat them as naturally fractured reservoirs.

Keywords: Salinity, fluid inclusions, homogenization temperature, microthermometry

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500 Investigate the Mechanical Effect of Different Root Analogue Models to Soil Strength

Authors: Asmaa Al Shafiee, Erdin Ibraim

Abstract:

Stabilizing slopes by using vegetation is considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to the conventional methods. The main aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical effect of analogue root systems on the shear strength of different soil types. Three objectives were defined to achieve the main aim of this paper. Firstly, explore the effect of root architectural design to shear strength parameters. Secondly, study the effect of root area ratio (RAR) on the shear strength of two different soil types. Finally, to investigate how different kinds of soil can affect the behavior of the roots during shear failure. 3D printing tool was used to develop different analogue tap root models with different architectural designs. Direct shear tests were performed on Leighton Buzzard (LB) fraction B sand, which represents a coarse sand and Huston sand, which represent medium-coarse sand. All tests were done with the same relative density for both kinds of sand. The results of the direct shear test indicated that using plant roots will increase both friction angle and cohesion of soil. Additionally, different root designs affected differently the shear strength of the soil. Furthermore, the directly proportional relationship was found between root area ratio for the same root design and shear strength parameters of soil. Finally, the root area ratio effect should be combined with branches penetrating the shear plane to get the highest results.

Keywords: Slope Stabilization, Shear Strength, leighton buzzard sand, root area ratio, rooted soil

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499 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer

Abstract:

In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Responsibility, Negative Emission Technologies, moral hazard

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498 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, differential settlement, distress evaluation, Gulzar Mahal

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497 Study on Adding Story and Seismic Strengthening of Old Masonry Buildings

Authors: Youlu Huang, Huanjun Jiang

Abstract:

A large number of old masonry buildings built in the last century still remain in the city. It generates the problems of unsafety, obsolescence, and non-habitability. In recent years, many old buildings have been reconstructed through renovating façade, strengthening, and adding floors. However, most projects only provide a solution for a single problem. It is difficult to comprehensively solve problems of poor safety and lack of building functions. Therefore, a comprehensive functional renovation program of adding reinforced concrete frame story at the bottom via integrally lifting the building and then strengthening the building was put forward. Based on field measurement and YJK calculation software, the seismic performance of an actual three-story masonry structure in Shanghai was identified. The results show that the material strength of masonry is low, and the bearing capacity of some masonry walls could not meet the code requirements. The elastoplastic time history analysis of the structure was carried out by using SAP2000 software. The results show that under the 7 degrees rare earthquake, the seismic performance of the structure reaches 'serious damage' performance level. Based on the code requirements of the stiffness ration of the bottom frame (lateral stiffness ration of the transition masonry story and frame story), the bottom frame story was designed. The integral lifting process of the masonry building was introduced based on many engineering examples. The reinforced methods for the bottom frame structure strengthened by the steel-reinforced mesh mortar surface layer (SRMM) and base isolators, respectively, were proposed. The time history analysis of the two kinds of structures, under the frequent earthquake, the fortification earthquake, and the rare earthquake, was conducted by SAP2000 software. For the bottom frame structure, the results show that the seismic response of the masonry floor is significantly reduced after reinforced by the two methods compared to the masonry structure. The previous earthquake disaster indicated that the bottom frame is vulnerable to serious damage under a strong earthquake. The analysis results showed that under the rare earthquake, the inter-story displacement angle of the bottom frame floor meets the 1/100 limit value of the seismic code. The inter-story drift of the masonry floor for the base isolated structure under different levels of earthquakes is similar to that of structure with SRMM, while the base-isolated program is better to protect the bottom frame. Both reinforced methods could significantly improve the seismic performance of the bottom frame structure.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, Seismic Strengthening, old buildings, adding story

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496 Effect of Plastic Fines on Liquefaction Resistance of Sandy Soil Using Resonant Column Test

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Ghorbani Tochaee

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assess the influence of plastic fines content on sand-clay mixtures on maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance using a series of resonant column tests. A high plasticity clay called bentonite was added to 161 Firoozkooh sand at the percentages of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by dry weight. The resonant column tests were performed on the remolded specimens at constant confining pressure of 100 KPa and then the values of Gmax and liquefaction resistance were investigated. The maximum shear modulus and cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) are examined in terms of fines content. Based on the results, the maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance tend to decrease within the increment of fine contents.

Keywords: Liquefaction, bentonite, resonant column, plastic fines, Gmax, sand-clay mixtures

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495 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu

Abstract:

This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: finite element model, shake table test, equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping

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494 Valorization of Mining Waste (Sand of Djemi Djema) from the Djbel Onk Mine (Eastern Algeria)

Authors: Rachida Malaoui, Leila Arabet, Asma Benbouza

Abstract:

The use of mining waste rock as a material for construction is one of the biggest concerns grabbing the attention of many mining countries. As these materials are abandoned, more effective solutions have been made to offset some of the building materials, and to avoid environmental pollution. The sands of the Djemi Djema deposit mines of the Djebel Onk mines are sedimentary materials of several varieties of layers with varying thicknesses and are worth far more than 300m deep. The sands from the Djemi Djema business area are medium to coarse and are discharged and accumulated, generating a huge estimated quantity of more than 77424250 tonnes. This state of "resource" is of great importance so as to be oriented towards the fields of public works and civil engineering after having reached the acceptable properties of this resource

