Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 891

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

891 Investigation on Ultrahigh Heat Flux of Nanoporous Membrane Evaporation Using Dimensionless Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: J. Li, W. H. Zheng, F. J. Hong

Abstract:

Thin liquid film evaporation in ultrathin nanoporous membranes, which reduce the viscous resistance while still maintaining high capillary pressure and efficient liquid delivery, is a promising thermal management approach for high-power electronic devices cooling. Given the challenges and technical limitations of experimental studies for accurate interface temperature sensing, complex manufacturing process, and short duration of membranes, a dimensionless lattice Boltzmann method capable of restoring thermophysical properties of working fluid is particularly derived. The evaporation of R134a to its pure vapour ambient in nanoporous membranes with the pore diameter of 80nm, thickness of 472nm, and three porosities of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.5 are numerically simulated. The numerical results indicate that the highest heat transfer coefficient is about 1740kW/m²·K; the highest heat flux is about 1.49kW/cm² with only about the wall superheat of 8.59K in the case of porosity equals to 0.5. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity because of the increasing effective evaporative area. Additionally, the self-regulation of the shape and curvature of the meniscus under different operating conditions is also observed. This work shows a promising approach to forecast the membrane performance for different geometry and working fluids.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, high heat flux, ultrathin nanoporous membrane, thin film evaporation

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890 Conversion of Carcinogenic Liquid-Wastes of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Industry to ‎an Environmentally Safe Product: Corrosion Inhibitor and Biocide

Authors: Mohamed A. Hegazy

Abstract:

Most of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) petrochemical companies produce huge amount of byproduct which characterized as carcinogenic liquid-wastes, insoluble in water, highly corrosive and highly offensive. This byproduct is partially use, a small part, in the production of hydrochloric acid and the huge part is a waste. Therefore, the aim of this work was to conversion of such PVC wastes, to an environmentally safe product that act as a corrosion Inhibitor for metals in ‎aqueous media and as a biocide for microorganisms. This conversion method was accomplished mainly to protect the environment and to produce high economic value-products. The conversion process was established and the final product was tested for the toxicity, water solubility in comparison to the crude product. Furthermore, the end product was tested as a corrosion inhibitor in 1M HCl and as a broad-spectrum biocide against standard microbial strains and against the environmentally isolated Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) microbial community.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, surfactant, PVC, biocide, SRB

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889 Optimization of the Dam Management to Satisfy the Irrigation Demand: A Case Study in Algeria

Authors: Merouane Boudjerda, Bénina Touaibia, Mustapha K Mihoubi

Abstract:

In Algeria, water resources play a crucial role in economic development. But over the last decades, they are relatively limited and gradually decreasing to the detriment of agriculture. The agricultural irrigation is the primary water consuming sector followed by the domestic and industrial sectors. The research presented in this paper focuses on the optimization of irrigation water demand. Dynamic Programming-Neural Network (DPNN) method is applied to investigate reservoir optimization. The optimal operation rule is formulated to minimize the gap between water release and water irrigation demand. As a case study, Boukerdane dam’s reservoir system in North of Algeria has been selected to examine our proposed optimization model. The application of DPNN method allowed increasing the satisfaction rate (SR) from 34% to 60%. In addition, the operation rule generated showed more reliable and resilience operation for the examined case study.

Keywords: Water management, Dynamic Programming, Artificial Neural Network, agricultural demand, Boukerdane dam

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888 Elemental and Magnetic Properties of Bed Sediment of Siang River, a Major River of Brahmaputra Basin

Authors: Abhishek Dixit, Sandip S. Sathe, Chandan Mahanta

Abstract:

The Siang river originates in Angsi glacier in southern Tibet (there known as the Yarlung Tsangpo). After traveling through Indus-Tsangpo suture zone and deep gorges near Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a south-ward turn and enters India, where it is known as Siang river and becomes a major tributary of the Brahmaputra in Assam plains. In this study, we have analyzed the bed sediment of the Siang river at two locations (one at extreme upstream near the India-China border and one downstream before Siang Brahmaputra confluence). We have also sampled bed sediment at the remote location of Yammeng river, an eastern tributary of Siang. The magnetic hysteresis properties show the combination of paramagnetic and weak ferromagnetic behavior with a multidomain state. Moreover, curie temperature analysis shows titanomagnetite solid solution series, which is causing the weak ferromagnetic signature. Given that the magnetic mineral was in a multidomain state, the presence of Ti, Fe carrying heave mineral, may be inferred. The Chemical index of alteration shows less weathered sediment. However, the Yammeng river sample being close to source shows fresh grains subjected to physical weathering and least chemically alteration. Enriched Ca and K and depleted Na and Mg with respect to upper continental crust concentration also points toward the less intense chemical weathering along with the dominance of calcite weathering.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Weathering, bed sediment, Siang

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887 3d Property Modelling of the Lower Acacus Reservoir, Ghadames Basin, Libya

Authors: Aimen Saleh

Abstract:

The Silurian Lower Acacus sandstone is one of the main reservoirs in North West Libya. Our aim in this study is to grasp a robust understanding of the hydrocarbon potential and distribution in the area. To date, the depositional environment of the Lower Acacus reservoir still open to discussion and contradiction. Henceforth, building three dimensional (3D) property modelling is one way to support the analysis and description of the reservoir, its properties and characterizations, so this will be of great value in this project. The 3D model integrates different data set, these incorporates well logs data, petrophysical reservoir properties and seismic data as well. The finalized depositional environment model of the Lower Acacus concludes that the area is located in a deltaic transitional depositional setting, which ranges from a wave dominated delta into tide dominated delta type. This interpretation carried out through a series of steps of model generation, core description and Formation Microresistivity Image tool (FMI) interpretation. After the analysis of the core data, the Lower Acacus layers shows a strong effect of tidal energy. Whereas these traces found imprinted in different types of sedimentary structures, for examples; presence of some crossbedding, such as herringbones structures, wavy and flaser cross beddings. In spite of recognition of some minor marine transgression events in the area, on the contrary, the coarsening upward cycles of sand and shale layers in the Lower Acacus demonstrate presence of a major regressive phase of the sea level. However, consequently, we produced a final package of this model in a complemented set of facies distribution, porosity and oil presence. And also it shows the record of the petroleum system, and the procedure of Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. Finally, this model suggests that the area can be outlined into three main segments of hydrocarbon potential, which can be a textbook guide for future exploration and production strategies in the area.

Keywords: Libya, Silurian, Ghadames, Acacus

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886 Evaluation of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in Parts of Umunneochi Southeast, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua Chima Chizoba, Wisdom Izuchukwu Uzoma, Elizabeth Ifeyiwa Okoyeh

Abstract:

Water cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality is periodically assessed. The study area Umunneochi and environs are located in south eastern part of Nigeria. It stretches geographically from latitudes 50501N to 60000N and longitudes 70201E to 70301. The major geologic formations in the area include the Asu River group, Nkporo Shale, and Ajali Sandstone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of surface and ground water sources in parts of Umunneochi and environs in order to establish portability of the water sources for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes. A total of 15 samples were collected randomly from streams, springs and wells. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and heavy metals using handheld digital kits, photometer, titration method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) following acceptable standards. The obtained analytical data were interpreted, and results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The concentration of pH, SO42-and Cl- range from 5.81 mg/l – 6.07 mg/l, 41.93 mg/l – 142.95 mg/l and 20.00 mg/l – 111 mg/l respectively, while Pb and Zn revealed a relative low mean concentration of 0.14 mg/l and 0.40 mg/l, which are all within (WHO) permissible limits except pH. About 27% of the samples are moderately hard. This is attributed to the mining activities in the areas. The abundance of cations and anions in the area are in the order of K+>Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+ and SO4->Cl->HCO3->NO3-, respectively. Chloride, bicarbonate, and nitrate are all within the permissible limits. 13.33% of the total samples contain Sulphate above the standard permissible limits. The values of calculated Water Quality Index (WQI) are less than 50 indicating excellent water. The predominant water-type in the study area is Na-Cl water type and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl water type based on the sample plots on the Piper diagram. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) calculations showed excellent water for consumption and also good water for irrigation purpose with low sodium and alkalinity ratio respectively. Government water projects are recommended in the area for sustainable domestic and agricultural water supply to ease the stress of water supply problems.

Keywords: Groundwater, sodium adsorption ratio, hydrochemical, physichochemical, water-type

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885 Different Data-Driven Bivariate Statistical Approaches to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (Uzundere, Erzurum, Turkey)

Authors: Azimollah Aleshzadeh, Enver Vural Yavuz

Abstract:

The main goal of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps using different data-driven bivariate statistical approaches; namely, entropy weight method (EWM), evidence belief function (EBF), and information content model (ICM), at Uzundere county, Erzurum province, in the north-eastern part of Turkey. Past landslide occurrences were identified and mapped from an interpretation of high-resolution satellite images, and earlier reports as well as by carrying out field surveys. In total, 42 landslide incidence polygons were mapped using ArcGIS 10.4.1 software and randomly split into a construction dataset 70 % (30 landslide incidences) for building the EWM, EBF, and ICM models and the remaining 30 % (12 landslides incidences) were used for verification purposes. Twelve layers of landslide-predisposing parameters were prepared, including total surface radiation, maximum relief, soil groups, standard curvature, distance to stream/river sites, distance to the road network, surface roughness, land use pattern, engineering geological rock group, topographical elevation, the orientation of slope, and terrain slope gradient. The relationships between the landslide-predisposing parameters and the landslide inventory map were determined using different statistical models (EWM, EBF, and ICM). The model results were validated with landslide incidences, which were not used during the model construction. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves were applied, and the area under the curve (AUC) was determined for the different susceptibility maps using the success (construction data) and prediction (verification data) rate curves. The results revealed that the AUC for success rates are 0.7055, 0.7221, and 0.7368, while the prediction rates are 0.6811, 0.6997, and 0.7105 for EWM, EBF, and ICM models, respectively. Consequently, landslide susceptibility maps were classified into five susceptibility classes, including very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Additionally, the portion of construction and verification landslides incidences in high and very high landslide susceptibility classes in each map was determined. The results showed that the EWM, EBF, and ICM models produced satisfactory accuracy. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps may be useful for future natural hazard mitigation studies and planning purposes for environmental protection.

Keywords: landslide susceptibility mapping, entropy weight method, evidence belief function, information content model

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884 Hydrogeochemical Assessment, Evaluation and Characterization of Groundwater Quality in Ore, South-Western, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo

Abstract:

One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is to have sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. In line with this objective, an assessment of groundwater quality was carried out in Odigbo Local Government Area of Ondo State in November – February, 2019 to assess the drinking, domestic and irrigation uses of the water. Samples from 30 randomly selected ground water sources; 16 shallow wells and 14 from boreholes and analyzed using American Public Health Association method for the examination of water and wastewater. Water quality index calculation, and diagrams such as Piper diagram, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox diagram have been used to assess the groundwater in conjunction with irrigation indices such as % sodium, sodium absorption ratio, permeability index, magnesium ratio, Kelly ratio, and electrical conductivity. In addition statistical Principal component analysis were used to determine the homogeneity and source(s) influencing the chemistry of the groundwater. The results show that all the parameters are within the permissible limit of World Health Organization. The physico-chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicates that the dominant major cations are in decreasing order of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and the dominant anions are HCO-3, Cl-, SO-24, NO-3. The values of water quality index varies suggest a Good water (WQI of 50-75) accounts for 70% of the study area. The dominant groundwater facies revealed in this study are the non-carbonate alkali (primary salinity) exceeds 50% (zone 7); and transition zone with no one cation-anion pair exceeds 50% (zone 9), while evaporation; rock–water interaction, and precipitation; and silicate weathering process are the dominant processes in the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater. The study indicates that waters were found within the permissible limits of irrigation indices adopted, and plot on excellent category on Wilcox plot. In conclusion, the water in the study area are good/suitable for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes with low equivalent salinity concentrate and moderate electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Groundwater Quality, Water-Rock Interaction, equivalent salinity concentration, hydrochemical facies