Keywords: reuse, waste rock, sands, shear tests

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493 A Seismic Study on The Settlement of Superstructures Due to the Tunnel Construction

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Rapid urban development leads to the construction of urban tunnels for transport. Passage of tunnels under the surface structures and utilities prompted the changes in the site conditions and hence alteration of the dynamic response of surface structures. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the interaction of tunnel-superstructure on the site response is investigated numerically. For this purpose, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC 2D) is used, and stratification and properties of soil layers are selected based on the line No 7 of Tehran subway. The superstructure is modeled both as an equivalent surcharge and the actual structure, and the results are compared. A comparison of the results shows that consideration of structure geometry is necessary for dynamic analysis and it leads to the changes in displacements and accelerations. Consequently, the geometry of the superstructure should be modeled completely instead of the application of an equivalent load. The effect of tunnel diameter and depth on the settlement of superstructures is also studied. Results show that when the tunnel depth and diameter grow, the settlements increase considerably.

Keywords: Settlement, Tunnel, Dynamic Analysis, FLAC2D

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492 Characterization of Aquifer Systems and Identification of Potential Groundwater Recharge Zones Using Geospatial Data and Arc GIS in Kagandi Water Supply System Well Field

Authors: Aijuka Nicholas

Abstract:

A research study was undertaken to characterize the aquifers and identify the potential groundwater recharge zones in the Kagandi district. Quantitative characterization of hydraulic conductivities of aquifers is of fundamental importance to the study of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in aquifers. A conditional approach is used to represent the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity. Briefly, it involves using qualitative and quantitative geologic borehole-log data to generate a three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic conductivity distribution, which is then adjusted through calibration of a 3D groundwater flow model using pumping-test data and historic hydraulic data. The approach consists of several steps. The study area was divided into five sub-watersheds on the basis of artificial drainage divides. A digital terrain model (DTM) was developed using Arc GIS to determine the general drainage pattern of Kagandi watershed. Hydrologic characterization involved the determination of the various hydraulic properties of the aquifers. Potential groundwater recharge zones were identified by integrating various thematic maps pertaining to the digital elevation model, land use, and drainage pattern in Arc GIS and Sufer golden software. The study demonstrates the potential of GIS in delineating groundwater recharge zones and that the developed methodology will be applicable to other watersheds in Uganda.

Keywords: aquifers, groundwater recharge, Arc GIS, recharge zones

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491 Landslide Hazard Zonation and Risk Studies Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making and Slope Stability Analysis

Authors: Ankit Tyagi, Reet Kamal Tiwari, Naveen James

Abstract:

In India, landslides are the most frequently occurring disaster in the regions of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats. The steep slopes and land use in these areas are quite apprehensive. In the recent past, many landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) works have been carried out in the Himalayas. However, the preparation of LHZ maps considering temporal factors such as seismic ground shaking, seismic amplification at surface level, and rainfall are limited. Hence this study presents a comprehensive use of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method in landslide risk assessment. In this research, we conducted both geospatial and geotechnical analysis to minimize the danger of landslides. Geospatial analysis is performed using high-resolution satellite data to produce landslide causative factors which were given weightage using the MCDM method. The geotechnical analysis includes a slope stability check, which was done to determine the potential landslide slope. The landslide risk map can provide useful information which helps people to understand the risk of living in an area.

Keywords: GIS, AHP, PHA, landslide hazard zonation

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490 Landslide Hazard Zonation Using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

Authors: Ankit Tyagi, Reet Kamal Tiwari, Naveen James

Abstract:

Landslide is the major geo-environmental problem of Himalaya because of high ridges, steep slopes, deep valleys, and complex system of streams. They are mainly triggered by rainfall and earthquake and causing severe damage to life and property. In Uttarakhand, the Tehri reservoir rim area, which is situated in the lesser Himalaya of Garhwal hills, was selected for landslide hazard zonation (LHZ). The study utilized different types of data, including geological maps, topographic maps from the survey of India, Landsat 8, and Cartosat DEM data. This paper presents the use of a weighted overlay method in LHZ using fourteen causative factors. The various data layers generated and co-registered were slope, aspect, relative relief, soil cover, intensity of rainfall, seismic ground shaking, seismic amplification at surface level, lithology, land use/land cover (LULC), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), drainage buffer and reservoir buffer. Seismic analysis is performed using peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) intensity and amplification factors in the evaluation of the landslide hazard index (LHI). Several digital image processing techniques such as topographic correction, NDVI, and supervised classification were widely used in the process of terrain factor extraction. Lithological features, LULC, drainage pattern, lineaments, and structural features are extracted using digital image processing techniques. Colour, tones, topography, and stream drainage pattern from the imageries are used to analyse geological features. Slope map, aspect map, relative relief are created by using Cartosat DEM data. DEM data is also used for the detailed drainage analysis, which includes TWI, SPI, drainage buffer, and reservoir buffer. In the weighted overlay method, the comparative importance of several causative factors obtained from experience. In this method, after multiplying the influence factor with the corresponding rating of a particular class, it is reclassified, and the LHZ map is prepared. Further, based on the land-use map developed from remote sensing images, a landslide vulnerability study for the study area is carried out and presented in this paper.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, landslide hazard zonation, weighted overlay method

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