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883 Assessment for the Backfill Using the Run of the Mine Tailings and Portland Cement

Authors: Abdelsalam Abugharara, Stephen Butt, Javad Someehneshin, Weizhou Quan

Abstract:

Narrow vein mining (NVM) is exploiting very thin but valuable ore bodies that are uneconomical to extract by conventional mining methods. NVM applies the technique of Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD). The SMD method is used to mine stranded, steeply dipping ore veins, which are too small or isolated to mine economically using conventional methods since the dilution is minimized. This novel mining technique uses drilling rigs to extract the ore through directional drilling surgically. This paper is focusing on utilizing the run of the mine tailings and Portland cement as backfill material to support the hanging wall for providing safe mine operation. Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is designed by mixing waste tailings, water, and cement of the precise percentage for optimal outcomes. It is a non-homogenous material that contains 70-85% solids. Usually, a hydraulic binder is added to the mixture to increase the strength of the CPB. The binder fraction mostly accounts for 2–10% of the total weight. In the mining industry, CPB has been improved and expanded gradually because it provides safety and support for the mines. Furthermore, CPB helps manage the waste tailings in an economical method and plays a significant role in environmental protection.

Keywords: Portland Cement, tailings, backfilling, cement backfill

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882 Evaluation of Drilling Performance through Bit-Rock Interaction Using Passive Vibration Assisted Rotation Drilling (PVARD) Tool

Authors: Md. Shaheen Shah, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Dipesh Maharjan, Syed Imtiaz, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Drilling performance is an essential goal in petroleum and mining industry. Drilling rate of penetration (ROP), which is inversely proportional to the mechanical specific energy (MSE) is influenced by numerous factors among which are the applied parameter: torque (T), weight on bit (WOB), fluid flow rate, revolution per minute (rpm), rock related parameters: rock type, rock homogeneousness, rock anisotropy orientation, and mechanical parameters: bit type, configuration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA). This paper is focused on studying the drilling performance by implementing a passive vibration assisted rotary drilling tool (pVARD) as part of the BHA through using different bit types: coring bit, roller cone bit, and PDC bit and various rock types: rock-like material, granite, sandstone, etc. The results of this study aim to produce a pVARD index for optimal drilling performance considering the recommendations of the pVARD’s spring compression tests and stress-strain analysis of rock samples conducted prior to drilling experiments, analyzing the cutting size distribution, and evaluating the applied drilling parameters as a function of WOB. These results are compared with those obtained from drilling without pVARD, which represents the typical rigid BHA of the conventional drilling.

Keywords: MSE, ROP, unconfined compressive strength, BHA, rate of penetration, drilling performance, pVARD, tensile and shear fractures

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881 Coherent All-Fiber and Polarization Maintaining Source for CO2 Range-Resolved Differential Absorption Lidar

Authors: Erwan Negre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Juha Toivonen

Abstract:

The need for CO2 monitoring technologies grows simultaneously with the worldwide concerns regarding environmental challenges. To that purpose, we developed a compact coherent all-fiber ranged-resolved Differential Absorption Lidar (RR-DIAL). It has been designed along a tunable 2x1fiber optic switch set to a frequency of 1 Hz between two Distributed FeedBack (DFB) lasers emitting in the continuous-wave mode at 1571.41 nm (absorption line of CO2) and 1571.25 nm (CO2 absorption-free line), with linewidth and tuning range of respectively 1 MHz and 3 nm over operating wavelength. A three stages amplification through Erbium and Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers coupled to a Radio Frequency (RF) driven Acousto-Optic Modulator (AOM) generates 100 ns pulses at a repetition rate from 10 to 30 kHz with a peak power up to 2.5 kW and a spatial resolution of 15 m, allowing fast and highly resolved CO2 profiles. The same afocal collection system is used for the output of the laser source and the backscattered light which is then directed to a circulator before being mixed with the local oscillator for heterodyne detection. Packaged in an easily transportable box which also includes a server and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card for on-line data processing and storing, our setup allows an effective and quick deployment for versatile in-situ analysis, whether it be vertical atmospheric monitoring, large field mapping or sequestration site continuous oversight. Setup operation and results from initial field measurements will be discussed.

Keywords: CO2 profiles, coherent DIAL, in-situ atmospheric sensing, near infrared fiber source

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880 Earth Tremors in Nigeria: A Precursor to Major Disaster?

Authors: Oluseyi Adunola Bamisaiye

Abstract:

The frequency of occurrence of earth tremor in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent years. Slow earthquakes/ tremor have preceded some large earthquakes in some other regions of the world and the Nigerian case may not be an exception. Timely and careful investigation of these tremors may reveal their relation to large earthquakes and provides important clues to constrain the slip rates on tectonic faults. Thus making it imperative to keep under watch and also study carefully the tectonically active terrains within the country, in order to adequately forecast, prescribe mitigation measures and in order to avoid a major disaster. This report provides new evidence of a slow slip transient in a strongly locked seismogenic zone of the Okemesi fold belt. The aim of this research is to investigate the different methods of earth tremor monitoring using fault slip analysis and mapping of Okemesi hills, which has been the most recent epicenter to most of the recent tremors.

Keywords: Plate Tectonics, earth tremor, fault slip, intraplate activities

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879 Artificial Intelligence Methods in Estimating the Minimum Miscibility Pressure Required for Gas Flooding

Authors: Emad A. Mohammed

Abstract:

Utilizing the capabilities of Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence in the prediction of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) required for multi-contact miscible (MCM) displacement of reservoir petroleum by hydrocarbon gas flooding using Fuzzy Logic models and Artificial Neural Network models will help a lot in giving accurate results. The factors affecting the (MMP) as it is proved from the literature and from the dataset are as follows: XC2-6: Intermediate composition in the oil-containing C2-6, CO2 and H2S, in mole %, XC1: Amount of methane in the oil (%),T: Temperature (°C), MwC7+: Molecular weight of C7+ (g/mol), YC2+: Mole percent of C2+ composition in injected gas (%), MwC2+: Molecular weight of C2+ in injected gas. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks have been used widely in prediction and classification, with relatively high accuracy, in different fields of study. It is well known that the Fuzzy Inference system can handle uncertainty within the inputs such as in our case. The results of this work showed that our proposed models perform better with higher performance indices than other emprical correlations.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, correlation, MMP, gas flooding

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878 Permeability Prediction Based on Hydraulic Flow Unit Identification and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Emad A. Mohammed

Abstract:

The concept of hydraulic flow units (HFU) has been used for decades in the petroleum industry to improve the prediction of permeability. This concept is strongly related to the flow zone indicator (FZI) which is a function of the reservoir rock quality index (RQI). Both indices are based on reservoir porosity and permeability of core samples. It is assumed that core samples with similar FZI values belong to the same HFU. Thus, after dividing the porosity-permeability data based on the HFU, transformations can be done in order to estimate the permeability from the porosity. The conventional practice is to use the power law transformation using conventional HFU where percentage of error is considerably high. In this paper, neural network technique is employed as a soft computing transformation method to predict permeability instead of power law method to avoid higher percentage of error. This technique is based on HFU identification where Amaefule et al. (1993) method is utilized. In this regard, Kozeny and Carman (K–C) model, and modified K–C model by Hasan and Hossain (2011) are employed. A comparison is made between the two transformation techniques for the two porosity-permeability models. Results show that the modified K-C model helps in getting better results with lower percentage of error in predicting permeability. The results also show that the use of artificial intelligence techniques give more accurate prediction than power law method. This study was conducted on a heterogeneous complex carbonate reservoir in Oman. Data were collected from seven wells to obtain the permeability correlations for the whole field. The findings of this study will help in getting better estimation of permeability of a complex reservoir.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, correlation, Permeability, hydraulic flow units

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877 Sedimentation and Morphology of the Kura River-Deltaic System in the Southern Caucasus under Anthropogenic and Sea-Level Controls

Authors: Elmira Aliyeva, Dadash Huseynov, Robert Hoogendoorn, Salomon Kroonenberg

Abstract:

The Kura River is the major water artery in the Southern Caucasus; it is a third river in the Caspian Sea basin in terms of length and size of the catchment area, the second in terms of the water budget, and the first in the volume of sediment load. Understanding of major controls on the Kura fluvial- deltaic system is valuable for efficient management of the highly populated river basin and coastal zone. We have studied grain size of sediments accumulated in the river channels and delta and dated by 210Pb method, astrophotographs, old topographic and geological maps, and archive data. At present time sediments are supplied by the Kura River to the Caspian Sea through three distributary channels oriented north-east, south-east, and south-west. The river is dominated by the suspended load - mud, silt, very fine sand. Coarse sediments are accumulated in the distributaries, levees, point bar, and delta front. The annual suspended sediment budget in the time period 1934-1952 before construction of the Mingechavir water reservoir in 1953 in the Kura River midstream area was 36 mln.t/yr. From 1953 to 1964, the suspended load has dropped to 12 mln.t/yr. After regulation of the Kura River discharge the volume of suspended load transported via north-eastern channel reduced from 35% of the total sediment amount to 4%, and through the main south-eastern channel increased from 65% to 96% with further fall to 56% due to creation of new south-western channel in 1964. Between 1967-1976 the annual sediment budget of the Kura River reached 22,5 mln. t/yr. From 1977 to 1986, the sediment load carried by the Kura River dropped to 17,6 mln.t/yr. The historical data show that between 1860 and 1907, during relatively stable Caspian Sea level two channels - N and SE, appear to have distributed an equal amount of sediments as seen from the bilateral geometry of the delta. In the time period 1907-1929, two new channels - E and NE, appeared. The growth of three delta lobes - N, NE, and SE, and rapid progradation of the delta has occurred on the background of the Caspian Sea level rise as a result of very high sediment supply. Since 1929 the Caspian Sea level decline was followed by the progradation of the delta occurring along the SE channel. The eastern and northern channels have been silted up. The slow rate of progradation at its initial stage was caused by the artificial reduction in the sediment budget. However, the continuous sea-level fall has brought to this river bed gradient increase, high erosional rate, increase in the sediment supply, and more rapid progradation. During the subsequent sea-level rise after 1977 accompanied by the decrease in the sediment budget, the southern part of the delta has turned into a complex of small, shallow channels oriented to the south. The data demonstrate that behaviour of the Kura fluvial – deltaic system and variations in the sediment budget besides anthropogenic regulation are strongly governed by the Caspian Sea level very rapid changes.

Keywords: anthropogenic control on sediment budget, Caspian sea-level variations, Kura river sediment load, morphology of the Kura river delta, sedimentation in the Kura river delta

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876 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening with Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Abdulsamee Halahla, Emad Allout

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of exterior beam-column joints (BCJs) strengthened with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), in terms of the shear strength and maximum displacement using pushover analysis at the tip of the beam. A finite element (F.E) analysis was performed to study three main parameters – the level of the axial load in the column (N), the beam shear reinforcement (Av/s)B, and the effect of using UHPC. The normal concrete at the studied joint region was replaced by UHPC. The model was verified by using experimental results taken from the literature. The results showed that the UHPC contributed to the transference of the plastic hinge from the joint to the beam-column interface. In addition, the strength of the UHPC-strengthened joints was enhanced dramatically from 8% to 38% for the joints subjected to 12.8MPa and zero axial loads, respectively. Moreover, the UHPC contributed in improving the maximum deflection. This improvement amounted to 1% and 176% for the joints subjected to zero and 12.8MPa axial load, respectively.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Ductility, Ultra High Performance Concrete, reinforced concrete joints, nonlinear behavior; pushover analysis

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875 Analyzing the Influence of Hydrometeorlogical Extremes, Geological Setting, and Social Demographic on Public Health

Authors: Irfan Ahmad Afip

Abstract:

This main research objective is to accurately identify the possibility for a Leptospirosis outbreak severity of a certain area based on its input features into a multivariate regression model. The research question is the possibility of an outbreak in a specific area being influenced by this feature, such as social demographics and hydrometeorological extremes. If the occurrence of an outbreak is being subjected to these features, then the epidemic severity for an area will be different depending on its environmental setting because the features will influence the possibility and severity of an outbreak. Specifically, this research objective was three-fold, namely: (a) to identify the relevant multivariate features and visualize the patterns data, (b) to develop a multivariate regression model based from the selected features and determine the possibility for Leptospirosis outbreak in an area, and (c) to compare the predictive ability of multivariate regression model and machine learning algorithms. Several secondary data features were collected locations in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, based on the possibility it would be relevant to determine the outbreak severity in the area. The relevant features then will become an input in a multivariate regression model; a linear regression model is a simple and quick solution for creating prognostic capabilities. A multivariate regression model has proven more precise prognostic capabilities than univariate models. The expected outcome from this research is to establish a correlation between the features of social demographic and hydrometeorological with Leptospirosis bacteria; it will also become a contributor for understanding the underlying relationship between the pathogen and the ecosystem. The relationship established can be beneficial for the health department or urban planner to inspect and prepare for future outcomes in event detection and system health monitoring.

Keywords: Geographical Information System, hydrometeorological, leptospirosis, multivariate regression

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874 Genesis of Talc Bodies in Relation to the Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Morenike Abimbola Adeleye, Anthony Temidayo Bolarinwa

Abstract:

The genesis of talc bodies around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu area, southwestern Nigeria, has been speculative due to inadequate compositional data on the talc and the mafic-ultramafic protoliths. Petrography, morphology, using scanning electron microscope, mineral chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and major, trace and rare-earth element compositions of the talc and the mafic-ultramafic in the area were undertaken with a view to determine the genesis of the talc bodies. Fine-grained amphibolite and lherzolite are the major mafic-ultramafic rocks in the study area. The amphibolite is fine-grained, composed of amphiboles, pyroxenes plagioclase, K-feldspar, ilmenite, magnetite, and garnet. The lherzolite and talc are composed of olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and plagioclase. Alteration minerals include serpentine, amesite, talc, Cr-bearing clinochlore, and ferritchromite. Cr-spinel, pyrite, and magnetite are the accessory minerals present. Alteration of olivines, pyroxenes, and amphiboles to talc and chlinochlore; and spinel to ferritchchromite by hydrothermal (H₂O-CO₂-Cl-HF) fluids, provided by the granitic intrusions in the area, showed retrograde metasomatism of amphibolites to greenschist facies at 500-550ºC. This led to the formation of talc, amesite, anthophyllite, actinolite, and tremolite. The Al₂O₃-Fe₂O₃+TiO₂-MgO discrimination diagram suggests tholeiitic protolith for the amphibolite and komatitic protolith for the lherzolite. The lherzolite has flat rare-earth element patterns typical of komatiites and dunites. The Al₂O₃/TiO₂ ratios, Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb, Cr-TiO₂, TiO₂ vs. Al₂O₃, and Nd vs. Nb discrimination diagrams indicated that the talcs are from two-parent sources: altered metacarbonates and tholeiitic basalts (amphibolites) to komatitic basalts (lherzolites).

Keywords: talc, amphibolites, lherzolites, komatiite

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873 Estimation of the Curve Number and Runoff Height Using the Arc CN-Runoff Tool in Sartang Ramon Watershed in Iran

Authors: L.Jowkar. M.Samiee

Abstract:

Models or systems based on rainfall and runoff are numerous and have been formulated and applied depending on the precipitation regime, temperature, and climate. In this study, the ArcCN-Runoff rain-runoff modeling tool was used to estimate the spatial variability of the rainfall-runoff relationship in Sartang Ramon in Jiroft watershed. In this study, the runoff was estimated from 6-hour rainfall. The results showed that based on hydrological soil group map, soils with hydrological groups A, B, C, and D covered 1, 2, 55, and 41% of the basin, respectively. Given that the majority of the area has a slope above 60 percent and results of soil hydrologic groups, one can conclude that Sartang Ramon Basin has a relatively high potential for producing runoff. The average runoff height for a 6-hour rainfall with a 2-year return period is 26.6 mm. The volume of runoff from the 2-year return period was calculated as the runoff height of each polygon multiplied by the area of the polygon, which is 137913486 m³ for the whole basin.

Keywords: watershed, return period, Arc CN-Run off, rain-runoff

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872 A Comparative Assessment of Information Value, Fuzzy Expert System Models for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping of Dharamshala and Surrounding, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Ajanta Goswami, Kumari Sweta, Abhilasha Dixit

Abstract:

Landslide is a geomorphic process that plays an essential role in the evolution of the hill-slope and long-term landscape evolution. But its abrupt nature and the associated catastrophic forces of the process can have undesirable socio-economic impacts, like substantial economic losses, fatalities, ecosystem, geomorphologic and infrastructure disturbances. The estimated fatality rate is approximately 1person /100 sq. Km and the average economic loss is more than 550 crores/year in the Himalayan belt due to landslides. This study presents a comparative performance of a statistical bivariate method and a machine learning technique for landslide susceptibility mapping in and around Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh. The final produced landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) with better accuracy could be used for land-use planning to prevent future losses. Dharamshala, a part of North-western Himalaya, is one of the fastest-growing tourism hubs with a total population of 30,764 according to the 2011 census and is amongst one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM’s Smart Cities Mission. A total of 209 landslide locations were identified in using high-resolution linear imaging self-scanning (LISS IV) data. The thematic maps of parameters influencing landslide occurrence were generated using remote sensing and other ancillary data in the GIS environment. The landslide causative parameters used in the study are slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, curvature, topographic wetness index, relative relief, distance from lineaments, land use land cover, and geology. LSMs were prepared using information value (Info Val), and Fuzzy Expert System (FES) models. Info Val is a statistical bivariate method, in which information values were calculated as the ratio of the landslide pixels per factor class (Si/Ni) to the total landslide pixel per parameter (S/N). Using this information values all parameters were reclassified and then summed in GIS to obtain the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) map. The FES method is a machine learning technique based on ‘mean and neighbour’ strategy for the construction of fuzzifier (input) and defuzzifier (output) membership function (MF) structure, and the FR method is used for formulating if-then rules. Two types of membership structures were utilized for membership function Bell-Gaussian (BG) and Trapezoidal-Triangular (TT). LSI for BG and TT were obtained applying membership function and if-then rules in MATLAB. The final LSMs were spatially and statistically validated. The validation results showed that in terms of accuracy, Info Val (83.4%) is better than BG (83.0%) and TT (82.6%), whereas, in terms of spatial distribution, BG is best. Hence, considering both statistical and spatial accuracy, BG is the most accurate one.

Keywords: fuzzy expert system, bivariate statistical techniques, BG and TT membership structure, information value method, machine learning technique

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871 Application of the Seismic Reflection Survey to an Active Fault Imaging

Authors: Tseedulam Khuut, Nomin-Erdene Erdenetsogt, Batsaikhan Tserenpil, Bayarsaikhan Enkhee

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As the framework of 60 years of development of Astronomical and Geophysical science in modern Mongolia, various geophysical methods (electrical tomography, ground-penetrating radar, and high-resolution reflection seismic profiles) were used to image an active fault in-depth range between few decimeters to few tens meters. An active fault was fractured by an earthquake magnitude 7.6 during 1967. After geophysical investigations, trench excavations were done at the sites to expose the fault surfaces. The complex geophysical survey in the Mogod fault, Bulgan region of central Mongolia shows an interpretable reflection arrivals range of < 5 m to 50 m with the potential for increased resolution. Reflection profiles were used to help interpret the significance of neotectonic surface deformation at earthquake active fault. The interpreted profiles show a range of shallow fault structures and provide subsurface evidence with support of paleoseismologic trenching photos, electrical surveys.

Keywords: geophysics, Seismic reflection survey, Mogod fault, seismic processing

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870 1D Velocity Model for the Gobi-Altai Region from Local Earthquakes

Authors: Dolgormaa Munkhbaatar, Munkhsaikhan Adiya, Tseedulam Khuut

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We performed an inversion method to determine the 1D-velocity model with station corrections of the Gobi-Altai area in the southern part of Mongolia using earthquake data collected in the National Data Center during the last 10 years. In this study, the concept of the new 1D model has been employed to minimize the average RMS of a set of well-located earthquakes, recorded at permanent (between 2006 and 2016) and temporary seismic stations (between 2014 and 2016), compute solutions for the coupled hypocenter and 1D velocity model. We selected 4800 events with RMS less than 0.5 seconds and with a maximum GAP of 170 degrees and determined velocity structures. Also, we relocated all possible events located in the Gobi-Altai area using the new 1D velocity model and achieved constrained hypocentral determinations for events within this area. We concluded that the estimated new 1D velocity model is a relatively low range compared to the previous velocity model in a significant improvement intend to, and the quality of the information basis for future research center locations to determine the earthquake epicenter area with this new transmission model.

Keywords: Earthquake, relocation, Velest

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869 Interpretation of Geophysical Data for Structural Pattern of Beni Mellal Atlas and Beni Moussa Plain (Morocco): Hydrological Implications

Authors: Ikram Boutirame, Ahmed Boukdir, Ahmed Akhssas

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The karstic aquifer of Beni Mellal Atlas is characterized by the structural heterogeneity translated by the presence of fractures through which the meteoric waters infiltrate, forming in-depth watercourses drained downstream towards the thrusts of Beni Mellal Dir where they appear on the surface in the form of springs. To understand the mechanisms of the emergence of the mainsprings of Beni Mellal Dir in relation with geology and tectonic history of the study area, a combined interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data was determined by applying a set of processing techniques (reduction to pole, Horizontal Gradient Magnitude, upward continuation) by using Oasis Montaj software. The residual gravity and magnetic field maps highlight several anomalies with variable shapes and amplitudes that reflect the density and magnetic susceptibility variation of the underlying rocks. The local maxima tracing of horizontal gradient upward continued at increasing heights made it possible to map the major faults oriented preferentially northeast-southwest; north-south; east-west and northwest-southeast. The projection of the main springs on the final structural map shows that the emergence took place over cross the areas of the overlapping faults with strike-slip faults oriented north-south and northeast-southwest to east-northeast-west-southwest according to the opening modes : half pull-apart, tail-crack or variable geometry of faults.

Keywords: fractures, Beni Mellal Atlas, gravity and aeromagnetic data, horizontal magnitude gradient

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868 Sediment Wave and Cyclic Steps as Mechanism for Sediment Transport in Submarine Canyons Thalweg

Authors: Olusoji Lawrence Taiwo, Peace Mawo Aaron

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Seismic analysis of bedforms has proven to be one of the best ways to study deepwater sedimentary features. Canyons are known to be sediment transportation conduits. Sediment wave is large-scale depositional bedforms in various parts of the world's oceans formed predominantly by suspended load transport. These undulating objects usually have tens of meters to a few kilometers in wavelength and a height of several meters. Cyclic steps have long-wave upstream-migrating bedforms confined by internal hydraulic jumps. They usually occur in regions with high gradients and slope breaks. Cyclic steps and migrating sediment waves are the most common bedform on the seafloor. Cyclic steps and related sediment wave bedforms are significant to the morpho-dynamic evolution of deep-water depositional systems architectural elements, especially those located along tectonically active margins with high gradients and slope breaks that can promote internal hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. This report examined sedimentary activities and sediment transportation in submarine canyons and provide distinctive insight into factors that created a complex seabed canyon system in the Ceara Fortaleza basin Brazilian Equatorial Margin (BEM). The growing importance of cyclic steps made it imperative to understand the parameters leading to their formation, migration, and architecture as well as their controls on sediment transport in canyon thalweg. We extracted the parameters of the observed bedforms and evaluated the aspect ratio and asymmetricity. We developed a relationship between the hydraulic jump magnitude, depth of the hydraulic fall, and the length of the cyclic step therein. It was understood that an increase in the height of the cyclic step increases the magnitude of the hydraulic jump and thereby increases the rate of deposition on the preceding stoss side. An increase in the length of the cyclic steps reduces the magnitude of the hydraulic jump and reduces the rate of deposition at the stoss side. Therefore, the flat stoss side was noticed at most preceding cyclic steps and sediment waves.

Keywords: Ceara Fortaleza, submarine canyons, cyclic steps, sediment wave

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867 Subsurface Elastic Properties Determination for Site Characterization Using Seismic Refraction Tomography at the Pwalugu Dam Area

Authors: Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Vincent Adongo

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Field measurement of subsurface seismic p-wave velocities was undertaken through seismic refraction tomography. The aim of this work is to obtain a model of the shallow subsurface material elastic properties relevant for geotechnical site characterization. The survey area is at Pwalugu in Northern Ghana, where a multipurpose dam, for electricity generation, irrigation, and potable water delivery, is being planned. A 24-channel seismograph and 24, 10 Hz electromagnetic geophones, deployed 5 m apart constituted the acquisition hardware. Eleven (2-D) seismic refraction profiles, nine of which ran almost perpendicular and two parallel to the White Volta at Pwalugu, were acquired. The refraction tomograms of the thirteen profiles revealed a subsurface model consisting of one minor and one major acoustic impedance boundaries – the top dry/loose sand and the variably weathered sandstone contact, and the overburden-sandstones bedrock contact respectively. The p-wave velocities and by inference, with a priori values of poison ratios, the s-wave velocities, assisted in characterizing the geotechnical conditions of the proposed site and also in evaluating the dynamic properties such as the maximum shear modulus, the bulk modulus, and the Young modulus.

Keywords: Characterization, Tomography, consolidated, Pwalugu and seismograph

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866 Late Pleistocene Raised Coral Reefs in Rabigh Area, Red Sea: Microfacies and Environmental Interpretation

Authors: Ammar Manaa

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The late Pleistocene raised coral reef terraces, 1 to 5 m above present sea level, are distinguished in Rabigh area into two marine terraces at elevations 0.5 m and 3.20 m, in addition to back-reef facies. The lower and upper terraces consist mainly of corals that increased in abundance and distribution in the upper terrace, with a minor occurrence of detrital quartz and feldspar. The back-reef facies consist mainly of coralline algae with a minor occurrence of corals. The upper terrace was interpreted as a reef crest or algal ridge due to the dominance of bindstone facies. The lower terrace indicates an outer reef flat with the occurrence of grainstone and rudstone facies. The coral framework in the upper terrace indicates a low energy environment. Within the back-reef terrace, calcareous mud was dominant, which indicates low energy, lagoon environment. The XRD results for the studied terraces revealed a variable abundance of aragonite, high-Mg calcite, and low-Mg calcite, with a slight increase in calcite and high-Mg calcite in the upper terrace. The dominant diagenetic processes in the terraces are cementation by fibrous and blocky calcite and dissolution that varied slightly between the lower and upper terraces. This study provides a coral reef model relevant to a low energy system in a dry and hot environment.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, late Pleistocene, Rabigh, reef terraces

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865 Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event, Palynofacies and Optical Kerogen Analysis in Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Ibrahim, Suzan Kholeif

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The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary was a ‘greenhouse’ period. The atmosphere at that time was characterized by high CO₂; in addition, there was the widespread deposition of organic-rich sediments anomalously rich in organic carbon. The sediments, palynological, total organic carbon (TOC), stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O, organic) of the Cenomanian-Turonian Bahariya and basal Abu Roash formations at the southern Tethys margin were studied in two deep wells (AG5 and AG-13), Abu Gharadig Oil Field, North Western Desert, Egypt. Some of the marine (dinoflagellate cysts), as well as the terrestrial palynoflora (spores and pollen grains), reveal extinction and origination patterns that are known elsewhere, although other species may be survived across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This implies control of global changes on the palynoflora, i.e., impact of Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE2 (Bonarelli Event), rather than changes in the local environmental conditions. The basal part of the Abu Roach Formation ('G' and 'F' members, late Cenomanian) shows a positive δ ¹³C excursion of the organic fraction. The TOC is generally high between 2.20 and 3.04 % in the basal Abu Roash Formation: shale of 'G' and carbonate of 'F' members, which indicates that these two members are the main Cretaceous source rocks in the Abu Gharadig Basin and have a type I-II kerogen composition. They are distinguished by an abundance of amorphous organic matter AOM and Chlorococcalean algae, mainly Pediastrum and Scenedesmus, along with subordinate dinoflagellate cysts.

Keywords: Egypt, western desert, oceanic anoxic event, cenomanian-turonian, palynofacies

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864 Statistical and Analytical Comparison of GIS Overlay Modelings: An Appraisal on Groundwater Prospecting in Precambrian Metamorphics

Authors: Tapas Acharya, Monalisa Mitra

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Overlay modeling is the most widely used conventional analysis for spatial decision support system. Overlay modeling requires a set of themes with different weightage computed in varied manners, which gives a resultant input for further integrated analysis. In spite of the popularity and most widely used technique; it gives inconsistent and erroneous results for similar inputs while processed in various GIS overlay techniques. This study is an attempt to compare and analyse the differences in the outputs of different overlay methods using GIS platform with same set of themes of the Precambrian metamorphic to obtain groundwater prospecting in Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The objective of the study is to emphasize the most suitable overlay method for groundwater prospecting in older Precambrian metamorphics. Seven input thematic layers like slope, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), soil thickness, lineament intersection density, average groundwater table fluctuation, stream density and lithology have been used in the spatial overlay models of fuzzy overlay, weighted overlay and weighted sum overlay methods to yield the suitable groundwater prospective zones. Spatial concurrence analysis with high yielding wells of the study area and the statistical comparative studies among the outputs of various overlay models using RStudio reveal that the Weighted Overlay model is the most efficient GIS overlay model to delineate the groundwater prospecting zones in the Precambrian metamorphic rocks.

Keywords: weighted overlay, fuzzy overlay, GIS overlay model, groundwater prospecting, Precambrian metamorphics, weighted sum overlay

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863 Geoelectric Survey for Groundwater Potential in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed, Suleiman Taofiq, Muhammad Naziru Yahya

Abstract:

Geoelectrical measurements using Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method were carried out in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the groundwater potential in the area. Twelve (12) Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) data were collected using Terrameter (ABEM SAS 300c) and analyzed using computer software (IPI2win), which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The results of the interpretation of VES data were used in the characterization of three to five geo-electric layers from which the aquifer units were delineated. Data analysis indicated that water bearing formation exists in the third and fourth layers having resistivity range of 312 to 767 Ωm and 9.51 to 681 Ωm, respectively. The thickness of the formation ranges from 14.7 to 41.8 m, while the depth is from 8.22 to 53.7 m. Based on the result obtained from the interpretation of the data, five (5) VES stations were recommended as the most viable locations for groundwater exploration in the study area. The VES stations include VES A4, A5, A6, B1, and B2. The VES results of the entire area indicated that the water bearing formation occurs at maximum depth of 53.7 m at the time of this survey.

Keywords: Groundwater, aquifer, resistivity, Schlumberger, depth

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862 Targeting and Developing the Remaining Pay in an Ageing Field: The Ovhor Field Experience

Authors: Christian Ihwiwhu, Nnamdi Obioha, Udeme John, Edward Bobade, Oghenerunor Bekibele, Adedeji Awujoola, Ibi-Ada Itotoi

Abstract:

Understanding the complexity in the distribution of hydrocarbon in a simple structure with flow baffles and connectivity issues is critical in targeting and developing the remaining pay in a mature asset. Subtle facies changes (heterogeneity) can have a drastic impact on reservoir fluids movement, and this can be crucial to identifying sweet spots in mature fields. This study aims to evaluate selected reservoirs in Ovhor Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria, with the objective of optimising production from the field by targeting undeveloped oil reserves, bypassed pay, and gaining an improved understanding of the selected reservoirs to increase the company’s reservoir limits. The task at the Ovhor field is complicated by poor stratigraphic seismic resolution over the field. 3-D geological (sedimentology and stratigraphy) interpretation, use of results from quantitative interpretation, and proper understanding of production data have been used in recognizing flow baffles and undeveloped compartments in the field. The full field 3-D model has been constructed in such a way as to capture heterogeneities and the various compartments in the field to aid the proper simulation of fluid flow in the field for future production prediction, proper history matching and design of good trajectories to adequately target undeveloped oil in the field. Reservoir property models (porosity, permeability, and net-to-gross) have been constructed by biasing log interpreted properties to a defined environment of deposition model whose interpretation captures the heterogeneities expected in the studied reservoirs. At least, two scenarios have been modelled for most of the studied reservoirs to capture the range of uncertainties we are dealing with. The total original oil in-place volume for the four reservoirs studied is 157 MMstb. The cumulative oil and gas production from the selected reservoirs are 67.64 MMstb and 9.76 Bscf respectively, with current production rate of about 7035 bopd and 4.38 MMscf/d (as at 31/08/2019). Dynamic simulation and production forecast on the 4 reservoirs gave an undeveloped reserve of about 3.82 MMstb from two (2) identified oil restoration activities. These activities include side-tracking and re-perforation of existing wells. This integrated approach led to the identification of bypassed oil in some areas of the selected reservoirs and an improved understanding of the studied reservoirs. New wells have/are being drilled now to test the results of our studies, and the results are very confirmatory and satisfying.

Keywords: history matching, facies, flow baffle, bypassed pay, heterogeneities, reservoir limit

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